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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 239-253, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191356

RESUMO

Las carencias sociales de México empeorarán por la pandemia SARS-COV2. A saber, el acceso a la salud, derechos laborales básicos, y la infructuosa respuesta del gobierno para erradicar la violencia machista contra las mujeres. El desinterés histórico para fomentar una cultura del apoyo mutuo y el autocuidado ha provocado que gran parte de la ciudadanía se haya desconectado de sus derechos sociales y sanitarios. Así, no se sigue una indicación -quédate en casa- por desigualdades estructurales. Propongo que la libertad efectiva puede conseguirse mediante la aprobación de la renta básica universal desde una perspectiva feminista. Concluyo que las secuelas de la pandemia, que definirán la vida cotidiana, ameritan la aprobación de esta medida. Igualmente, las mujeres como clase sexual requieren protección desde una perspectiva feminista


Many of the social deprivations of Mexico will be worsened due to SARS-COV2 pandemic. Namely, the insufficient access to public health, lack of labor rights, and the unsuccessful government's response to eradicate male violence against women. The historical unconcern in promoting a culture rooted in mutual aid and self-care has provoked many citizens are disconnected from their social and health rights. Thus, people's inability to carry through one direction -stay home- is unfulfilled, in part, due to structural inequalities. I affirm that effective liberty could be obtained by approving a Universal Basic Income from a feminist perspective. I conclude that the aftermath of COVID-19, which will define everyday life for a while, require the endorsement of such measure. Likewise, women as a class deserve protection from a feminist critical framework


Les mancances socials de Mèxic empitjoraran per la pandèmia SARS-COV-2. A saber, l'accés a la salut, els drets laborals bàsics I la infructuosa resposta de govern per eradicar la violència masclista contra les dones. El desinterès històric per fomentar una cultura de suport mutu I l'autocura ha provocat que gran part de la ciutadania s'hagi desconnectat dels seus drets socials I sanitaris. Així, no se segueix una indicació -queda't a casa- per desigualtats estructurals. Proposo que la llibertat efectiva pot aconseguir-se mitjançant l'aprovació de la renda bàsica universal des d'una perspectiva feminista. Concloc que les seqüeles de la pandèmia, que definiran la vida quotidiana, mereixen l'aprovació d'aquesta mesura. Igualment, les dones com a classe sexual requereixen protecció des d'una perspectiva feminista


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Renda per Capita , Apoio Social , Incerteza , Política Pública , Política de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , México/epidemiologia
2.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; sept. 1, 2020. 16 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118544

RESUMO

La incertidumbre que enfrentamos en estos momentos a nivel global nos coloca de frente con nuestra propia fragilidad y vulnerabilidad, pero al mismo tiempo nos reta con la capacidad de resistir circunstancias adversas, preocupaciones y angustia que compartimos como seres humanos en el mundo entero. El aislamiento social forzoso al que nos hemos visto abocados por la pandemia del COVID 19, pone a prueba nuestras habilidades emocionales, cognoscitivas y socio afectivas. Nos ha obligado, a nivel individual, familiar, grupal y colectivo, a desarrollar y/o poner en práctica destrezas y capacidades para mantener nuestro balance físico, emocional y mental, en medio de la nueva cotidianidad que exige el aislamiento y el distanciamiento físico y social. De igual manera, y como si no fuera suficiente lo anterior, las circunstancias nos obligan a reflexionar sobre el futuro, a vislumbrar cambios en el funcionamiento familiar, social y económico una vez pasen los periodos críticos del aislamiento. Luego de varias semanas de aislamiento obligatoria, hemos atravesado algunas fases en el proceso de adaptación al aislamiento, que han pasado por la negación, la obsesión por el cuidado y la higiene, y la vivencia de sentimientos de tristeza, alegría, compasión, frustración y optimismo. Algunas veces todos al tiempo! Esto nos ha llevado a cambios en las rutinas individuales, familiares, laborales y sociales permitiendo acomodarnos gradualmente a esta nueva realidad impuesta, que está fuera de nuestro control. En esta respuesta adaptativa hemos utilizado estrategias psicológicas, ocupacionales, espirituales, que nos han ayudado en el día a día a sobrellevar la ansiedad y el estrés propios de los cambios, y la incertidumbre de enfrentarnos con un agente invisible nuevo que ha irrumpido la vida del planeta y no sabemos cuando va a terminar. Este acontecimiento extraordinario, avasallador, que la mayoría de los seres humanos que habitamos el planeta no había experimentado, genera un impacto en nuestro equilibrio mental y emocional, cargado de preguntas y reflexiones: ¿esto que estoy sintiendo en este encierro, será normal o transitorio? ¿cuánto tiempo más podremos aguantar esta situación? ¿Siento que puedo perder el control, que debo hacer?, ¿cómo puedo cuidarme y protegerme? A mí y a mi familia?, ¿La de mi equipo de trabajo? ¿qué nos sucederá después del aislamiento? ¿qué será lo más conveniente hacer después? Pensando en estos interrogantes, existen algunas claves para fortalecer los recursos psicológicos en el aislamiento y en el distanciamiento social, que podemos practicar con el propósito de fortalecer nuestros recursos resilientes durante este período, y muy especialmente en preparación para etapas posteriores a esta fase crítica. Propósito de esta guia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Angústia Psicológica , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Saúde Mental , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962052

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the proportion of individuals who reported the deterioration of physical and psychological health during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Taiwan. Moreover, the related factors of deterioration of physical and psychological health and the association between deterioration of health and adoption of protective behavior against COVID-19 and mental health problems were also examined. We recruited participants via a Facebook advertisement. We determined the subjective physical and psychological health states, cognitive and affective construct of health belief, perceived social support, mental health problems, adoption of protective behavior and demographic characteristics among 1954 respondents (1305 women and 649 men; mean age: 37.9 years with standard deviation 10.8 years). In total, 13.2% and 19.3% of respondents reported deteriorated physical and psychological health during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. Participants with higher perceived harm from COVID-19 compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) were more likely to report the subjective deterioration of physical and psychological health, whereas respondents who were older and perceived a higher level of social support were less likely to report a deterioration of physical and psychological health. The subjective deterioration of psychological health was significantly associated with avoiding crowded places and wearing a mask. Both subjective deteriorations of physical and psychological health positively related to general anxiety.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coronavirus , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 649-656, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand medical students' mental health, professional pride, and intention to work in the front-line during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and provide a reference for psychological intervention. METHODS: We used the depression-anxiety-stress scale and self-designed questionnaire on professional pride, intention to work in the front-line and the extent of family support. Medical students from 4 medical schools in Fujian and Hunan were investigated. Their mental health status, professional pride and first-line work willingness with different characteristics were compared, and the influential factors for professional pride and first-line work willingness were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 266 valid questionnaires were collected. During the pandemic, there were significant differences in the proportion of depressed students among different college and universities, majors and stages (P<0.05), and the professional pride was significantly different (P<0.001). Medical students with different mental health status showed significant differences in professional pride (P<0.01). Marriage, pressure and extent of family support were the influential factors for their professional pride (P<0.05). The latter two were also influential factors for their intention to work in the front-line (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, students from college and nursing have relatively better mental health and higher professional pride. The professional pride is low in medical students who married, with abnormal stress or low family support. The intention to work in front-line is decreased in students with abnormal stress or low family support.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Família , Humanos , Intenção , Pandemias , Profissionalismo , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239698, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Loneliness is a significant public health issue. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in lockdown measures limiting social contact. The UK public are worried about the impact of these measures on mental health outcomes. Understanding the prevalence and predictors of loneliness at this time is a priority issue for research. METHOD: The study employed a cross-sectional online survey design. Baseline data collected between March 23rd and April 24th 2020 from UK adults in the COVID-19 Psychological Wellbeing Study were analysed (N = 1964, 18-87 years, M = 37.11, SD = 12.86, 70% female). Logistic regression analysis examined the influence of sociodemographic, social, health and COVID-19 specific factors on loneliness. RESULTS: The prevalence of loneliness was 27% (530/1964). Risk factors for loneliness were younger age group (OR: 4.67-5.31), being separated or divorced (OR: 2.29), scores meeting clinical criteria for depression (OR: 1.74), greater emotion regulation difficulties (OR: 1.04), and poor quality sleep due to the COVID-19 crisis (OR: 1.30). Higher levels of social support (OR: 0.92), being married/co-habiting (OR: 0.35) and living with a greater number of adults (OR: 0.87) were protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of loneliness during the initial phase of lockdown were high. Risk factors were not specific to the COVID-19 crisis. Findings suggest that supportive interventions to reduce loneliness should prioritise younger people and those with mental health symptoms. Improving emotion regulation and sleep quality, and increasing social support may be optimal initial targets to reduce the impact of COVID-19 regulations on mental health outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Solidão , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
6.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 281-290, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879193

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate and clarify the relationships between occupational stress, personal factors, buffer factors and stress responses of newly graduated nurses, based on the NIOSH model. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 320 newly graduated nurses working at university hospitals where research cooperation was obtained. Data from 107 people was collected by mail (the response rate of 33.4%). In the results of the analysis, the GHQ-12 scores of the nurses on the three-shift system (23.5 ± 7.04) were found to be higher than those on the two-shift system (18.88 ± 6.03) (P = 0.007). The GHQ-12 score was significantly higher in the high stressor group (24.1 ± 6.20), who had higher job demand and lower work ratings than the low stressor group (18.93 ± 6.14) (P = 0.001, t = -3.44). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis using high/low GHQ groups defined by a cut-off point of 4 in the GHQ-12 (GHQ method) as the dependent variables and the associated variables as the independent variables showed that the basic role identity and colleague support were found to have a significant relationship. The results of a Hosmer-Lemeshow test were P = 0.643, and the coefficient of determination was as high as 81.0%. This study was conducted approximately 6 months after the nurses entered employment, which is in the middle of the critical transition period from a student to a working member of society and can be assumed to be the most exhausting state of the year both physically and mentally. The results of this study suggest that various stressors might cause serious stress reactions. Also, as shown in previous literature, newly graduated nurses tend not to seek support from their bosses or preceptors throughout the year. Their main sources of support are family members, friends, and colleagues. Taken together, it became clear from our study that support from colleagues in the workplace is the most powerful buffer against stress and an indispensable resource to overcome the "reality shock" of working life.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(10): 505-507, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925662

RESUMO

Nursing leaders have voiced concern about the health and well-being of nurses and other healthcare providers during the recovery phase of disaster response after the coronavirus pandemic. There is much that can be learned from the experiences of our military colleagues. Behavioral health military nurses serving on readiness teams have educated leaders on how to apply psychological first aid (PFA) within their units during the recovery phase of disasters. This article will describe how nursing leaders can use PFA to enhance psychological support and resilience in their staff.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Liderança , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Enfermagem Militar , Resiliência Psicológica , Apoio Social
9.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(8): 518-527, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879238

RESUMO

Objectives We hypothesized that the motivation for improving physical function could be increased by increasing the awareness of social role expectations among frail community-dwelling older adults through an intervention based on the Community-as-Partner (CAP) model. We also developed a program for supporting community activities to prevent frailty, utilizing the CAP model. Program feasibility was assessed by implementing it under the local government's frailty prevention service.Methods The CAP-based program consisted of a "learning period," a "regional issue extraction period," and a "practice period," scheduled once a week for four months. Public health nurses and/or physical therapists assisted with the program. The intervention was conducted with a cohort study of community-dwelling older adults. About 160 participants identified as frail and pre-frail on the Kihon Checklist were recruited. Program feasibility was assessed through participation rate, number of pre-frail and frail individuals, and drop-out rate; scores of a pre-post intervention questionnaire assessing the understanding of frailty and regional resources; and behavioral change stage on frailty prevention.Results A total of 42 participants were recruited (participation rate=26.3%; 25 were pre-frail and 17 were frail). The drop-out rate was 23.8% (n=10). The scores on four out of five items and six out of eleven items on the understanding of frailty and regional resources, respectively, improved significantly after the intervention. Regarding the behavioral change stage, 26 participants (81.2%) maintained or improved.Conclusion The participation rate was approximately 30%, similar to conventional programs with direct professional intervention. Conversely, a higher drop-out rate compared to conventional programs suggested the importance of explaining the workshop in the program introduction and publicizing the workshop. The results indicated that the program improved the understanding of frailty and regional resources, and led to behavioral change for frailty prevention.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Apoio Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 188-199, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192055

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar empíricamente la eficacia de un programa de intervención con mujeres víctimas de violencia de género. El programa en conjunto se enmarca dentro de las Terapias Contextuales, específicamente se ha utilizado la Psicoterapia Analítica Funcional, combinada con la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso y la Activación Conductual. Se ha llevado a cabo en formato grupal, durante 11 sesiones de 2 horas cada una. Participaron un total de 21 mujeres (de una media de edad de 45 años), que habían sufrido violencia física y/o abuso emocional por parte de sus parejas, en diferente grado e intensidad, y en diferentes momentos en sus vidas. Se ha utilizado un diseño intragrupo con medidas pre-post. Se realizaron tres grupos de tratamiento en diferentes ciudades con 6 a 8 mujeres cada uno. Para medir la intervención se ha aplicado el cuestionario Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Los resultados han mostrado una disminución estadísticamente significativa en la severidad del malestar, han disminuido los indicadores de riesgo de suicidio, y han mejorado las conductas problemáticas dentro y fuera de las sesiones, además de incrementarse la apertura hacia los demás. Se discute la utilidad de las terapias contextual es para mejorar la calidad de vida de mujeres maltratadas, y su utilidad de aplicación en grupos en las instituciones públicas


The goal of this study is to empirically evaluate the efficacy of an intervention program with women victims of gender violence. Specifically, Functional Analytical Psychotherapy has been used, combined with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Behavioral Activation. It has been carried out in group format, during 11 sessions of 2 hours each. A total of 21 women participated (an average of 45 years-old), who had suffered physical violence and/or emotional abuse by their partners, with different degrees and intensity, and at different moments of their lives. An intra-group design with pre-post measures was used. Three treatment groups were carried out in different cities with 6 to 8 women each one. To measure the intervention, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) questionnaire was applied. The results has shown a statistically significant decrease in the severity of discomfort, decreased suicide risk indicators, improved problem behavior inside and outside sessions, and increased openness to others. The usefulness of contextual therapies to improve the quality of life of battered women and their usefulness for application in groups in public institutions are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Análise de Variância , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia
11.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 232-241, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardinal aim of the present study was to assess the level of social support, self esteem and quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Jammu and Kashmir State of India. Further, the study strived to explore the relationship between independent and dependent variables. METHOD: The study consists a sample of 460 AIDS patients selected through purposive sampling technique, out of them 177 (38.3%) were male, 283 (61.5%) were female patients; 295 (64.1%) were married and 165 (35.9%) were unmarried. Measures included Enriched Social Support Inventory by Mitchell et al., (2003), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (1965) and Quality of Life Scale by Sharma & Nasreen (2014). For the statistical analysis of data Mean, Standard deviation, Frequency distribution, t-test, one way analysis of variance, correlation analysis and Scheffe's post hoc test was applied by SPSS 20.0 version. Findings: The findings illustrated that majority of patients have poor social support, lower self-esteem and poor quality of life; also it reveals that patient's social support, and self-esteem differs by age, occupation, duration of illness, gender, and marital status. However their quality of life differs only by their age, occupation, duration of illness, and marital status. Further the result shows social support and self-esteem are positively correlated with quality of life


ANTECEDENTES: El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue evaluar el nivel de apoyo social, autoestima y calidad de vida entre las personas que viven con el VIH / SIDA en Jammu y el Esta do de Cachemira de la India. Además, el estudio se esforzó por explorar la relación entre variables independientes y dependientes. Método: El estudio consiste en una muestra de 460 pacientes con SIDA seleccionados mediante una técnica de muestreo intencional, de ellos 177 (38.3%) eran hombres, 283 (61.5%) eran pacientes femeninas; 295 (64.1%) estaban casados y 165 (35.9%) no estaban casados. Las medidas incluyeron el Inventario de apoyo social enriquecido de Mitchell et al. (2003), la Escala de autoestima de Rosenberg (1965) y la Escala de calidad de vida de Sharma y Nasreen (2014). Para el análisis estadístico de los datos, la versión SPSS 20.0 aplicó la media, la desviación estándar, la distribución de frecuencia, la prueba t, el análisis de varianza unidireccional, el cuadrado de eta, el análisis de correlación y la prueba post hoc de Scheffe. Hallazgos: Los hallazgos ilustran que la mayoría de los pacientes tienen poco apoyo social, baja autoestima y mala calidad de vida; también revela que el apoyo social y la autoestima del paciente difieren según la edad, la ocupación, la duración de la enfermedad, el género y el estado civil. Sin embargo, su calidad de vida difiere solo por su edad, ocupación, duración de la enfermedad y estado civil. Además, el resultado muestra que el apoyo social y la autoestima se correlacionan positivamente con la calidad de vida


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoimagem , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Análise de Variância
13.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 603-616, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970545

RESUMO

The uncertainty which is threatening and stressful prevents a person's perception of control and leads to maladaptive psychological reactions such as anxiety. We aimed to define the relationship between the state/trait anxiety levels and perceived social support in the COVID-19 pandemic as a global crisis and stressor. Our main hypothesis was that perceived social support would negatively affect the levels of anxiety. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out using the relational screening model. The data were collected between March 20 and April 15, 2020, by using an online survey (N = 630). Anxiety levels of individuals, particularly the state anxiety were high during the pandemic. Also, perceived social support and state/trait anxiety levels were analyzed for various variable categories. Anxiety levels decreased significantly when perceived social support increased. Perceived social support as a determinant of state and trait anxiety should be the focus of social work practices in this period.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Turquia/epidemiologia , Incerteza
14.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 974-979, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881240

RESUMO

AIM: Heart diseases and social factors are associated with physical frailty, but there are few studies of older people living in the community. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between heart diseases, social factors and physical frailty in community-dwelling older populations including the oldest-old people. METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 1882 participants of community-dwelling older and oldest-old people. The survey site assessed questionnaires on medical history, social factors, blood samples and physical examination. Physical frailty was based on slow gait speed or weak grip strength. Associations were analyzed using multiple logistic regression with adjustments for covariate factors. RESULTS: Subjects with heart disease had a higher prevalence of physical frailty than those without heart disease. After adjusting the covariate factors, heart diseases were associated with a slow gait speed (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-2.32, P = 0.009). Frequency of going outdoors and direct interaction with relatives or friends were associated with a slow gait speed (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.91, P ≤ 0.001 and OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94, P < 0.001), and associated with physical frailty (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.89, P ≤ 0.001 and OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.95, P = 0.002). Living alone and frequency of direct interaction with relatives or friends were associated with physical frailty in subjects with heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in community-dwelling older people, heart diseases and social factors were associated with physical frailty. Older people with heart disease, those living alone and the frequency of direct interaction with relatives or friends were associated with physical frailty. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 974-979.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Velocidade de Caminhada
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003283, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2011, the protracted Syrian war has had tragic consequences on the lives of the Syrian people, threatening their stability, health, and well-being. The most vulnerable are children, who face interruption of schooling and child labor. This study explored the relationship between social capital and the physical health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children in rural areas of Lebanon. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed 4,090 Syrian refugee children working in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon in 2017. Children (8-18 years) gave direct testimony on their living and social environment in face-to-face interviews. Logistic regressions assessed the association of social capital and social cohesion with the health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children; specifically, poor self-rated health, reporting a health problem, engaging in risky health behavior, feeling lonely, feeling optimistic, and being satisfied with life. Of the 4,090 working children in the study, 11% reported poor health, 16% reported having a health problem, and 13% were engaged in risky behaviors. The majority (67.5%) reported feeling lonely, while around 53% were optimistic and 59% were satisfied with life. The study findings suggest that positive social capital constructs were associated with better health. Lower levels of social cohesion (e.g., not spending time with friends) were significantly associated with poor self-rated health, reporting a physical health problem, and feeling more lonely ([adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.4; CI 1.76-3.36, p < 0.001], [AOR, 1.9; CI 1.44-2.55, p < 0.001], and [AOR, 0.5; CI 0.38-0.76, p < 0.001], respectively). Higher levels of social support (e.g., having good social relations), family social capital (e.g., discussing personal issues with parents), and neighborhood attachment (e.g., having a close friend) were all significantly associated with being more optimistic ([AOR, 1.5; CI 1.2-1.75, p < 0.001], [AOR, 1.3; CI 1.11-1.52, p < 0.001], and [AOR, 1.9; CI 1.58-2.29, p < 0.001], respectively) and more satisfied with life ([AOR, 1.3; CI 1.01-1.54, p = 0.04], [AOR, 1.2; CI 1.01-1.4, p = 0.04], and [AOR, 1.3; CI 1.08-1.6, p = 0.006], respectively). The main limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, as well as other design issues (using self-reported health measures, using a questionnaire that was not subject to a validation study, and giving equal weighting to all the components of the health and emotional well-being indicators). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the association between social capital, social cohesion, and refugee working children's physical and emotional health. In spite of the poor living and working conditions that Syrian refugee children experience, having a close-knit network of family and friends was associated with better health. Interventions that consider social capital dimensions might contribute to improving the health of Syrian refugee children in informal tented settlements (ITSs).


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Trabalho Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano/etnologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Capital Social , Meio Social , Apoio Social , Síria
16.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(12): 1283-1288, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911555

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting care for high-risk newborns in ways that will likely be sustained beyond the initial pandemic response. These novel challenges present an urgent imperative to understand how COVID-19 impacts parent, family, and infant outcomes. We highlight three areas that warrant targeted attention: (1) inpatient care: visitation policies, developmental care, and communication practices; (2) outpatient care: high-risk infant follow-up and early intervention programs; and (3) parent psychosocial distress: mental health, social support, and financial toxicity. Changes to care delivery in these areas provide an opportunity to identify and implement novel strategies to provide family-centered care during COVID-19 and beyond. KEY POINTS: · The COVID-19 pandemic is influencing care delivery for high-risk newborns and their families.. · Rapid changes to care delivery are likely to be sustained beyond the initial pandemic response.. · We have an urgent imperative to understand how COVID-19 impacts infant, parent, and family outcomes..


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Hospitalização , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , Assistência Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Saúde Mental , Política Organizacional , Pediatria , Relações Profissional-Família , Risco , Apoio Social , Telemedicina , Telefone , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Visitas a Pacientes
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1472, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban-rural disparity in mortality at older ages is well documented in China. However, surprisingly few studies have systemically investigated factors that contribute to such disparity. This study examined the extent to which individual-level socioeconomic conditions, family/social support, health behaviors, and baseline health status contributed to the urban-rural difference in mortality among older adults in China. METHODS: This research used the five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2002 to 2014, a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 65 years or older in China (n = 28,235). A series of hazard regression models by gender and age group examined the association between urban-rural residence and mortality and how this association was modified by a wide range of individual-level factors. RESULTS: Older adults in urban areas had 11% (relative hazard ratio (HR) = 0.89, p < 0.01) lower risks of mortality than their rural counterparts when only demographic factors were taken into account. Further adjustments for family/social support, health behaviors, and health-related factors individually or jointly had a limited influence on the mortality differential between urban and rural older adults (HRs = 0.89-0.92, p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). However, we found no urban-rural difference in mortality (HR = 0.97, p > 0.10) after adjusting for individual socioeconomic factors. Similar results were found in women and men, and among the young-old and the oldest-old populations. CONCLUSIONS: The urban-rural disparity in mortality among older adults in China was largely attributable to differences in individual socioeconomic resources (i.e., education, income, and access to healthcare) regardless of gender and age group.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Percepção Social , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
FP Essent ; 496: 11-15, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902241

RESUMO

the first 6 months of life to achieve optimal growth, development, and health. The World Health Organization recommends continuation of breastfeeding, with the addition of complementary foods, for at least 2 years. Despite this guidance, while most newborns and infants in the United States receive some breast milk, most are not exclusively breastfed, and breastfeeding frequently is discontinued earlier than recommended. The reasons for noninitiation or early cessation of breastfeeding are multifactorial. Commonly cited reasons for early discontinuation of breastfeeding include lactation and latching issues, concerns about infant nutrition and weight, concerns about taking drugs while breastfeeding, milk pumping, unsupportive work policies, and lack of social support. Racial and ethnic disparities exist regarding the initiation and duration of breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos
20.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(10): 521-525, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe hospital nurses' experiences with organizational support after an adverse event (AE). BACKGROUND: Most hospital staff nurses will experience an AE, being left and feeling traumatized. METHODS: Data collection and analysis followed a qualitative descriptive approach. RESULTS: Nurses yearn to feel valued and to receive timely support from nurse executives after an AE. CONCLUSIONS: To help lessen the suffering of the nurse after an AE, healthcare organizations and nurse executives must support the nurse in the aftermath.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto , Humanos , Erros Médicos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
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