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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265029, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The response of small business managers to an external event such as the pandemic can have a profound effect on the work environment, health and well-being for themselves and their employees. Previous research on small business managers during the pandemic has mainly focused on traditional pathogenic effects, and there is a lack of studies looking at the issue from a salutogenic health promotion perspective. The aim of this study is to explore whether a sense of coherence and general resistance resources were experienced by small business managers in Sweden and Norway during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: A qualitative design was applied through exploratory interviews with 16 managers of small businesses in Sweden and Norway. A content analysis of the interviews was conducted using the sense of coherence concept by Aaron Antonovsky, with the three main components of comprehensibility, meaningfulness and manageability acting as a conceptual framework for the analysis process. RESULTS: Within the three main sense-of-coherence categories, six general resistance resources were identified as being important for the managers to handle uncertainty during the pandemic. These were understanding rules and regulations, social support, optimism, proactivity, problem-solving and flexibility and cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: The small business managers handled the pandemic in a way that worked well in their contexts, and the pandemic generally did not have a negative effect on their businesses or themselves. A salutogenic approach, through which the managers focused on identifying and using resources, was an important factor for managing stressors and adversity during the pandemic. Hence, the concept of salutogenesis may be used as an intervention to foster better health in small businesses, both at a personal and organisational level in order to handle future challenges effectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Senso de Coerência , Apoio Social/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Empresa de Pequeno Porte , Suécia
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 115, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transition to motherhood is associated with stress because of extensive and rapid changes to which women need to be able to adjust. To help women adjust to postpartum changes, their needs during this period must be identified. Therefore, the present qualitative study explored the needs of women for adjusting to postpartum changes. METHODS: In this study, 29 participants were selected through purposive sampling with maximum variation in Isfahan, Iran. Data was collected through in-depth individual interviews, daily notes, and field notes, and analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Data analysis led to the emergence of 5 main categories: "the need to receive social support," "the need to receive a sense of worth from the husband," "the need to compensate and improve the situation," "the need to create socio-cultural changes," and "the need for training." CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the study, in order to adjust to the changes in the postpartum period, and in addition to their efforts to compensate and improve the situation, women need to be supported by their husbands, family members and acquaintances, healthcare team, and society in various dimensions. Moreover, they should receive the information they need to turn the challenges of this period into an opportunity for growth.


Assuntos
Ajustamento Emocional , Mães/psicologia , Motivação , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem , Apoio Social/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3128, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210553

RESUMO

Postpartum depression is common; however, little is known about its relationship to social support and postpartum depression. This study examined the association between them among South Korean women within one year of childbirth. This study was based on the 2016 Korean Study of Women's Health-Related Issues (K-Stori), a cross-sectional survey employing nationally-representative random sampling. Participants were 1,654 postpartum women within a year of giving birth. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted to analyze the associations between social support (and other covariates) and postpartum depression. Among participants, 266 (16.1%) had postpartum depression. Depending on the level of social support, 6.0%, 53.9%, and 40.1% of them had low, moderate, and high social support, respectively. Women with moderate or low social support were more likely to have postpartum depression (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.26-2.53; OR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.56-4.89). This trend was observed in participants with multiparity, pregnancy loss, obese body image, and employed women. Social support was associated with a decreased likelihood of postpartum depression, indicating the importance of social support, especially for women experiencing multiparity, pregnancy loss, negative body image, as well as for employed women.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Apoio Social/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Paridade , Parto , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263502, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses stand in an unknown situation while facing continuous news feeds. Social media is a ubiquitous tool to gain and share reliable knowledge and experiences regarding COVID-19. The article aims to explore how nurses use social media in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A scoping review inspired by Arksey and O'Mally was conducted by searches in Medline, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete and Web of Sciences. Empirical research studies investigating nurses' use of social media in relation to COVID-19 were included. Exclusion criteria were: Literature reviews, articles in languages other than English, articles about E-health, and articles investigating healthcare professionals without specification of nurses included. Articles, published in January-November 2020, were included and analysed through a thematic analysis. The PRISMA-ScR checklist was used. RESULTS: Most of the eleven included studies were cross-sectional surveys, conducted in developing countries, and had neither social media nor nurses as their main focus of interest. Three themes were identified: 'Social media as a knowledge node', 'Social media functioned as profession-promoting channels' and 'Social media as a disciplinary tool'. Nurses used social media as channels to gain and share information about COVID-19, and to support each other by highlighting the need for training and changes in delivery of care and redeployment. Further, social media functioned as profession-promoting channels partly sharing heroic self-representations and acknowledgment of frontline persons in the pandemic, partly by displaying critical working conditions. Finally, nurses used social media to educate people to perform the 'right 'COVID-19' behaviours in society. CONCLUSION: This review provided snapshots of nurses' uses of social media from various regions in the world, but revealed a need for studies from further countries and continents. The study calls for further multi-methodological and in depth qualitative research, including theoretically framed studies, with a specific focus on the uses of social media among nurses during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Apoio Social/psicologia
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263583, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134074

RESUMO

A growing body of research has reported on the potential opioid-sparing effects of cannabis and cannabinoids, but less is known about specific mechanisms. The present research examines cannabis-related posts in two large online communities on the Reddit platform ("subreddits") to compare mentions of naturalistic cannabis use by persons self-identifying as actively using opioids versus persons in recovery. We extracted all posts mentioning cannabis-related keywords (e.g., "weed", "cannabis", "marijuana") from December 2015 through August 2019 from an opioid use subreddit and an opioid recovery subreddit. To investigate how cannabis is discussed at-scale, we identified and compared the most frequent phrases in cannabis-related posts in each subreddit using term-frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) weighting. To contextualize these findings, we also conducted a qualitative content analysis of 200 random posts (100 from each subreddit). Cannabis-related posts were about twice as prevalent in the recovery subreddit (n = 908; 5.4% of 16,791 posts) than in the active opioid use subreddit (n = 4,224; 2.6% of 159,994 posts, p < .001). The most frequent phrases from the recovery subreddit referred to time without using opioids and the possibility of using cannabis as a "treatment." The most frequent phrases from the opioid subreddit referred to concurrent use of cannabis and opioids. The most common motivations for using cannabis were to manage opioid withdrawal symptoms in the recovery subreddit, often in conjunction with anti-anxiety and GI-distress "comfort meds," and to enhance the "high" when used in combination with opioids in the opioid subreddit. Despite limitations in generalizability from pseudonymous online posts, this examination of reports of naturalistic cannabis use in relation to opioid use identified withdrawal symptom management as a common motivation. Future research is warranted with more structured assessments that examines the role of cannabis and cannabinoids in addressing both somatic and affective symptoms of opioid withdrawal.


Assuntos
Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Apoio Social/psicologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cannabis , Humanos , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Fumar Maconha , Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Mídias Sociais , Apoio Social/tendências , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico
6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263703, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On the African continent, many people live in conditions of adversity known to be associated with the onset of mental disorders, yet not all develop a mental disorder. The prevalence of common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety in the general population of Nigeria is comparatively low. Prevalence data of mental disorders in slum settings in Nigeria is sparse. There is a need to better understand the relationship between protective factors and the occurrence of common mental disorders in the Nigerian slum context. This study aimed to describe the relationship between protective factors and the occurrence of common mental disorders among female urban slum dwellers in Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross sectional household survey of 550 women was conducted in slum settlements in Ibadan, Nigeria. Interviewer administered questionnaires were completed to elicit information on protective factors (social connectedness, self-esteem, social support, resilience) and common mental disorders (depression, anxiety and stress). The DASS-21 was used to measure common mental disorders and protective factors were measured using the Social Connectedness Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Resilience scale and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to examine associations while adjusting for relevant confounders. Common mental disorders were reported by 14.0% of the respondents. Resilience and social support were found to be protective against reporting symptoms of common mental disorders. Women who reported higher levels of social support and resilience were less likely to report common mental disorders (OR:0.96, 95% CI 0.93, 0.98) and (OR:0.95, 95% CI 0.91, 0.99) respectively. Women who were 65 years and older were also less likely to report the occurrence of common mental disorders (OR:0.38, 95% CI 0.15, 0.98) compared to those aged 18-34 years. CONCLUSION: Social support and resilience appear to be protective against common mental disorders among these respondents. Further research should be conducted to explore the pathways through which protective factors reduce the likelihood of the occurrence of common mental disorders. This would be important in the development of mental health interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Resiliência Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Áreas de Pobreza , Prevalência , Apoio Social/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264086, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hypertension has reached epidemic levels in rural China, where loneliness has been a major problem among community dwellers as a consequence of rural-to-urban migration among younger generations. The objective of the study is to investigate the association between loneliness and hypertension, and whether social support can buffer the association (i.e., stress buffering theory), using cross-sectional data from 765 adults (mean age: 59.1 years) in rural Fujian, China. METHODS: Social support was measured as the reciprocal instrumental social support from/to neighbors and the reciprocal emotional support (i.e., the number of close friends that the respondent could turn to for help immediately when they are in trouble). A mixed-effect Poisson regression model with a robust variance estimator was used to investigate the association between loneliness, social support, and hypertension. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that those who were lonely had a higher prevalence ratio for hypertension (prevalence ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.99-1.26) compared to those who reported not being lonely. There was an interaction between social support and loneliness in relation to hypertension. Specifically, contrary to the stress buffering theory, the positive association between loneliness and hypertension was more pronounced among those who reported higher social support compared to those who reported lower support (p for interaction <0.001 for instrumental support). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that being lonely despite high levels of social support poses the greatest risk for hypertension. This study did not confirm a buffering effect of social support on the association between loneliness and hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Solidão , Apoio Social/psicologia , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 65, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest that interpersonal relationships and social support influence the development of postpartum depression and sleep quality for women. However, the effect of support from the husband or the mother-in-law has not been thoroughly validated. The current study examined the relative contribution of marital satisfaction, perceived caring of the mother-in-law, and social support on postpartum depression and sleep quality simultaneously in a path model. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2017 in Hebei, China, using a self-report questionnaire. A total of 817 women participated at 6 weeks postpartum. Sociodemographics and information about marital satisfaction, perceived caring of the mother-in-law, social support, postpartum depression, and sleep were collected. Path analysis was used to analyze the cross-sectional data. RESULTS: The final model had a highly satisfactory fit. Marital satisfaction and perceived caring of mother-in-law had both direct and indirect effects on postpartum depression through social support, but these two variables had only an indirect effect on sleep quality through social support and postpartum depression. Sleep quality is a consequence of postpartum depression at 6 weeks after delivery. The prevalence of minor and major postpartum depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum was 41.49 and 23.13%, respectively. A total of 371 (45.41%) women experienced sleep disturbance at 6 weeks postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that interpersonal relationships with family members play important roles in postpartum depression and sleep quality through social support in Chinese women. Improving the relationship between new mothers and their husbands or mothers-in-law and then enhancing social support might reduce postpartum depression and sleep disturbance.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Relações Familiares , Relação entre Gerações , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Sono , Apoio Social/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrelato
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 83, 2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35086485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While depressive symptoms are recognized as major mental health problems in later life, there is a lack of study in examining potential moderators in the association between intergenerational support and depressive symptoms, especially in social contexts with low socioeconomic status and inadequate formal public support. This study set out to examine the association between intergenerational support and depressive symptoms among older adults in rural Northeast China, and the potential moderating roles of age, living alone, and number of chronic diseases on this link. METHODS: A quota sampling approach was used to recruit 448 respondents aged 60 and above from rural Chinese communities. Depressive symptoms were the dependent variable. Intergenerational emotional, instrumental, and financial support were the main independent variables. Age, living alone, and number of chronic diseases were the moderators. Multiple linear regression models with interaction terms were conducted to test the proposed model. RESULTS: The results showed that intergenerational emotional support was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in older adults when instrumental and financial support and covariates were controlled (ß = -0.196, p < .001). Age was found to have a significant moderating effect on the relationship between intergenerational instrumental support and depressive symptoms (ß = -0.118, p < .05). Among older respondents aged 74.51 years and older, instrumental support was positively associated with depressive symptoms, but this association was not significant for younger respondents. Furthermore, living alone and number of chronic diseases suffered moderated the association between intergenerational financial support and depressive symptoms, which was statistically significant only for those living alone and with more chronic diseases (interaction term between living alone and intergenerational financial support: ß = -0.082, p < .05; interaction term between number of chronic diseases and intergenerational financial support: ß = -0.088, p < .05. CONCLUSIONS: The findings not only highlight the important role of intergenerational support in promoting mental health in later life in rural Chinese contexts, but also identify within-population heterogeneity in the identified associations. Policy and intervention implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Depressão , Relação entre Gerações , População Rural , Apoio Social , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social/psicologia , Apoio Social/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 10, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Italy was the first European country to experience a massive outbreak of Sars-coV-2 in March 2020. Severe measures were introduced to face the pandemic, significantly impacting all healthcare services, including pediatric palliative care (PPC) networks. We investigated how the Covid-19 pandemic modified the provision of PPC services in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. Both the acute and long-term impacts on the families were addressed. METHODS: We administered a retrospective three-sections online questionnaire to the eligible families assisted by our regional PPC network. Inclusion criteria were: child needing specialistic PPC, adequate knowledge of the Italian language, being in charge of the PPC regional network of Friuli Venezia Giulia from February 1, 2020. The three sections examined the same issues in different periods: the pre-covid period (until February 29, 2020), the lockdown period (March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020), and the post-lockdown period (May 2021). RESULTS: Twelve patients were included. During the lockdown period, 54.6% of children had to stop physiotherapy sessions, while, among those who continued, 80.0% experienced a reduction in the sessions' frequency. In the post-lockdown period, 45.5% of children did not have physiotherapy as often as before the pandemic onset. Overall, the access to medical visits during the lockdown and after its end was significantly reduced (p = 0.01). The level of support perceived by the families descended from grade 3 (intermediate) in the pre-covid period to 2 (low) during the lockdown (p < 0.05) and returned to grade 3 in the post-lockdown period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic and the related restrictions impacted the families and caused a transitory contraction of the perceived support. The most significant change was reduced access to medical visits and physiotherapy, which lasted over a year after the start of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261967, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mental health is a significant problem following exposure to a traumatic event. This study aimed to examine quarantine-related experiences, traumatic stress, and coping strategies among adults quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure or travel history. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to COVID-19 exposure or travel history were included. We used a sequential mixed methods design, using an online survey followed by in-depth individual telephonic interviews. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to measure post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after the quarantine. To identify factors associated with significant symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33), prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression with robust error variance. In the next phase, a subset of the participants (n = 26) were interviewed to elicit their quarantine-related experiences and coping responses. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Of the 111 adults who completed the survey, 32 (28.8% [95% CI, 21.1-38.0%]) had significant PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) and 27 (24.3% [95% CI, 17.2-33.3%]) had severe symptoms (IES-R score > 37). Marital status was the only variable that was significantly associated with significant PTSD symptoms (P = 0.028). Significant symptoms were twice as prevalent in married adults than among other marital groups (PR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.08-3.72). Participants reported negative emotions such as overwhelming fear, helplessness, anxiety, and disgust. Participants utilized both problem-centered coping (e.g., use of social support) and emotion-centered coping (e.g., use of positive diversionary activities) during the quarantine period. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms were present in one out of every four quarantined persons. The quarantine experience is viewed negatively. These findings highlight the need for increased awareness about stress-related disorders among quarantined individuals. Efforts are needed to detect and manage these symptoms early while making the quarantine experience more satisfying for the involved individuals and groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Satisfação Pessoal , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Arábia Saudita , Apoio Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 42(1): 83-90, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938354

RESUMO

The study was conducted in order to determine the relationship between women's perception of support and control during childbirth on fear of birth and mother's satisfaction. This descriptive study was carried out at the postpartum clinics of a state hospital. Seven hundred and twenty-five puerperal women were included in the sample. T test in independent groups and Pearson's correlation test were used in the evaluation of the data. Seventy-six percent of the puerperal women had vaginal birth, 24% had caesarean section. The mother's perception of control and support at birth was moderate (99.04 ± 17.30), the fear of birth was at clinical level in most of them (92.8%), and the satisfaction at vaginal and caesarean births was low. Puerperal women who had a planned pregnancy, non-invasive birth, birth without perineal tear had higher support and control perception at birth and lower fear of birth than who had unplanned pregnancy, invasive birth, or birth with a perineal tear (p<.05). Puerperal women who did not have any health problems during pregnancy and postpartum period had higher satisfaction levels compared to those who did (p<.05). The high level of perception of support and control at birth decreases the fear of childbirth and increases the satisfaction levels of puerperal women in vaginal and caesarean births. All health professionals, especially perinatal nurses and midwives, should strive to implement care initiatives that are appropriate to the needs of women.Impact StatementWhat is already known on this subject? The mode of delivery, insufficient supportive care during delivery, or perception of supportive care received are among the causes of trauma among women. Birth trauma may cause women to experience stress, anxiety, fear and loss of control, and maternal and foetal/neonatal health is adversely influenced during the delivery and postpartum period. A literature review revealed no study examining the effect of maternal perception of support and control during delivery on fear of childbirth and maternal satisfaction.What the results of this study add? Stronger perception of support and control during delivery reduces fear of childbirth, and also increases puerperal women's levels of satisfaction from care during vaginal and caesarean deliveries.What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Facilitating women's achievement of personal control and expectations during childbirth should be the focus of care interventions. In line with these results, it may be recommended that all healthcare professionals, especially perinatal nurses and midwives, strive to implement care initiatives that comply with the needs of women.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Apoio Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Percepção , Gravidez
13.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1990551, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868482

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has represented a burden to communities worldwide. Research indicates that this burden is not equally distributed in the community, and vulnerable groups, such as violence-exposed individuals may pay a particularly high prize. Perceived social support is known to buffer against negative effects of trauma and adversity, but it is not clear whether this is the case during times of social restrictions and lockdowns. In this study, we tested if perceived social support could buffer the link between pandemic worry and psychological distress in a community sample and in the subgroup exposed to violence during the pandemic. Methods: A stratified, presumed representative sample of the Norwegian population (N = 1,041, response rate = 39.9%) responded to a cross-sectional web survey in May 2020. Fifty-nine participants (5.7%) had been exposed to physical, sexual, and/or psychological violence during the last month. Results: Current violence, pandemic worry, and perceived social support were independently associated with psychological distress. In the total sample, perceived social support moderated the relationship between pandemic worry and psychological distress. However, this was not found in individuals who were exposed to current violence. Conclusions: Even though high levels of perceived social support can protect against psychological distress in the face of pandemic worry in the community, it seems that this resource is not as useful for individuals exposed to current violence. Outreach health and care services are warranted to support the needs of this particular vulnerable group.


Antecedentes: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha representado una carga para las comunidades alrededor del mundo. La investigación indica que esta carga no se distribuye equitativamente en la comunidad, y los grupos vulnerables, como los individuos expuestos a violencia pueden pagar un precio particularmente alto. Se sabe que el apoyo social percibido actúa como modulador en contra los efectos negativos del trauma y la adversidad, pero no está claro si este es el caso durante periodos de restricciones sociales y confinamientos. En este estudio, evaluamos si el apoyo social percibido podría modular la asociación entre la preocupación pandémica y el sufrimiento psicológico en una muestra de la comunidad y en el subgrupo expuesto a violencia durante la pandemia.Métodos: Una muestra estratificada, que se presume representativa de la población noruega (N = 1,041, tasa de respuesta = 39,9%) respondió una encuesta web transversal en mayo de 2020. Cincuenta y nueve participantes (5.7%) habían estado expuestos a violencia física, sexual, y/o psicológica durante el último mes.Resultados: La violencia actual, la preocupación pandémica y el apoyo social percibido se asociaron de forma independiente al sufrimiento psicológico. En la muestra total, el apoyo social percibido moderó la relación entre la preocupación pandémica y el sufrimiento psicológico. Sin embargo, esto no fue encontrado en individuos que estaban expuestos a violencia actual.Conclusiones: Incluso aunque altos niveles de apoyo social percibido pueden proteger contra el sufrimiento psicológico de cara a la preocupación pandémica en la comunidad, parece que este recurso no es tan útil para individuos expuestos a violencia actual.Extender el alcance de los servicios de salud y cuidado se justifica para apoyar las necesidades de este grupo vulnerable en particular.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Apoio Social/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260392, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874974

RESUMO

Reactions to danger have been depicted as antisocial but research has shown that supportive behaviors (e.g., helping injured others, giving information or reassuring others) prevail in life-threatening circumstances. Why is it so? Previous accounts have put the emphasis on the role of psychosocial factors, such as the maintenance of social norms or the degree of identification between hostages. Other determinants, such as the possibility to escape and distance to danger may also greatly contribute to shaping people's reactions to deadly danger. To examine the role of those specific physical constraints, we interviewed 32 survivors of the attacks at 'Le Bataclan' (on the evening of 13-11-2015 in Paris, France). Consistent with previous findings, supportive behaviors were frequently reported. We also found that impossibility to egress, minimal protection from danger and interpersonal closeness with other crowd members were associated with higher report of supportive behaviors. As we delved into the motives behind reported supportive behaviors, we found that they were mostly described as manifesting cooperative (benefits for both interactants) or altruistic (benefits for other(s) at cost for oneself) tendencies, rather than individualistic (benefits for oneself at cost for other(s)) ones. Our results show that supportive behaviors occur during mass shootings, particularly if people cannot escape, are under minimal protection from the danger, and feel interpersonal closeness with others. Crucially, supportive behaviors underpin a diversity of motives. This last finding calls for a clear-cut distinction between the social strategies people use when exposed to deadly danger, and the psychological motivations underlying them.


Assuntos
Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Apoio Social/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Paris , Comportamento Social , Interação Social , Normas Sociais
15.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 93: 97-102, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887173

RESUMO

Inequalities in mental healthcare and lack of social support during the COVID-19 pandemic have lowered quality of life and increased overall burden of disease in people with Parkinson's (PWP). Although the pandemic has brought attention to these inequalities, they are long standing and will persist unless addressed. Lack of awareness of mental health issues is a major barrier and even when recognized disparities based on race, gender, and socioeconomic factors limit access to already scarce resources. Stigma regarding mental illness is highly prevalent and is a major barrier even when adequate care exists. Limited access to mental healthcare during the pandemic and in general increases the burden on caregivers and families. Historically, initiatives to improve mental healthcare for PWP focused on interventions designed for specialty and academic centers generally located in large metropolitan areas, which has created unintended geographic disparities in access. In order to address these issues this point of view suggests a community-based wellness model to extend the reach of mental healthcare resources for PWP.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Apoio Social/tendências , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Apoio Social/psicologia
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 826, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects a significant proportion of women of childbearing age. The birth of a newborn baby is normally considered a joyful event, inhibiting mothers from expressing their depressive feelings. If the condition is not well understood and managed, mothers with postpartum depression are likely to experience suicidal ideation or even commit suicide. This study explored lived experiences of women who had recovered from a clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This phenomenological study adopted the explorative approach through in-depth interviews as guided by the biopsychosocial model of depression. It was conducted in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Bwizibwera Health Centre IV and Kinoni Health Centre IV located in Mbarara and Rwampara districts, southwestern Uganda. Data were collected from 30 postpartum mothers who were purposively selected, between 9th December 2019 and 25th September 2020. We analyzed this work using thematic data analysis and this was steered by the Colaizzi's six-step phenomenological approach of inquiry. RESULTS: The findings were summarized into five major themes: 1) somatic experiences including insomnia and headache, breast pain, poor breast milk production, weight loss and lack of energy; 2) difficulties in home and family life including overwhelming domestic chores, lack of social support from other family members, fighting at home and financial constraints due to COVID-19 pandemic; 3) negative emotions including anger, self-blame, despondency and feelings of loneliness and regrets of conceiving or marriage; 4) feelings of suicide, homicide and self-harm including suicidal ideation and attempt, homicidal ideations and attempt and feelings of self-harm and 5) coping with postpartum depression including spirituality, termination of or attempt to leave their marital relationships, acceptance, counselling and seeking medical treatment, perseverance. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Suicidal and homicidal thoughts are important parts of the postpartum depression experience, and these may put the lives of the mothers, their spouses and their babies at a great risk. Poor relationship quality, intimate partner violence and lack of financial resources contribute significantly to the negative emotional experiences of mothers with PPD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão Pós-Parto , Estresse Financeiro , Casamento/psicologia , Distanciamento Físico , Estresse Psicológico , Ideação Suicida , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/fisiopatologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Estresse Financeiro/etiologia , Estresse Financeiro/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Biopsicossociais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22871, 2021 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824305

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed novel risks related to the indoor mixing of individuals from different households and challenged policymakers to adequately regulate this behaviour. While in many cases household visits are necessary for the purpose of social care, they have been linked to broadening community transmission of the virus. In this study we propose a novel, privacy-preserving framework for the measurement of household visitation at national and regional scales, making use of passively collected mobility data. We implement this approach in England from January 2020 to May 2021. The measures expose significant spatial and temporal variation in household visitation patterns, impacted by both national and regional lockdown policies, and the rollout of the vaccination programme. The findings point to complex social processes unfolding differently over space and time, likely informed by variations in policy adherence, vaccine relaxation, and regional interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Apoio Social/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Inglaterra , Características da Família , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Política Pública/tendências , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Interação Social/classificação , Apoio Social/métodos , Vacinas
19.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259858, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional burnout represents a significant threat to the American healthcare system. Organizational and individual factors may increase healthcare providers' susceptibility or resistance to burnout. We hypothesized that during the COVID-19 pandemic, 1) higher levels of perceived organizational support (POS) are associated with lower risk for burnout and anxiety, and 2) anxiety mediates the association between POS and burnout. METHODS: In this longitudinal prospective study, we surveyed healthcare providers employed full-time at a large, multihospital healthcare system monthly over 6 months (April to November 2020). Participants were randomized using a 1:1 allocation stratified by provider type, gender, and academic hospital status to receive one of two versions of the survey instrument formulated with different ordering of the measures to minimize response bias due to context effects. The exposure of interest was POS measured using the validated 8-item Survey of POS (SPOS) scale. Primary outcomes of interest were anxiety and risk for burnout as measured by the validated 10-item Burnout scale from the Professional Quality (Pro-QOL) instrument and 4-item Emotional Distress-Anxiety short form of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scale, respectively. Linear mixed models evaluated the associations between POS and both burnout and anxiety. A mediation analysis evaluated whether anxiety mediated the POS-burnout association. RESULTS: Of the 538 participants recruited, 402 (75%) were included in the primary analysis. 55% of participants were physicians, 73% 25-44 years of age, 73% female, 83% White, and 44% had ≥1 dependent. Higher POS was significantly associated with a lower risk for burnout (-0.23; 95% CI -0.26, -0.21; p<0.001) and lower degree of anxiety (-0.07; 95% CI -0.09, -0.06; p = 0.010). Anxiety mediated the associated between POS and burnout (direct effect -0.17; 95% CI -0.21, -0.13; p<0.001; total effect -0.23; 95% CI -0.28, -0.19; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: During a health crisis, increasing the organizational support perceived by healthcare employees may reduce the risk for burnout through a reduction in anxiety. Improving the relationship between healthcare organizations and the individuals they employ may reduce detrimental effects of psychological distress among healthcare providers and ultimately improve patient care.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Apoio Social/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Organizacional , Apoio Social/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 708, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression and antenatal anxiety adversely affect several obstetric and foetal outcomes, and increase the rate of postnatal mental illness. Thus, to tackle these challenges the need for social support during pregnancy is vital. However, an extensive literature search failed to show a published study on the relationship between domains of social support and antenatal depressive, as well as antenatal anxiety symptoms in Australia. This study examined the association between domains of social support and antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms among Australian women. METHODS: The current study used data obtained from the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), focusing upon women who reported being pregnant (n = 493). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the 10 item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D-10) scale, and the 9-item Goldberg Anxiety and Depression scale (GADS) respectively. The 19 item-Medical Outcomes Study Social Support index (MOSS) was used to assess social support. A logistic regression model was used to examine the associations between domains of social support and antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULT: The current study found 24.7 and 20.9% of pregnant women screened positive for depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, our study found that the odds of antenatal depressive symptoms was about four and threefold higher among pregnant women who reported low emotional/informational support (AOR = 4.75; 95% CI: 1.45, 15.66; p = 0.010) and low social support (overall support) (AOR = 3.26; 95%CI: 1.05, 10.10, p = 0.040) respectively compared with their counterpart. In addition, the odds of antenatal anxiety symptoms was seven times higher among pregnant women who reported low affectionate support/positive social interaction (AOR = 7.43; 95%CI: 1.75, 31.55; p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion of pregnant Australian women had depressive symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms, which poses serious health concerns. Low emotional/informational support and low affectionate support/positive social interaction have a significant association with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively. As such, targeted screening of expectant women for social support is essential.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Apoio Social/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez
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