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1.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(1): 106-112, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117854

RESUMO

:To investigate the effect of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) inhibitor A10 on oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury in SH-SY5Y cells.:Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were subject to OGD/R injury,and then were divided into blank control group,model control group and A10 group randomly. The cell survival rate was detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8); the level of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by reactive oxygen detection kit; the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by tetramethylrhodamine (TMRM) method; the number of apoptotic cells was detected by TUNEL apoptosis assay kit; the protein expression level of cleaved caspase 3 was detected by Western blot.:Compared with 3,20,30,50, has lower cytotoxicity and better inhibition effect on channel activity. Compared with the model control group,ROS level was reduced,the mitochondrial membrane potential was improved,the number of apoptosis cells was reduced ,and the expression of cleaved caspase 3 was significantly reduced in the A10 group(all <0.05). : A10 can alleviate cell damage after OGD/R by inhibiting TRPM2 channel function,reducing extracellular calcium influx,reducing cell ROS levels,stabilizing mitochondrial membrane potential levels,and reducing apoptosis.


Assuntos
Glucose , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Apoptose , Benzenoacetamidas , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Piperidonas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reperfusão
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064392

RESUMO

Tumor dormancy refers to a critical stage of cancer development when tumor cells are present, but cancer does not progress. It includes both the concept of cellular dormancy, indicating the reversible switch of a cancer cell to a quiescent state, and that of tumor mass dormancy, indicating the presence of neoplastic masses that have reached cell population equilibrium via balanced growth/apoptosis rates. Tumor dormancy provides the conceptual framework, potentially explaining a major challenge in clinical oncology, tumor recurrence, which may occur years after cancer diagnosis. The mechanisms by which tumors are kept dormant, and what triggers their reawakening, are fundamental questions in cancer biology. It seems that a plethora of intracellular pathways and extracellular factors are involved in this process, rewiring the cells to plastically alter their metabolic and proliferative status. This phenomenon is highly dynamic in space and time. Mechanistic insights into both cellular and tumor dormancy have provided the rationale for targeting this otherwise stable period of cancer development, in order to prevent recurrence and maximize therapeutic benefit.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064489

RESUMO

Melanoma represents one of the most aggressive and drug resistant skin cancers with poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Despite the increasing number of targeted therapies, novel approaches are needed to counteract both therapeutic resistance and the side effects of classic therapy. Betulinic acid (BA) is a bioactive phytocompound that has been reported to induce apoptosis in several types of cancers including melanomas; however, its effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics are less investigated. The present study performed in A375 human melanoma cells was aimed to characterize the effects of BA on mitochondrial bioenergetics and cellular behavior. BA demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect in both mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in A375 melanoma cells and at sub-toxic concentrations (10 µM) induced mitochondrial dysfunction by eliciting a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and changes in mitochondria morphology and localization. In addition, BA triggered a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect characterized by apoptotic features: morphological alterations (nuclear fragmentation, apoptotic bodies) and the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers mRNA expression (Bax, Bad and Bak). BA represents a viable therapeutic option via a complex modulatory effect on mitochondrial metabolism that might be useful in advanced melanoma or as reliable strategy to counteract resistance to standard therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/genética , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/genética , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína de Morte Celular Associada a bcl/genética , Proteína de Morte Celular Associada a bcl/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068748

RESUMO

Estrogen receptor beta (ERß) plays a critical role in granulosa cell (GC) functions. The existence of four human ERß splice isoforms in the ovary suggests their differential implication in 17ß-estradiol (E2) actions on GC apoptosis causing follicular atresia. In this study, we investigated whether E2 can regulate ERß isoforms expression to fine tune its apoptotic activities in human GC. For this purpose, we measured by RT-qPCR the expression of ERß isoforms in primary culture of human granulosa cells (hGCs) collected from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization, before and after E2 exposure. Besides, we assessed the potential role of ERß isoforms on cell growth and apoptosis after their overexpression in a human GC line (HGrC1 cells). We confirmed that ERß1, ERß2, ERß4, and ERß5 isoform mRNAs were predominant over that of ERα in hGCs, and found that E2 selectively regulates mRNA levels of ERß4 and ERß5 isoforms in these cells. In addition, we demonstrated that overexpression of ERß1 and ERß4 in HGrC1 cells increased cell apoptosis by 225% while ERß5 or ERß2 had no effect. Altogether, our study revealed that E2 may influence GC fate by specifically regulating the relative abundance of ERß isoforms mRNA to modulate the balance between pro-apoptotic and non-apoptotic ERß isoforms.


Assuntos
Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073721

RESUMO

Epigenetic therapy using histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors has become an attractive project in new drug development. However, DNA methylation and histone acetylation are important epigenetic ways to regulate the occurrence and development of leukemia. Given previous studies, N-(2-aminophenyl)benzamide acridine (8a), as a histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) inhibitor, induces apoptosis and shows significant anti-proliferative activity against histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. HDAC1 plays a role in the nucleus, which we confirmed by finding that 8a entered the nucleus. Subsequently, we verified that 8a mainly passes through the endogenous (mitochondrial) pathway to induce cell apoptosis. From the protein interaction data, we found that 8a also affected the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Therefore, an experiment was performed to assess the binding of 8a to DNMT1 at the molecular and cellular levels. We found that the binding strength of 8a to DNMT1 enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, 8a inhibits the expression of DNMT1 mRNA and its protein. These findings suggested that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of 8a against leukemia cells were achieved by targeting HDAC1 and DNMT1.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Desacetilase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HeLa , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Células K562 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Células U937
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3427, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103518

RESUMO

Partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin forms the oleic acid complex HAMLET, with potent tumoricidal activity. Here we define a peptide-based molecular approach for targeting and killing tumor cells, and evidence of its clinical potential (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03560479). A 39-residue alpha-helical peptide from alpha-lactalbumin is shown to gain lethality for tumor cells by forming oleic acid complexes (alpha1-oleate). Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and computational simulations reveal a lipid core surrounded by conformationally fluid, alpha-helical peptide motifs. In a single center, placebo controlled, double blinded Phase I/II interventional clinical trial of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, all primary end points of safety and efficacy of alpha1-oleate treatment are reached, as evaluated in an interim analysis. Intra-vesical instillations of alpha1-oleate triggers massive shedding of tumor cells and the tumor size is reduced but no drug-related side effects are detected (primary endpoints). Shed cells contain alpha1-oleate, treated tumors show evidence of apoptosis and the expression of cancer-related genes is inhibited (secondary endpoints). The results are especially encouraging for bladder cancer, where therapeutic failures and high recurrence rates create a great, unmet medical need.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Determinação de Ponto Final , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Placebos , Conformação Proteica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Termodinâmica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 3661-3678, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093011

RESUMO

Introduction: Brain ischemia is a common neurological disorder worldwide that activates a cascade of pathophysiological events involving decreases in oxygen and glucose levels. Despite substantial efforts to explore its pathogenesis, the management of ischemic neuronal injury remains an enormous challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that VEGF modified nanofiber (NF) materials and the fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 exert an influence on alleviating ischemic brain damage. We aimed to further investigate their effects on primary hippocampal neurons, as well as the underlying mechanisms following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Methods: Different layers of VEGF-A loaded polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous membranes were first synthesized by using layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly of electrospinning methods. The physicochemical and biological properties of VEGF-A NF membranes, and their morphology, hydrophilicity, and controlled-release of VEGF-A were then estimated. Furthermore, the effects of VEGF-A NF and URB597 on OGD-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, neuronal apoptosis, and endocannabinoid signaling components were assessed. Results: The VEGF-A NF membrane and URB597 can not only promote hippocampal neuron adhesion and viability following OGD but also exhibited antioxidant/anti-inflammatory and mitochondrial membrane potential protection. The VEGF-A NF membrane and URB597 also inhibited OGD-induced cellular apoptosis through activating CB1R signaling. These results indicate that VEGF-A could be controlled-released by LBL self-assembled NF membranes. Discussion: The VEGF-A NF membrane and URB597 displayed positive synergistic neuroprotective effects through the inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress and activation of CB1R/PI3K/AKT/BDNF signaling, suggesting that a VEGF-A loaded NF membrane and the FAAH inhibitor URB597 could be of therapeutic value in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Nanofibras/química , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Amidoidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Membranas Artificiais , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/química
8.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 501-506, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060444

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of silencing calreticulin (CALR) gene on the apoptosis and intracellular Ca2+ concentration in HSC-LX2 human hepatic stellate cells. Methods Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting CALR was designed and transfected into HSC-LX2 cells by lipofectamine transfection, and then the cells with CALR knockdown were screened out. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry combined with annexin V-FITC/PI labeling. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration which was loaded with Fluo3-AM (calcium ion fluorescent probe) was observed by laser confocal microscope. The mRNA and protein levels of CALR, Bcl2 and BAX were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and Western blotting. Results Knockdown of CALR led to the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the increased apoptosis of HSC-LX2 cells, the up-regulation of BAX expression, down-regulation of Bcl2 and the obvious raise of BAX/Bcl2 ratio. Conclusion Knockdown of CALR can increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration, up-regulate the ratio of BAX/Bcl2 and promote the apoptosis of HSC-LX2 cells.


Assuntos
Calreticulina , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Apoptose , Calreticulina/genética , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transfecção
9.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 513-519, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060446

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of betaine (BET) on the proliferation of C4-2B prostate cancer cells and its possible mechanism. Methods C4-2B cells were treated with 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 mmol/L BET. CCK-8 assay was used to assess the cell proliferation, plate cloning formation assay to detect clone formation ability and flow cytometry to evaluate cell apoptosis, and the cell morphological alteration was observed by microscopy. The protein expression of BAX, Bcl2, cleaved caspase 3 (c-caspase-3), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), and NF-κB p65 were detected by Western blotting, and the changes of BAX, Bcl2, c-caspase-3, and NF-κB p65 proteins were further verified after the cells were treated with NF-κB pathway inhibitor BAY11-7082. Results BET inhibited the proliferation of C4-2B cells in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 422.7 mmol/L after the cells were treated with BET for 48 hours. Compared with the control group (0 mmol/L BET treatment), the proliferation of C4-2B cells was inhibited along with morphological changes, decreased clone formation ability and increased apoptosis rate in 200, 300, 400 mmol/L BET treated groups. Meanwhile, the protein expression of BAX and c-caspase-3 were up-regulated and Bcl2, PI3K, AKT and NF-κB p65 were down-regulated in 300, 400 mmol/L BET groups as compared with the control group. After BAY11-7082 treatment alone, Bcl2, BAX, c-caspase-3, NF-κB p65 protein expression trend was consistent with that of the 300 mmol/L BET treated group, and Bcl2, NF-κB p65 protein expression levels were lower and BAX and c-caspase-3 protein expression levels were higher in BET combined with BAY11-7082 treated group. Conclusion BET can inhibit C4-2B cell proliferation and induce its apoptosis by blocking PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Apoptose , Betaína , Humanos , Masculino , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 538-545, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060449

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the changes of key factors such as placental villi and lymph vessels in chronic venous disease (CVD) during pregnancy. Methods According to the CEAP classification criteria, tissues of CVD patients were collected, and was divided into control group and CVD group. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect mRNA level of CD31, D2-4, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT-1), placental growth factor (PlGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) in placental tissues. Immohistochemical staining was performed to measure the expression level of CD31, D2-40, FLT-1, PlGF, HIF-1α, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), Bcl2-related X protein (BAX), caspase 3 and caspase-9. The change in average number of syncytiotrophoblast cell nodes in placental villi was observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining was used to detect the PAS-positive substances in placental villi. Results Compared with the control group, the average numbers of placenta villi, syncytiotrophoblast cell nodes, syncytiotrophoblast cell nodes/villi and the connection bridges between villi of the average syncytrotrophoblast cells increased significantly in the CVD group, while the average number of fibrinoid necrosis showed no significant changes. The mRNA levels of CD31, D2-40, FLT-1, PlGF, and HIF-1α in the CVD group also increased significantly, and the proportion of villi cells positive of BAX, caspase-3 and caspase-9 rose significantly, while that of villi cells positive positive of Bcl2 showed no obvious change. CVD group also reported a marked increase in the number of blood vessels positive of CD31, D2-40, FLT-1 and PlGF. The expression level of HIF-1α in syncytiotrophoblast cells, cytotrophoblast cells and fetal capillary villi increased significantly in the CVD group. The percentage of placenta with PAS positive substances observed an increase in the villi, in comparison to the control group. Conclusion The production of blood vessels and lymph vessels increased in the placental villi of patients with CVD, coupled with an accelerated apoptosis of villi cells. Meanwhile, CVD patients show an impaired function of placental villi and obstructed gas exchange between mother and infant.


Assuntos
Linfangiogênese , Placenta , Apoptose , Vilosidades Coriônicas , Feminino , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Placentário , Gravidez
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065781

RESUMO

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the major mortality risk factors among diabetic patients worldwide. It has been established that most of the cardiac structural and functional alterations in the diabetic cardiomyopathy condition resulted from the hyperglycemia-induced persistent oxidative stress in the heart, resulting in the maladaptive responses of inflammation and apoptosis. Flavonoids, the most abundant phytochemical in plants, have been reported to exhibit diverse therapeutic potential in medicine and other biological activities. Flavonoids have been widely studied for their effects in protecting the heart against diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy. The potential of flavonoids in alleviating diabetic cardiomyopathy is mainly related with their remedial actions as anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic agents. In this review, we summarize the latest findings of flavonoid treatments on diabetic cardiomyopathy as well as elucidating the mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066270

RESUMO

With the rapid growth of the wireless communication industry, humans are extensively exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) comprised of radiofrequency (RF). The skin is considered the primary target of EMFs given its outermost location. Recent evidence suggests that extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMF can improve the efficacy of DNA repair in human cell-lines. However, the effects of EMF-RF on DNA damage remain unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of EMF-long term evolution (LTE, 1.762 GHz, 8 W/kg) irradiation on DNA double-strand break (DSB) using the murine melanoma cell line B16 and the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. EMF-LTE exposure alone did not affect cell viability or induce apoptosis or necrosis. In addition, DNA DSB damage, as determined by the neutral comet assay, was not induced by EMF-LTE irradiation. Of note, EMF-LTE exposure can attenuate the DNA DSB damage induced by physical and chemical DNA damaging agents (such as ionizing radiation (IR, 10 Gy) in HaCaT and B16 cells and bleomycin (BLM, 3 µM) in HaCaT cells and a human melanoma cell line MNT-1), suggesting that EMF-LTE promotes the repair of DNA DSB damage. The protective effect of EMF-LTE against DNA damage was further confirmed by attenuation of the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX after exposure to EMF-LTE in HaCaT and B16 cells. Most importantly, irradiation of EMF-LTE (1.76 GHz, 6 W/kg, 8 h/day) on mice in vivo for 4 weeks reduced the γ-H2AX level in the skin tissue, further supporting the protective effects of EMF-LTE against DNA DSB damage. Furthermore, p53, the master tumor-suppressor gene, was commonly upregulated by EMF-LTE irradiation in B16 and HaCaT cells. This finding suggests that p53 plays a role in the protective effect of EMF-LTE against DNA DSBs. Collectively, these results demonstrated that EMF-LTE might have a protective effect against DNA DSB damage in the skin, although further studies are necessary to understand its impact on human health.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras , Radiação Ionizante , Ondas de Rádio , Animais , Apoptose , Sobrevivência Celular , Reparo do DNA , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068008

RESUMO

A major contributing factor in triple-negative breast cancer progression is its ability to evade immune surveillance. One mechanism for this immunosuppression is through ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), which facilitates myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment in tumors, which generate cytokines TGF-ß and IL-10 and induce regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which are immunosuppressive and enhance tumor progression. Hence, enhancing the immune system in breast tumors could be a strategy for anticancer therapeutics. The present study evaluated the immune response of atovaquone, an antiprotozoal drug, in three independent breast-tumor models. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of atovaquone reduced HCC1806, CI66 and 4T1 paclitaxel-resistant (4T1-PR) breast-tumor growth by 45%, 70% and 42%, respectively. MDSCs, TGF-ß, IL-10 and Tregs of blood and tumors were analyzed from all of these in vivo models. Our results demonstrated that atovaquone treatment in mice bearing HCC1806 tumors reduced MDSCs from tumor and blood by 70% and 30%, respectively. We also observed a 25% reduction in tumor MDSCs in atovaquone-treated mice bearing CI66 and 4T1-PR tumors. In addition, a decrease in TGF-ß and IL-10 in tumor lysates was observed in atovaquone-treated mice with a reduction in tumor Tregs. Moreover, a significant reduction in the expression of RPS19 was found in tumors treated with atovaquone.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Atovaquona/farmacologia , Imunossupressão , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068078

RESUMO

Anthracyclines remain a cornerstone of induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Refractory or relapsed disease due to chemotherapy resistance is a major obstacle in AML management. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been observed to be involved in chemoresistance. We previously observed that miR-15a-5p was overexpressed in a subgroup of chemoresistant cytogenetically normal AML patients compared with chemosensitive patients treated with daunorubicin and cytarabine. MiR-15a-5p overexpression in AML cells reduced apoptosis induced by both drugs in vitro. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-15a-5p contributes to daunorubicin resistance. We showed that daunorubicin induced autophagy in myeloid cell lines. The inhibition of autophagy reduced cell sensitivity to daunorubicin. The overexpression of miR-15a-5p decreased daunorubicin-induced autophagy. Conversely, the downregulation of miR-15a-5p increased daunorubicin-induced autophagy. We found that miR-15a-5p targeted four genes involved in autophagy, namely ATG9a, ATG14, GABARAPL1 and SMPD1. Daunorubicin increased the expression of these four genes, and miR-15a-5p counteracted this regulation. Inhibition experiments with the four target genes showed the functional effect of miR-15a-5p on autophagy. In summary, our results indicated that miR-15a-5p induces chemoresistance in AML cells through the abrogation of daunorubicin-induced autophagy, suggesting that miR-15a-5p could be a promising therapeutic target for chemoresistant AML patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Daunorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/genética , Adulto , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Autofagia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068110

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the anticancer potential of LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and temozolomide using glioblastoma multiforme (T98G) and anaplastic astrocytoma (MOGGCCM) cells. Apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, and granules in the cytoplasm were identified microscopically (fluorescence and electron microscopes). The mitochondrial membrane potential was studied by flow cytometry. The activity of caspases 3, 8, and 9 and Akt was evaluated fluorometrically, while the expression of Beclin 1, PI3K, Akt, mTOR, caspase 12, and Hsp27 was determined by immunoblotting. SiRNA was used to block Hsp27 and PI3K expression. Cell migration and localization of Hsp27 were tested with the wound healing assay and immunocytochemistry, respectively. LY294002 effectively diminished the migratory potential and increased programmed death of T98G and MOGGCCM. Autophagy was dominant in MOGGCCM, while apoptosis was dominant in T98G. LY294002 with temozolomide did not potentiate cell death but redirected autophagy toward apoptosis, which was correlated with ER stress. A similar effect was observed after blocking PI3K expression with siRNA. Transfection with Hsp27 siRNA significantly increased apoptosis related to ER stress. Our results indicate that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway sensitizes glioma cells to apoptosis upon temozolomide treatment, which was correlated with ER stress. Hsp27 increases the resistance of glioma cells to cell death upon temozolomide treatment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Cromonas/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Necrose , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068421

RESUMO

Resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) is a major obstacle in managing lung cancer. The root of Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) traditionally used for fever clearance and detoxification possesses various bioactivities including anticancer effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SB exhibited anticancer activity in EGFR TKI-resistant lung cancer cells and to explore the underlying mechanism. We used four types of human lung cancer cell lines, including H1299 (EGFR wildtype; EGFR TKI-resistant), H1975 (acquired TKI-resistant), PC9/ER (acquired erlotinib-resistant), and PC9/GR (acquired gefitinib-resistant) cells. The ethanol extract of SB (ESB) decreased cell viability and suppressed colony formation in the four cell lines. ESB stimulated nuclear fragmentation and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. Consistently, the proportion of sub-G1 phase cells and annexin V+ cells were significantly elevated by ESB, indicating that ESB induced apoptotic cell death in EGFR TKI-resistant cells. ESB dephosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and downregulated the target gene expression. The overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 reversed ESB-induced apoptosis, suggesting that ESB triggered apoptosis in EGFR TKI-resistant cells by inactivating STAT3. Taken together, we propose the potential use of SB as a novel therapeutic for lung cancer patients with EGFR TKI resistance.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Scutellaria baicalensis/química , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068438

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are promising anti-cancer agents that inhibit proliferation of many types of cancer cells including breast carcinoma (BC) cells. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the Notch1 activity level on the pharmacological interaction between cisplatin (CDDP) and two HDIs, valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat), in luminal-like BC cells. The type of drug-drug interaction between CDDP and HDIs was determined by isobolographic analysis. MCF7 cells were genetically modified to express differential levels of Notch1 activity. The cytotoxic effect of SAHA or VPA was higher on cells with decreased Notch1 activity and lower for cells with increased Notch1 activity than native BC cells. The isobolographic analysis demonstrated that combinations of CDDP with SAHA or VPA at a fixed ratio of 1:1 exerted additive or additive with tendency toward synergism interactions. Therefore, treatment of CDDP with HDIs could be used to optimize a combined therapy based on CDDP against Notch1-altered luminal BC. In conclusion, the combined therapy of HDIs and CDDP may be a promising therapeutic tool in the treatment of luminal-type BC with altered Notch1 activity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Receptor Notch1/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068442

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced in response to a high-glucose environment and oxidative stress and exacerbate various diseases. Nε-(Carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) is an AGE that is produced by the glycation of lysine residues of proteins. There are a few reports on alterations in protein function due to CML modification; however, its association with cancer is not clear. We investigated the significance of CML modification in high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1), a cytokine that is significantly associated with cancer progression. Treatment of the gastric cancer cell lines TMK1 and MKN74 with glyoxal or glucose resulted in increased CML modification compared to untreated cells. CML-HMGB1 was modified via oxidation and more pronouncedly activated the receptor for AGE and downstream AKT and NF-κB compared to naïve HMGB1 and oxidized HMGB1. CML-HMGB1 bound with reduced affinity to DNA and histone H3, resulting in enhanced extranuclear translocation and extracellular secretion. Treatment of gastric cancer cells with CML-HMGB1 enhanced cell proliferation and invasion, sphere formation, and protection from thapsigargin-induced apoptosis, and decreased 5-FU sensitivity in comparison to HMGB1. Further, CML-HMGB1 was detected at various levels in all the 10 gastric cancer tumor specimens. HMGB1 levels correlated with primary tumor progression and distant metastasis, whereas CML-HMGB1 levels were associated with primary tumor progression, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and stage. In addition, CML-HMGB1 levels correlated with oxidative stress in cancer tissues and resistance to neoadjuvant therapy. Therefore, CML modification of HMGB1 enhanced the cancer-promoting effect of HMGB1. In this study, CML-HMGB1 has been highlighted as a new therapeutic target, and analysis of the molecular structure of CML-HMGB1 is desired in the future.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Glicosilação , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068980

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) exposure has been linked to skin damage and carcinogenesis, but recently UVB has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for cancer. Herein, we investigated the cellular and molecular effects of UVB in immortal and tumorigenic HPV positive and negative cells. Cells were irradiated with 220.5 to 1102.5 J/m2 of UVB and cell proliferation was evaluated by crystal violet, while cell cycle arrest and apoptosis analysis were performed through flow cytometry. UVB effect on cells was recorded at 661.5 J/m2 and it was exacerbated at 1102.5 J/m2. All cell lines were affected by proliferation inhibition, cell cycle ablation and apoptosis induction, with different degrees depending on tumorigenesis level or HPV type. Analysis of the well-known UV-responsive p53, E2F1 and microtubules system proteins was performed in SiHa cells in response to UVB through Western-blotting assays. E2F1 and the Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) expression decrease correlated with cellular processes alteration while p53 and Microtubule-associated Protein 1S (MAP1S) expression switch was observed since 882 J/m2, suggesting they were required under more severe cellular damage. However, expression transition of α-Tubulin3C and ß-Tubulin was abruptly noticed until 1102.5 J/m2 and particularly, γ-Tubulin protein expression remained without alteration. This study provides insights into the effect of UVB in cervical cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Microtúbulos/efeitos da radiação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia
20.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(3): 685-689, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of V-9302 (an antagonist of transmembrane glutamine flux) on the proliferation and apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells HL-60 and KG-1. METHODS: HL-60 and KG-1 cells at logarithmic phase were treated by different concentrations of V-9302. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the proliferation of the cells. Annexin V-FITC / PI double staining flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of HL-60 and KG-1 cells. The expressions of BAX, BCL-2 and Caspase3 were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. RESULTS: V-9302 could significantly inhibit the growth of HL-60 and KG-1 cells. The concentration of V-9302 at 10, 20 µmol/L could significantly promote the apoptosis of HL-60 and KG-1 cells(P<0.05). The results of apoptosis related gene detection showed that when V-9302 was applied to HL-60 and KG-1 cell lines at 10 and 20 µmol/L, the expression levels of Pro-apoptotic protein genes BAX and Caspase3 in HL-60 and KG-1 were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein gene BCL-2 was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The results of Western blot were basically consistent with that of RT-qPCR. CONCLUSION: Competitive antagonist of transmembrane glutamine flux V-9302 can significantly promote the apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cell lines HL-60 and KG-1.


Assuntos
Glutamina , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Células HL-60 , Humanos
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