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1.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 80(1): 1935133, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210240

RESUMO

Mental health providers have rapidly pivoted their in-person practices to teletherapy and telehealth interventions to address the increased demand for mental health services during the COVID-19 crisis. The change to service delivery has emphasised challenges for mental health service providers, particularly in regions that rely on fly-in and fly-out (FIFO) mental health service providers who are no longer able to travel to their places of work. In this qualitative study, we examined the impact of COVID-19 on the delivery of mental health services in Inuit Nunangat. Using a participatory action research methodology, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eight FIFO mental health service providers to understand their experiences and implement strategies to effectively deliver mental health services in a pandemic. We identified three themes through thematic analysis: 1) Service providers identify the challenges in adapting their practices to meet individual and community needs; 2) Service providers recognise the opportunities for enhancements to service delivery; 3) Service providers identify telemental health services as a potentially effective adjunct to in-person sessions. The findings support reconceptualising post-pandemic mental health service delivery to include both face-to-face and telemental health services.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , COVID-19/terapia , Aconselhamento/organização & administração , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203275

RESUMO

Emotional intelligence (EI) and social support are among the most investigated hypothesized variables that affect stress at work. The current study aims to evaluate the direct association between EI and occupational stress and its indirect relationship mediated by three sources of social support during the spread of the COVID-19. The total sample was composed of 367 individuals (53.7% males), aged from 20 to 68 (M = 37.84, SD = 10.39), who filled out an online questionnaire. A mediation analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships. Our findings showed that EI has a direct effect on psychological effects and an indirect effect on almost all the facets of occupational stress. The significant mediators were social support from both family and friends. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed and directions for future studies are suggested.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estresse Ocupacional , Inteligência Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205273

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of social support in self-management within education/employment settings for young adults (YA) with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as well as barriers and facilitators to social support formation. Nineteen YA with ESRD (mean age 24 years, 10 males, 9 African American) recruited from a pediatric nephrology clinic in the Southeast United States completed in-person semi-structured interviews. The grounded theory was used to analyze transcribed interviews to identify emergent themes. Absences hindered participants' school/work attendance and performance. Social support was necessary for illness management and success in academic/vocational settings. Facilitators to establishing support included self-awareness and view of disclosure as a way to access accommodations. Barriers included fear of judgment, job loss, and the belief that the condition was too personal to disclose. Educators and employers must acknowledge the needs of YA with ESRD to promote development and educational/vocational success. Fear of disclosure and poor disease self-management interferes with accessing social support. Communication skills and autonomy in patients' medical and personal lives can promote success in education and employment settings.


Assuntos
Emprego , Falência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205557

RESUMO

(1) Background: This study aimed to examine the role of social support in the relationship between perceived motor competence (MC) and physical activity (PA), according to the conceptual model of Motor Development. (2) Methods: Participants were 518 students (46.5% girls), 8-12 years old. By using a structural equation modeling approach, path analysis was used to test the actual-perceived MC relationship and the mediating influence of social support on the perceived MC-PA relationship. Analyses were done with age and sex as covariates. (3) Results: The results showed a good model fit (CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.02), where actual MC was positively associated with perceived MC (ß = 0.26, p < 0.001), which in turn was positively related to social support (ß = 0.34, p < 0.001). The model showed the direct social support-PA path (ß = 0.42, p < 0.001) and the indirect path from perceived MC through social support to PA (ß = 0.14, p < 0.001). (4) Conclusions: This study confirms that social support mediates the perceived MC-PA relationship. As such, it is not only important to build and develop children's actual and perceived MC, but also to promote social support for PA engagement.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Destreza Motora , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Apoio Social
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209463

RESUMO

The purpose of the two studies was to investigate the relationships among student athletes' identity and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, this study aimed to clarify the relationship between perceived social support from teammates and mental health in student-athletes. Two studies were conducted to investigate and clarify the mental health states of student-athletes in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Study 1, conducted in April 2020, the participants were 402 male student-athletes and we examined the relationships among student-athletes' identity and mental health. The results of correlational analyses indicated significant negative correlations between the degree of student-athletes' identity and depression and sports helplessness. In Study 2, conducted in March 2021, the participants were 135 male student-athletes and examined the relationship between perceived social support from teammates, student-athletes' identity, and mental health. The results indicated a significant correlation between social support, student athletes' identity, and mental health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Atletas , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200811

RESUMO

Existing research shows consistent links between boredom and depression, somatic complaints, substance abuse, or obesity and eating disorders. However, comparatively little is known about potential psychological and physical health-related correlates of academic boredom. Evidence for such a relationship can be derived from the literature, as boredom has adverse consequences in both work and achievement-related settings. The present study investigates latent correlations of 1.484 adolescents' (Mage = 13.23) mathematics boredom scores at three time points during a semester in 2018/19 and their Rasch scaled health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Moreover, we applied latent growth curve modeling to estimate boredom trajectories across the semester and determined the relationship between the latent growth parameters of student boredom and HRQoL in bivariate correlation analyses. Our results show that boredom is significantly negatively linked with all HRQoL dimensions (physical well-being, psychological well-being, autonomy and parent relation, social support and peers, school environment [SCH], and general HRQoL [GH]). Furthermore, stronger increases in boredom across the semester were negatively associated with SCH scores and GH. In conclusion, given that boredom is negatively linked with HRQoL and that stronger boredom growth is linked with more severe health-related problems, signs of academic boredom could be an early warning signal for adolescents' potentially severe problems.


Assuntos
Tédio , Qualidade de Vida , Logro , Adolescente , Humanos , Matemática , Apoio Social
7.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6399-6409, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gestation and childbirth are progressive physical processes for most pregnant women, there are both physical and great psychosocial challenges throughout the process, which increase the sensitivity and vulnerability of women. Even for women with low-risk pregnancies, it is common to experience degrees of fear, especially for primipara women when faced with childbirth. During their first pregnancy, women may have no relevant health knowledge or experience with delivery and have difficulty identifying prenatal depression and other existing mental health factors; a fear of childbirth (FOC) may engender adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. Social support is a very important influential factor for prenatal depression. METHODS: This study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design. The participant cohort involved 609 primipara women (≥18 years old) who had received routine prenatal care and visited a tertiary care hospital in Xi'an. The participants completed structured questionnaires, including the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and 33-item Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ), alongside contribution of information regarding their demographic characteristics. Descriptive and correlation analyses were adopted to verify the correlations among these variables. Multiple regression models were examined by the SPSS PROCESS procedure with bootstrapping to confirm the significance of the mediation effect. RESULTS: The widespread prevalence of FOC in healthy pregnant women was 22.3% (WDEQ score ≥85). The mean scores of depression, social support, as well as FOC scores of participants were 9.50 (5.19), 70.91 (9.25), and 70.43 (20.88), respectively. Remarkable correlations were identified between pregnancy depressive symptoms, social support, and FOC. Results presented an indirect effect, indicating that the impacts of antenatal depression on FOC were mediated by social support. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived social support played a mediating role between antenatal depression and FOC among healthy primipara women. Techniques and suggestions for boosting social support may be expected to have a positive impact on the depressive symptoms of pregnant women with FOC.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Depressão , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Parto , Gravidez , Apoio Social
8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6650-6660, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the status quo of participation in exercise among gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy and analyze the influencing factors. METHODS: Convenient sampling was used to conduct a questionnaire survey of 163 patients after radical gastric cancer surgery from January to December 2020. The survey content included general information, exercise participation, exercise knowledge, attitude, and social support. Descriptive statistics, single factor analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis were performed using Statistical Product and Service Solutions 24.0 (SPSS24.0, IBM, USA). RESULTS: After radical gastrectomy, the form of exercise that patients participated in was relatively simple. The average amount of exercise involved was 8.10 Mets-h/week, which was at the level of almost no exercise. Univariate analysis showed that differences in age, gender, education level, work status, main caregivers and sports knowledge, attitudes, and social support levels all led to different levels of exercise participation. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the factors affecting the patient's level of participation in exercise included age, degree of self-care in life, attitude towards exercise after surgery, and level of social support. CONCLUSIONS: The status quo of exercise participation among gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy is not ideal. In this study, we found that age, level of self-care in life, sports attitude, and level of social support were the main factors affecting the exercise participation of patients. Therefore, improving patients' self-care ability, exercise attitude, and increasing social support may play an important role in improving the status quo of patients' exercise participation after radical gastric cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Autocuidado , Apoio Social , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204059

RESUMO

Social networks protect individuals from mental health conditions of depression and anxiety. The association between each social network type and its mental health implications in the Indian population remains unclear. The study aims to determine the association of depression and anxiety with different social network types in the participants of a community cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey among people aged ≥30 years in geographically defined catchment areas of Kerala, India. We used cross-culturally validated assessment tools to measure depression, anxiety and social networks. An educated male belonging to higher income quartiles, without any disability, within a family dependent network has lower odds of depression and anxiety. Furthermore, 28, 26.8, 25.7, 9.8 and 9.7% of participants belonged to private restricted, locally integrated, wider community-focused, family-dependent and locally self-contained networks, respectively. Close ties with family, neighbours, and community had significantly lower odds of anxiety and depression than private restricted networks. The clustering of people to each social network type and its associated mental health conditions can inform social network-based public health interventions to optimize positive health outcomes in the community cohort.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Rede Social , Apoio Social
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204111

RESUMO

The declining birth rate in South Korea is concerning and linked to stress in the work-family balance, which is known to affect family planning. Therefore, providing proper support to double-earner couples might help improve the fertility rate. Work-family balance refers to the ability of individuals to perform their roles at work and home with equal involvement. This study identifies two aspects: gains and strains. Latent profile analysis is employed to create a typology that can account for the diversity in work-family balance. This approach is person-centered rather than variable-centered, and it identifies clusters of individuals that differ qualitatively, thereby examining the strains and gains experienced by double-earner couples. We classify the types of work-family balance and identify the attributes of each profile. The findings showed that men were more likely to belong to the high-gain class when they had a temporary position, multiple children, good health, low depression, higher life satisfaction levels, and strong social support. Women were more likely to belong to the high-gain class when they experienced high happiness levels and strong social support. Based on these profiles, we provide recommendations to enhance work-family balance, thereby contributing to strategies to overcome low birth rates.


Assuntos
Apoio Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
11.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 178, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with breast cancer are prone to have mental stress and be stimulated by the fear of progression (FOP), then giving rise to a lower quality of life (QOL). The study aimed to examine the relationships between FOP, social support and QOL, and further explore whether social support mediates the association between FOP and QOL among Chinese patients with breast cancer. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to May 2020 at Anshan Cancer Hospital in Liaoning, China. 244 female breast cancer patients completed questionnaires including the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Breast (FACT-B), Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and Fear of Progression (FOP). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between FOP, social support and QOL. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of social support. RESULTS: The mean QOL score was 90.6 ± 17.0 among the patients with breast cancer. FOP was negatively correlated with QOL, while social support was positively related to QOL. Social support partly mediated the association between FOP and QOL, and the proportion of the mediating effect accounted for by social support was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese breast cancer patients expressed low QOL. Social support could mediate the association between FOP and QOL. Medical staffs and cancer caregivers should alleviate patients' FOP to improve their QOL by facilitating social support.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Work ; 69(3): 1027-1040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This research work establishes the relationship between job strain and being overweight among Mexican managers. Recently in Mexico, there has been a sharp increase in work-related diseases and mental health disorders. Furthermore, evidence shows that Mexicans rank top among employees who suffer from stress, yet research on the impact of job strain on the phenomena of obesity and being overweight among such vulnerable job positions in the industrial field is scarce. METHODS: The sample included 170 overweight middle and senior managers from six companies in the Mexican Manufacturing Industry. Cedillo's Spanish version of the Job Content Questionnaire by Karasek was used, and the Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to characterize an overweight condition. Structural Equations Modelling studied the relationships among variables. RESULTS: Even though, the model shows a power of explanation of 6%(R2 = 0.06), the variable showing the greatest direct effect on the overweight variable is social support, with 21%(p < 0.01, ß= -0.21). Regarding the total effects, only two of the four variables studied contributed directly to the overweight variation: the social support variable and the job demand variable. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the model hold a relatively low explanatory power; however, they do show a relationship between the studied variables. Also, the importance of the supervisor and co-workers' support should be considered when developing organizational strategies for the prevention of work stress and an overweight condition.


Assuntos
Indústria Manufatureira , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Indústrias , México/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202995

RESUMO

The article proposes a rough outline of an alternative systemic approach to mental health issues and of a more humane mental health care system. It suggests focusing on understanding mental distress as stemming from problems in living, using medications as agents facilitating psychotherapy, or as a last resort and short-term help, according to the principles of harm reduction. It argues that understanding drugs as psychoactive substances and studying the subjective effects they produce could lead to better utilization of medications and improvements in terms of conceptualizing and assessing treatment effects. Qualitative research could be particularly useful in that regard. It also advocates a radical departure from current diagnostic systems and proposes a synthesis of already existing alternatives to be used for both research and clinical purposes. Accordingly, a general idea for an alternative mental health care system, based on a combination of Open Dialogue Approach, Soteria houses, individual and group psychotherapy, cautious prescribing, services helping with drug discontinuation, peer-led services and social support is presented. The proposition could be seen as a first step towards developing a systemic alternative that could replace the currently dominating approach instead of focusing on implementing partial solutions that can be co-opted by the current one.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Grupo Associado , Psicoterapia , Apoio Social
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203001

RESUMO

This research analyzes the decisions made by women facing simulated situations of psychological abuse. Seventy-three women (36.9 ± 13.6 years) who had been victims of domestic violence participated. The analysis was based on their coping strategies, early maladaptive schemes, and their decisions in response to vignettes describing the following domestic violence situations: humiliation to women's maternal identity with children as witnesses and body shaming. We used Student's t and Mann-Whitney tests to compare the results between groups. The participants presented some coping strategies (social support seeking, wishful thinking, and professional support seeking) and several early maladaptive schemes (emotional deprivation, defectiveness/shame, social isolation/alienation, failure to achieve, attachment, and subjugation) associated with their reactions facing a situation of humiliation with children as witnesses. When the humiliation was against the body image, their reactions were associated with some coping strategies (wishful thinking, professional support seeking, autonomy, negative auto-focus coping, and positive reappraisal) and one maladaptive scheme (defectiveness/shame). Women who reacted avoidantly showed higher social and professional support seeking but experienced higher indicators of discomfort and deterioration of self-esteem than those who opted for assertive decisions. The presence of children as witnesses seems to be a factor of stress in the configuration of coping strategies and maladaptive schemes in female victims of domestic violence. The evolution of early maladaptive schemes and coping strategies requires observation to avoid the risk of isolation and permanence in victimizing relationships.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Abuso Emocional , Criança , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Vergonha , Apoio Social
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204427

RESUMO

Background-Morbid obesity (MO) is a chronic metabolic disease affecting physical, psychological and social wellbeing. Bariatric surgery is a reliable method for losing weight in the long term, improving the quality of life, body image and social life of people with MO. Current literature recognises the importance of social support in controlling weight and coping with MO. The objective of this study was to describe and understand experiences related to social support for patients with MO included in a bariatric surgery programme. Methods-A qualitative descriptive study, where data collection included thirty-one interviews with people diagnosed with MO involved in a bariatric surgery programme. Results-Three main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) accepting the problem in order to ask for help, (2) the need for close support and (3) professional support: opposing feelings. Conclusions-A partner, family and friends are the key pillars of social support for those with MO included in a bariatric surgery programme. Healthcare professionals gave formal support; the bariatric surgery team provided information, trust and assurance. Nurses provided healthcare 24 h a day, making them the main formal support for people in the bariatric surgery programme.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social
16.
N Z Med J ; 134(1538): 52-67, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239145

RESUMO

AIM: This research explores the experience of low-income New Zealanders during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and their advice to the Government about addressing future pandemics. New Zealand had a rapid and effective lockdown that meant the virtual elimination of community transmission. METHOD: Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews were undertaken with low-income people in June-July 2020 immediately after lockdown was lifted. RESULTS: Life during lockdown was challenging for study participants. They were fearful of the virus and experienced mental distress and isolation. Most participants felt safe at home and reported coping financially while still experiencing financial stress. Participants were resourceful and resilient. They coped with lockdown by using technology, self-help techniques and support from others. New Zealand's welfare state ensured participants had access to health services and welfare payments, but there were challenges. Welfare payments did not fully meet participants' needs, and support from charitable organisations was critical. Participants were overwhelmingly positive about the Government's response and advised the Government to take the same approach in the future. This is a particularly reassuring finding from some of the most vulnerable New Zealanders. CONCLUSIONS: An early and hard lockdown, the welfare state, compassion and clearly communicated leadership were keys to a successful lockdown for the low-income people in this study. Research of the experience of low-income people during pandemics is critical to ensuring inequities in pandemic impact are mitigated.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pobreza , Assistência Pública , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , COVID-19/economia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Angústia Psicológica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Segurança , Apoio Social , Seguridade Social , Tecnologia
17.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 293, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chronic and progressive evolution of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), with its prototypical fluctuating trend, creates a condition of psycho-social discomfort, impacting the quality of life in terms of personal, working, and interpersonal. AIMS: In this article, we want to identify the nature and extent of the research evidence on the life experiences, the perceived engagement, the psychological, social care and welfare needs of people affected by IBD across the lifecycle. METHODS: Following the approach set out by Arksey and O'Malley and the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews, we conducted a scoping review in March 2019 and closed the review with an update in October 2019. It was performed using electronic databases covering Health and Life Sciences, Social Sciences and Medical Sciences, such as PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science, PsycInfo. RESULTS: We identified 95 peer-reviewed articles published from 2009 to 2019, that allowed to detection the main needs in children (psychological, need to be accepted, physical activity, feeding, parent style, support, social needs), adolescents (to understand, physical and psychological needs, protection, relational, gratitude, respect, and engagement) and adults (information, medical, psychological, social, work-related, practical, future-related, engagement). Although the literature confirms that the majority of the IBD units have planned provision for the different types of transitions, the quality and appropriateness of these services have not been assessed or audited for all the kinds of challenges across the life cycle. CONCLUSIONS: The literature shows the relevance of organizing a flexible, personalized health care process across all the critical phases of the life cycle, providing adequate benchmarks for comparison in a multidisciplinary perspective and ensuring continuity between hospital and territory.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Pais , Apoio Social
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199964

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of social health and its association with resilience among older adults living alone excluded from the public care service due to their relatively good health. For this cross-sectional study, we surveyed older adults aged between 65 and 80 years using questionnaires to measure the social health status and levels of resilience of the participants. We conducted a hierarchical regression analysis to confirm the association between resilience and social network. Finally, data from 266 community-dwelling older adults were analyzed. We discovered that participants had social networks with a mean score on the Lubben Social Network Scale 18.13 ± 7.98, which means they were socially isolated. The network size (standardized ß = -0.149, p < 0.05) and contact frequency (standardized ß = 0.136, p < 0.05) correlated positively with higher levels of resilience. A hierarchical model accounted for 48.0% of the variance in resilience. The results suggested that interventions by the public health service to protect social health are needed for older adults living alone even when they are physically, emotionally, and cognitively healthy. In addition, smaller network size and higher frequency of contacts may be considered to strengthen resilience, which is a protective factor in social health.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Vida Independente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , República da Coreia , Rede Social , Apoio Social
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 409, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social support is a key factor in public health. Since the precise evaluation of it is critical, the current study has been developed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the MOS-SSS questionnaire's abbreviated form (MSSS-5-item) among the Iranian older adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional and methodological study was conducted on 420 community older adults (age ≥ 60) through random multi-stage sampling. The questionnaire was first translated into Persian through the Forward & Backward method based on WHO guidelines. Next, the validity of scales was investigated by calculating face validity, content validity, Known-group validity, explanatory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis indices. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by internal consistency, test-retest, and absolute reliability. Moreover, the scalability of the questionnaire was checked through the Mokken scale analysis. The software packages SPSS version 22, AMOS version 22, and R (Mokken package) were employed to analyze the data. RESULTS: the face validity was conducted using interviews with older adults and gathering the specialists' opinions. Then, the items were grammatically and lexically corrected accordingly. The CVI index of the overall scale was 0.94, and for every single item above 0.89. The results of the independent t-test showed that the current questionnaire well distinguished between the older adults who do and do not feel lonely (p < 0.001). Two components were recognized according to the explanatory factor analysis. They together explained 67.78% of the total variance of the questionnaire. The CFA showed that the two-factor model had acceptable fit indices. The questionnaire had desirable internal consistency (α = 0.78), stability (ICC = 0.98), and absolute reliability (SEM = 0.56, MDC = 1.57). Furthermore, the Mokken scale proved that MSSS-5-item was a strong scale (H = 0.51, se = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The present study results showed that the MSSS-5-item questionnaire had suitable validity and reliability to be used among Iranian older adults.


Assuntos
Apoio Social , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1298, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The provision of public adaptive coping strategies to reduce psychological tension during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is critical. We sought to provide evidence-based guidance for psychological intervention, exploring the potential mediating roles of three sources of social support (i.e., subjective support, family support and counselor support) between coping strategies (i.e., cognitive coping, emotional coping and behavioral coping), and anxiety among college students at the height of the pandemic in China. METHODS: Using the Coping Strategy Questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire, and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, this large-scale online study analyzed the levels of social support, coping, and anxiety among 2640 college students in China from February 21st to 24th, 2020, when the students had been isolated at home for 1 month since the lockdown of Wuhan city. RESULTS: Students reported high levels of cognitive coping, behavioral coping, and social support. They also experienced low levels of anxiety and emotional coping. Anxiety was significantly and negatively related to coping and social support. The mediating roles of three sources of social support were found between cognitive coping, behavioral coping, and anxiety, respectively. However, the effect of emotional coping on anxiety was not found to be mediated by social support. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting positive coping strategies may enhance social support that in turn relieves anxiety. The effect of social support, especially family and counselor support, should arouse greater awareness in coping with the pandemic cognitively and behaviorally.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social , Estudantes
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