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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5151-5158, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Magnetic stimulation is used in the treatment of a diversity of diseases, but a complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action requires further investigation. We examined the effect of static magnetic stimulation (SMS) in different cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A culture plate holder with attached NeFeB magnets was developed. Different magnetic field intensities and periods were tested in tumoral and non-tumoral cell lines. To verify the cellular responses to SMS, cell viability, cell death, cell cycle and BDNF expression were evaluated. RESULTS: Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to SMS for 24 hours led to a decrease in cell viability. Analysis 24 h after stimulation revealed a decrease in apoptotic and double-positive cells, associated with an increase in the number of necrotic cells. CONCLUSION: The effects of SMS on cell viability are cell type-specific, inducing a decrease in cell viability in SH-SY5Y cells. This suggests that SMS may be a potential tool in the treatment of neuronal tumors.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos da radiação
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5497-5502, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The cell-killing and radiosensitizing effects of carbon-ion (C-ion) beams with low linear energy transfer (LET) are underexplored. We aimed to demonstrate the cell-killing effects of 60Co gamma rays and C-ion beams at various LET values and the radiosensitizing effect of C-ion beams at various LET and cisplatin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human uterine cervical cancer cells were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays and C-ion beams at different levels of LET, with and without cisplatin treatment. RESULTS: Low-LET C-ion beams had a superior cell-killing effect compared to 60Co gamma rays. Survival curves under low-LET C-ion beams were more similar to that of 60Co gamma rays than that of high-LET C-ion beams. Cisplatin significantly reduced cell survival after 1, 2, and 3 Gy C-ion beam irradiations at LET values of 13/30/70 keV/µm, 13/30 keV/µm, and 13 keV/µm, respectively. CONCLUSION: Low-LET C-ion beams combined with cisplatin have higher radiosensitizing effects than high-LET C-ion beams.


Assuntos
Carbono/uso terapêutico , Radioisótopos de Cobalto/uso terapêutico , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Raios gama , Humanos , Transferência Linear de Energia/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
3.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(9): 1173-1187, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Debio 1143 is an orally available antagonist of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins with the potential to enhance the antitumour activity of cisplatin and radiotherapy. The radiosensitising effect of Debio 1143 is mediated through caspase activation and TNF, IFNγ, CD8 T cell-dependent pathways. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of Debio 1143 in combination with standard chemoradiotherapy in patients with high-risk locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. METHODS: This double-blind, multicentre, randomised, phase 2 study by the French Head and Neck Radiotherapy Oncology Group (GORTEC) was run at 19 hospitals in France and Switzerland. Eligible patients were aged 18-75 years with locoregionally advanced, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (characterised as non-metastatic, measurable stage III, IVa, or IVb [limited to T ≥2, N0-3, and M0] disease), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, a history of heavy tobacco smoking (>10 pack-years) with no previous or current treatment for invasive head and neck cancer, and no previous treatment with inhibitor of apoptosis protein antagonists. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral Debio 1143 (200 mg per day on days 1-14 of 21-day cycles, for three cycles) or oral placebo (20 mg/mL, administered at the same dosing schedule) using a stochastic minimisation technique according to node involvement and primary tumour site, and HPV-16 status in patients with an oropharyngeal primary tumour site. All patients received standard high-dose cisplatin chemoradiotherapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with locoregional control 18 months after chemoradiotherapy, analysed in the intention-to-treat population (primary analysis), and repeated in the per-protocol population. Responses were assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02022098, and is still active but not recruiting. FINDINGS: Between Jan 25, 2016, and April 24, 2017, 48 patients were randomly assigned to the Debio 1143 group and 48 to the placebo group (one patient in the placebo group did not receive the study drug and was not included in the safety analysis). Median duration of follow-up was 25·0 months (IQR 19·6-29·4) in the Debio 1143 group and 24·2 months (6·6-26·8) in the placebo group. Locoregional control 18 months after chemoradiotherapy was achieved in 26 (54%; 95% CI 39-69) of 48 patients in the Debio 1143 group versus 16 (33%; 20-48) of 48 patients in the placebo group (odds ratio 2·69 [95% CI 1·13-6·42], p=0·026). Grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in 41 (85%) of 48 patients in the Debio 1143 group and in 41 (87%) of 47 patients in the placebo group. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were dysphagia (in 24 [50%] patients in the Debio 1143 group vs ten [21%] in the placebo group), mucositis (in 15 [31%] vs ten [21%]), and anaemia (in 17 [35%] vs 11 [23%]). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded in 30 (63%) of 48 patients in the Debio 1143 group and 28 (60%) of 47 in the placebo group. In the placebo group, two (4%) deaths were due to adverse events (one multiple organ failure and one asphyxia; neither was considered to be related to treatment). No deaths due to adverse events occurred in the Debio 1143 group. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first treatment regimen to achieve superior efficacy in this disease setting against a high-dose cisplatin chemoradiotherapy comparator in a randomised trial. These findings suggest that inhibition of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins is a novel and promising approach in this poor prognostic population and warrant confirmation in a phase 3 study with the aim of expanding the therapeutic options for these patients. FUNDING: Debiopharm.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(2): 191-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749127

RESUMO

We have proven that naringin, a phytonutrient, diminishes oxidative damage and inflammatory responses by modulating PPAR-γ expressions in ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB)-induced NIH-3T3 cells. However, the role of naringin against DNA damage, photoaging, and apoptosis in NIH-3T3 cells has yet to be studied, necessitating investigation. We show that Naringin pretreatment significantly reduces UVB-induced alkaline DNA damage and potentially modulates NER gene (XPC, TFIIH, XPE, ERCC1, and GAPDH) expression, thereby augmenting DNA repair. We determined experimentally that naringin pretreatment prevents UVB-induced nuclear fragmentation in NIH-3T3 cells, as well as altering UVB-induced apoptotic marker (Bax, BCl-2, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3) expression in them. In addition, naringin pretreatment inhibits UVB-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13) expression in these 3T3 cells. Therefore, we report that naringin can effectively avert UVB-mediated DNA damage, photoaging, and apoptosis in NIH-3T3 cells.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA/efeitos da radiação , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4117, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807785

RESUMO

Strategies for eradicating cancer stem cells (CSCs) are urgently required because CSCs are resistant to anticancer drugs and cause treatment failure, relapse and metastasis. Here, we show that photoactive functional nanocarbon complexes exhibit unique characteristics, such as homogeneous particle morphology, high water dispersibility, powerful photothermal conversion, rapid photoresponsivity and excellent photothermal stability. In addition, the present biologically permeable second near-infrared (NIR-II) light-induced nanocomplexes photo-thermally trigger calcium influx into target cells overexpressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid family type 2 (TRPV2). This combination of nanomaterial design and genetic engineering effectively eliminates cancer cells and suppresses stemness of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, in molecular analyses of mechanisms, we show that inhibition of cancer stemness involves calcium-mediated dysregulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signalling pathway. The present technological concept may lead to innovative therapies to address the global issue of refractory cancers.


Assuntos
Raios Infravermelhos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Western Blotting , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
6.
Free Radic Res ; 54(7): 497-516, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746646

RESUMO

The present study was conceptualized to delineate radioprotective efficacy of a formulation G-003M (a combination of podophyllotoxin and rutin) against radiation-induced damage to the lymphohematopoietic system of mice. C57BL/6J mice, treated with G-003M 1 h prior to 9 Gy lethal dose, were assessed for reactive oxygen species (ROS)/nitric oxide (NO) generation, antioxidant alterations, Annexin V/PI and TUNEL staining for apoptosis, modulation of apoptotic proteins, cell proliferation, histological alterations in thymus and cell cycle arrest in bone marrow cells. Induction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocytes macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-IL-6, IL-10, IL-1α, and IL-1ß in response to G-003M was also evaluated in different groups of mice. Haematopoietic reconstitution with G-003M was explored by examining endogenous spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) in irradiated animals. G-003M significantly inhibited ROS/NO, malondialdehyde (MDA) and restored cellular antioxidant glutathione in the thymus of irradiated animals. G-003M pre-treatment significantly (p < 0.001) restrained apoptosis in thymocytes via upregulation of Bcl2 and down-regulation of Bax, p53 and caspase-3. Stimulation of cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis by G-003M, restored architecture of thymus in irradiated animals within 30 days as evaluated by histological analysis. G-003M arrested cells at the G2/M phase by inducing reversible cell cycle arrest. Peak expression of G-CSF (45-fold) and IL-6 (60-fold) as well as moderate induction of GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-1α by G-003M helped in haematopoietic recovery of irradiated mice. A higher number of endogenous CFU-S in G-003M pre-treated irradiated mice suggested haematopoietic recovery. Data obtained from the current study affirms that G-003M can be proved as a potential radioprotective agent against radiation damage.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Sistema Hematopoético/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hematopoético/efeitos da radiação , Podofilotoxina/farmacologia , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Rutina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sistema Hematopoético/metabolismo , Sistema Hematopoético/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/metabolismo , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Life Sci ; 257: 118087, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702442

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies suggest that direct exposure of cells to fractionated radiotherapy might induce radioresistance. However, the effects of fractionated radiotherapy on the non-irradiated bystander cells remain unclear. We hypothesized that fractionated radiotherapy could enhance radioresistance and proliferation of bystander cells. MAIN METHODS: Human tumor cell lines, including A549 and HT29 were irradiated (2 Gy per day). The irradiated cells (either A549 or HT29) were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells of the same line using transwell co-culture system. Tumor cell proliferation, radioresistance and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay, clonogenic survival assay and Annexin-V in bystander cells, respectively. In addition, activation of Chk1 (Ser 317), Chk2 (Thr 68) and Akt (Ser473) were measured via western blot. KEY FINDINGS: Irradiated HT29 cells induced conventional bystander effects detected as modulation of clonogenic survival parameters (decreased area under curve, D10 and ED50 and increased α) and proliferation in recipient neighbors. While, irradiated A549 cells significantly enhanced the radioresistance and proliferation of bystander cells. These changes were accompanied with enhanced activation of Chk1, Chk2 and Akt in non-irradiated bystander A549 cells. Moreover, both bystander effects (damaging and protective) were mediated through secreted factors. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that fractionated radiotherapy could promote proliferation and radioresistance of bystander cells probably through survival and proliferation pathways.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Efeito Espectador/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos da radiação , Células A549 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células HT29 , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673355

RESUMO

Antimicrobial-resistant and novel pathogens continue to emerge, outpacing efforts to contain and treat them. Therefore, there is a crucial need for safe and effective therapies. Ultraviolet-A (UVA) phototherapy is FDA-approved for several dermatological diseases but not for internal applications. We investigated UVA effects on human cells in vitro, mouse colonic tissue in vivo, and UVA efficacy against bacteria, yeast, coxsackievirus group B and coronavirus-229E. Several pathogens and virally transfected human cells were exposed to a series of specific UVA exposure regimens. HeLa, alveolar and primary human tracheal epithelial cell viability was assessed after UVA exposure, and 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine was measured as an oxidative DNA damage marker. Furthermore, wild-type mice were exposed to intracolonic UVA as an in vivo model to assess safety of internal UVA exposure. Controlled UVA exposure yielded significant reductions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridioides difficile, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. UVA-treated coxsackievirus-transfected HeLa cells exhibited significantly increased cell survival compared to controls. UVA-treated coronavirus-229E-transfected tracheal cells exhibited significant coronavirus spike protein reduction, increased mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein and decreased coronavirus-229E-induced cell death. Specific controlled UVA exposure had no significant effect on growth or 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in three types of human cells. Single or repeated in vivo intraluminal UVA exposure produced no discernible endoscopic, histologic or dysplastic changes in mice. These findings suggest that, under specific conditions, UVA reduces various pathogens including coronavirus-229E, and may provide a safe and effective treatment for infectious diseases of internal viscera. Clinical studies are warranted to further elucidate the safety and efficacy of UVA in humans.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Micoses/terapia , Infecções Oportunistas/terapia , Terapia Ultravioleta/métodos , Viroses/terapia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/efeitos da radiação , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterovirus Humano B/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos , Micoses/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Terapia Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Viroses/virologia , Leveduras/efeitos da radiação
9.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2509-2517, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now a major human cancer, and B-cell translocation gene 3 (BTG3) has been reported as a tumor-suppressor in CRC, but its upstream regulator has not been identified. METHODS: Endogenous expression levels of BTG3 were compared between normal colorectal cell line CCD-18Co and two CRC cell lines SW480 and HT29, as well as between CRC patient tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Analysis of BTG3 genomic region was performed which identified a putative hypoxia response element (HRE). Effects of hypoxia condition, BTG3 overexpression, and their combination on the radiation sensitivity of CRC cell lines were assessed. RESULTS: BTG3 was downregulated in CRC cell lines and patient tumor samples, via the HRE in its promoter region. Hypoxia and BTG3 overexpression could both induce radiation resistance in CRC cells. Combining hypoxia with BTG3 overexpression effectively rendered the resistance of CRC cells to radiation to a level lower than hypoxia alone and higher than normoxia alone, indicating the essential role of BTG3 in hypoxia-induced radiation resistance of CRC cells. CONCLUSION: We therefore propose a novel signaling cascade involving hypoxia/BTG3 to be a potential risk factor for CRC patients undergoing radiation therapy, which could possibly serve as therapeutic targets among CRC patients with acquired radiotherapy resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/radioterapia , Idoso , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/biossíntese , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HT29 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Tolerância a Radiação , Elementos de Resposta
10.
Prostate ; 80(12): 986-992, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Focal therapies for prostate cancer (PC) can reduce adverse events and do not lead to androgen-independent progression. Ultrasound could be used for cancer treatments if the repetition frequency is fitted to the purpose. We investigated the possible therapeutic effect of ultrasound irradiation on PC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We irradiated two PC cell lines, androgen-dependent LNCaP and -independent PC-3 with ultrasound (3.0 W/cm2 , 3 MHz, irradiation time rate: 20%) for 2 minutes for 1 day or 3 consecutive days at a repetition frequency of 1, 10, or 100 Hz in vitro. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined after irradiation. RESULTS: Cell proliferation of PC-3 was significantly inhibited after 1 day (P < .0001) and 3 days (P < .0001) of 10 Hz ultrasound irradiation, and that of LNCaP after 1 day (P < .0001) and 3 days (P < .0001) of irradiation. LNCaP was more sensitive to ultrasound at both lower and higher cell density but PC-3 was only sensitive at a lower cell density (P < .01). Irradiation with 10 Hz ultrasound-induced significantly more PC-3 apoptotic cells than control (1 day, P = .0137; 3 days, P = .0386) rather than irradiation with 1 Hz. Apoptosis via caspase-3 was induced at 10 Hz in 1-day (P < .05) irradiation in both cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound irradiation with even 1 day of 10 Hz significantly inhibited cell proliferation in both LNCaP and PC-3, especially by the remarkable induction of apoptosis in vitro. Our study indicated that ultrasound irradiation can be a therapeutic option for PC and further studies in vivo will be undertaken.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/radioterapia
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110831, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535367

RESUMO

The risk of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) environments has increased with the development of nuclear technology. IR exposure induces excessive apoptosis of the spermatogonia, which leads to male infertility. Spermatogonia apoptosis may be involved in ribosomal stress triggered by DNA damage following exposure to IR because ribosomal proteins (RPs) directly interact with mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) to induce apoptosis. This study aimed to use comparative proteomics and transcriptomics approach to screen the differential RPs and ribosomal mRNAs in mouse testes following high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion radiation (CIR). The expression of ribosomal large subunit protein 27a (Rpl27a) decreased at both protein and mRNA levels in the spermatogonia in vivo. After 6 h of CIR, the immunofluorescence signal of 8-oxo-dG and phosphorylated ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated protein (ATM)/histone H2Ax increased, but that of Rpl27a decreased in the spermatogonia of p53 wild-type and knockout mouse testes. Moreover, the nucleolin was scattered throughout the nucleoplasm after CIR. These results suggested that CIR-induced DNA damage might trigger ribosomal stress, and the reduction in the expression of Rpl27a was associated with DNA damage in the spermatogonia. Similarly, in vitro, the immunofluorescence signal of 8-oxo-dG increased in the GC-1 cells after CIR. Moreover, the expression of Rpl27a was regulated by DNA damage because the co-transfection of ATM and Rpl27a or inhibition of ATM-treated CIR could restore the expression of Rpl27a. Furthermore, the reduction in the expression of Rpl27a led to weakened binding of E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and p53 to MDM2, causing p53 activation and E2F1 degradation in p53 wild-type and knockdown GC-1 cells. This study proposed that heavy ion radiation-induced DNA damage mediated spermatogonia apoptosis via the Rpl27a-Rpl5-MDM2-p53/E2F1 signaling pathway. The results provided the underlying molecular mechanisms of spermatogonia apoptosis following exposure to high LET radiation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Espermatogônias/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Íons Pesados , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Espermatogônias/metabolismo , Espermatogônias/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
12.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(8): 1841-1848, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483748

RESUMO

Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used to modulate the inflammatory and immune responses, pain relief, and to promote wound healing. PBM is widely used in dental practice and its cellular effects should be investigated. The aim was to evaluate if PBM changes proteins cell death-related, such as caspase-6 and Bcl-2, in periodontal ligament cells. Eighteen mice were divided in three groups (n = 6), i.e., (I) control, (II) 3 J cm-2, and (III) 30 J cm-2. Low power infrared laser (830 nm) parameters were power at 10 mW, energy densities at 3 and 30 J cm-2 in continuous emission mode, exposure time of 15 and 150 s, respectively for 4 days in a row. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were euthanized, and their jaws were fixed and decalcified. Caspase-6 and Bcl-2 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical techniques, and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by TUNEL. Statistical differences were not significant to caspase-6 mRNA relative levels in tissues from jaws at both energy densities, but a significant increase of Bcl-2 mRNA relative levels was obtained at 30 J cm-2 group. Also, 30 J cm-2 group showed caspase-6 positive-labeled cells decreased and Bcl-2 positive-labeled cells significantly increased. TUNEL-labeled cells demonstrated DNA fragmentation decreased at 30 J cm-2. PBM can alter Bcl-2 mRNA relative level and both caspase-6 and Bcl-2 protein, modulating cell survival, as well as to reduce DNA fragmentation. More studies must be performed in order to obtain conclusive results about photobiostimulation effects using infrared low-level laser in apoptosis process as to achieve the optimum dosage.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Cicatrização/efeitos da radiação
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(11): 6068-6080, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374842

RESUMO

We have previously found that UV-induced DNA damage causes hyperphosphorylation of the carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), inhibition of transcriptional elongation and changes in alternative splicing (AS) due to kinetic coupling between transcription and splicing. In an unbiased search for protein kinases involved in the AS response to DNA damage, we have identified glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) as an unforeseen participant. Unlike Cdk9 inhibition, GSK-3 inhibition only prevents CTD hyperphosphorylation triggered by UV but not basal phosphorylation. This effect is not due to differential degradation of the phospho-CTD isoforms and can be reproduced, at the AS level, by overexpression of a kinase-dead GSK-3 dominant negative mutant. GSK-3 inhibition abrogates both the reduction in RNAPII elongation and changes in AS elicited by UV. We show that GSK-3 phosphorylates the CTD in vitro, but preferentially when the substrate is previously phosphorylated, consistently with the requirement of a priming phosphorylation reported for GSK-3 efficacy. In line with a role for GSK-3 in the response to DNA damage, GSK-3 inhibition prevents UV-induced apoptosis. In summary, we uncover a novel role for a widely studied kinase in key steps of eukaryotic transcription and pre-mRNA processing.


Assuntos
Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/química , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Processamento Alternativo/efeitos da radiação , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Fluorescência , Genes Dominantes , Genes Reporter , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1924-1931, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418198

RESUMO

Radioresistance is an important factor affecting the radiotherapy effect of colorectal cancer (CRC). Allicin is a versatile sulfur-containing organic compound extracted from garlic (Allium sativum L.), which has many pharmacological effects. However, the effect of allicin on the sensitivity of CRC radiotherapy has not been confirmed. The present study is to observe the radiosensitivity effects of allicin and to explore its mechanism in CRC radiotherapy. The proliferation inhibition effects of allicin combined with X-ray radiotherapy in HCT116 cells were measured by growth curve of cell and colony formation assays. The cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 nucleus staining assay. The migration ability of cells was detected by Transwell chamber migration assay. The animal model of CRC was established in BALB/c mice via transplantation of CT26 cell, and the radiosensitization effect of allicin on CRC was detected in vivo. The mRNA expressions of NF-κB, IKKß, and IκBα were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expressions of NF-κB, p-NF-κB, IKKß, p-IKKß, IκBα, and p-IκBα were detected by western blotting. Our results showed that allicin improves the sensitivity of X-ray radiotherapy in CRC, and its mechanism may be associated with inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings suggest that allicin may be used as a potential sensitizer for tumor radiotherapy in the clinic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/radioterapia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfínicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/genética , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , Tolerância a Radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação
15.
Lasers Med Sci ; 35(8): 1801-1809, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472428

RESUMO

Vitiligo is a common depigment of skin disorder due to loss of functional melanocytes. Recently, the phototherapy with a 308-nm xenon-chloride excimer laser (UVB laser) is wildly used in vitiligo treatment. However, excessive UVB will induce photo-damage and photo-carcinogenesis in melanocytes. Previous studies revealed a protective effect of heat on UVB-induced melanocyte damage. In this study, we combined heat stress pretreatment with UVB to evaluate whether heat stress pretreatment has an ameliorative effect on UVB-induced damage. Human primary melanocytes (HMCs) were cultured and irradiated with a 308-nm laser with/without heat treatment. MTT assay, apoptosis analysis, and comet assay were conducted to monitor the damage of HMCs. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were performed to assess the expression and subcellular localization of HSP70. HMCs heated at 42 °C for 1 h exhibit no cytotoxicity. Furthermore, preheat treatment attenuated the UVB laser-induced injury, reduced the DNA damage, and attenuated the cell apoptosis. The level and the localization of HSP70 determined the protective effects against UVB-induced DNA damage. Combining preheat treatment with a 308-nm xenon-chloride excimer laser would be a potential therapeutic method not only promotes the repigment of vitiligo but also reduces the UVB-induced photo-damage.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos da radiação , Lasers/efeitos adversos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 1981-1988, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We aimed to elucidate the pathological findings following acute and late re-irradiation in a preclinical model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were divided into five treatment groups: sham-irradiation (Sham-IR), 10-12 Gy (Single IR Acute), 15 Gy (Single IR Late), 15 Gy followed by 10-12 Gy re-irradiation 7 days later (Re-IR Acute), or 15 Gy followed by 10-12 Gy re-irradiation 12 weeks later (Re-IR Late). Mice were sacrificed after either single irradiation or re-irradiation for pathological assessment. RESULTS: The Re-IR Late group had significantly lower numbers of crypts with apoptotic cells than those observed in mice in the Single IR Acute group. There were no significant differences between the Single IR Acute and re-IR Acute groups in cell proliferation or in a crypt survival assay. CONCLUSION: Re-irradiation with a long interval after the first irradiation may cause similar acute biological effects in normal intestine as observed following irradiation without re-irradiation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Intestinos/efeitos da radiação , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Reirradiação/efeitos adversos
17.
Radiat Res ; 193(5): 435-450, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134361

RESUMO

Mitigation of total-body irradiation (TBI) in C57BL/6 mice by two drugs, which target apoptosis and necroptosis respectively, increases survival compared to one drug alone. Here we investigated whether the biomarker (signature)directed addition of a third anti-ferroptosis drug further mitigated TBI effects. C57BL/6NTac female mice (30-33 g) received 9.25 Gy TBI, and 24 h or later received JP4-039 (20 mg/kg), necrostatin-1 (1.65 mg/kg) and/or lipoxygenase-15 inhibitor (baicalein) (50 mg/kg) in single-, dual- or three-drug regimens. Some animals were sacrificed at days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 7 postirradiation, while the majority in each group were maintained beyond 30 days. For those mice sacrificed at the early time points, femur bone marrow, intestine (ileum), lung and blood plasma were collected and analyzed for radiation-induced and mitigator-modified levels of 33 pro-inflammatory and stress response proteins. Each single mitigator administered [JP4-039 (24 h), necrostatin-1 (48 h) or baicalein (24 h)] improved survival at day 30 after TBI to 25% (P = 0.0432, 0.2816 or 0.1120, respectively) compared to 5% survival of 9.25 Gy TBI controls. Mice were administered the drug individually based on weight (mg/kg). Drug vehicles comprised 30% cyclodextrin for JP4-039 and baicalein, and 10% Cremphor-EL/10% ethanol/80% water for necrostatin-1; thus, dual-vehicle controls were also tested. The dual-drug combinations further enhanced survival: necrostatin-1 (delayed to 72 h) with baicalein 40% (P = 0.0359); JP4-039 with necrostatin-1 50% (P = 0.0062); and JP4-039 with baicalein 60% (P = 0.0064). The three-drug regimen, timed to signature directed evidence of onset after TBI of each death pathway in marrow and intestine, further increased the 30-day survival to 75% (P = 0.0002), and there was optimal normalization to preirradiation levels of inflammatory cytokine and stress response protein levels in plasma, intestine and marrow. In contrast, lung protein levels were minimally altered by 9.25 Gy TBI or mitigators over 7 days. Significantly, elevated intestinal proteins at day 7 after TBI were reduced by necrostatin-1-containing regimens; however, normalization of plasma protein levels at day 7 required the addition of JP4-039 and baicalein. These findings indicate that mitigator targeting to three distinct cell death pathways increases survival after TBI.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/efeitos da radiação , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Ferroptose/efeitos da radiação , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Necroptose/efeitos da radiação , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/patologia , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Radiat Res ; 193(5): 481-496, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196412

RESUMO

During fractionated radiotherapy, epithelial cell populations are thought to decrease initially, followed by accelerated repopulation to compensate cell loss. However, previous findings in skin with daily 1.1 Gy dose fractions indicate continued and increasing cell depletion. Here we investigated epidermal keratinocyte response with daily 2 Gy fractions as well as accelerated and hypofractionation. Epidermal interfollicular melanocytes were also assessed. Skin-punch biopsies were collected from breast cancer patients before, during and after mastectomy radiotherapy to the thoracic wall with daily 2 Gy fractions for 5 weeks. In addition, 2.4 Gy radiotherapy four times per week and 4 Gy fractions twice per week for 5 weeks, and two times 2 Gy daily for 2.5 weeks, were used. Basal keratinocyte density of the interfollicular epidermis was determined and immunostainings of keratinocytes for DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci, growth arrest, apoptosis and mitosis were quantified. In addition, interfollicular melanocytes were counted. Initially minimal keratinocyte loss was observed followed by pronounced depletion during the second half of treatment and full recovery at 2 weeks post treatment. DSB foci per cell peaked towards the end of treatment. p21-stained cell counts increased during radiotherapy, especially the second half. Apoptotic frequency was low throughout radiotherapy but increased at treatment end. Mitotic cell count was significantly suppressed throughout radiotherapy and did not recover during weekend treatment gaps, but increased more than threefold compared to unexposed skin 2 weeks post-radiotherapy. The number of melanocytes remained constant over the study period. Germinal keratinocyte loss rate increased gradually during daily 2 Gy fractions for 5 weeks, and similarly for hypofractionation. DSB foci number after 2 Gy irradiation revealed an initial radioresistance followed by increasing radiosensitivity. Growth arrest mediated by p21 strongly suggests that cells within or recruited into the cell cycle during treatment are at high risk of loss and do not contribute significantly to repopulation. It is possible that quiescent (G0) cells at treatment completion accounted for the accelerated post-treatment repopulation. Recent knowledge of epidermal tissue regeneration and cell cycle progression during genotoxic and mitogen stress allows for a credible explanation of the current finding. Melanocytes were radioresistant regarding cell depletion.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Epiderme/efeitos da radiação , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Tolerância a Radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/citologia , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 222: 105468, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199137

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular and three-dimensional structure, constituted by a macromolecular dynamic network that involves the cells in all animal tissues, including embryonic ones. Several studies with vertebrates and cell cultures have reported deleterious effects of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation on the components associated with the ECM. However, studies focusing on the UVB radiation effects on ECM components of crustaceans during embryonic development are very scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the coding sequences of components associated with the ECM and to evaluate the effect of UVB radiation on embryos of the ecologically-important decapod Macrobrachium olfersii. To evaluate the modulation of these ECM components during embryonic development, the transcript levels of Col4α1, Itgß, Lamα, Mmp1 and Timp in M. olfersii embryos were analyzed at early developmental stages (E1, E3 and E4), intermediate developmental stage (E7) and late developmental stages (E10 and E14). In addition, embryos at E7, which correspond to a landmark of crustacean development, were analyzed after 12 h of UVB exposure to verify UVB effects on the ECM components. The ECM component sequences were similar to other decapods, suggesting conservation of these genes among crustaceans. The results showed modulations of the ECM components of M. olfersii embryos that reflect the need for each component in the cellular mechanisms, necessary for normal embryonic development. After UVB exposure, embryos showed opacity of embryonic tissues and it was found the overexpression of Col4α1, Itgß, Mmp1 and Timp transcript levels (1.82-, 1.52-, 2.34- and 6.27-fold, respectively). These impairments can compromise important events for normal embryonic development, such as growth of optic lobes, caudal papilla, ramification of appendages and differentiation of organic systems. The results presented here, together with the effects on morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis demonstrated previously, strengthen the knowledge of the complex impacts of UVB radiation on freshwater embryos. Nevertheless, our results encourage further investigations focusing on the assessment of UVB effects on different organisms in order to better understand the myriad of UVB effects on ECM components.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos da radiação , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos da radiação , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos da radiação , Palaemonidae/efeitos da radiação , Transcrição Genética/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Água Doce/química , Palaemonidae/genética , Palaemonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 30, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main strategy against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is radiotherapy. However, radioresistance mediated recurrence is a leading clinical bottleneck in NPC. Revealing the mechanism of NPC radioresistance will help improve the therapeutic effect. METHODS: In this study, the role of TRIM21 (tripartite motif-containing 21) in NPC receiving ionizing radiation was firstly examined both in vivo and in vitro. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify the downstream targets of TRIM21. NPC cells with TRIM21 or SERPINB5 (serpin family B member 5) overexpression or knockout were used to determine the epistatic relationship among SERPINB5, GMPS (guanine monophosphate synthase) and TRIM21. Flow cytometry, co-immunoprecipitation, western blot and immunofluorescence were employed to strengthen the results. Finally, immunohistochemistry using 4 radiosensitive and 8 radioresistent NPC patient samples was perform to examine the association between SERPINB5 or GMPS expression and patient radio-sensitivity. RESULTS: As an E3 ligase, TRIM21 was highly expressed in NPC. After ionizing radiation, TRIM21 repressed TP53 expression by mediating GMPS ubiquitination and degradation. Overexpression of TRIM21 protected NPC cells from radiation mediated cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Further analysis revealed that TRIM21 mediated GMPS repression was dependent on SERPINB5, and SERPINB5 served as an adaptor which prevented GMPS from entering into the nucleus and introduced TRIM21 for GMPS ubiquitination. Moreover, the in vitro and in vivo results validated the finding that SERPINB5 promoted NPC cell radioresistance, and the radioresistant patients had higher SERPINB5 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data showed that TRIM21-SERPINB5-mediated GMPS degradation facilitated TP53 repression, which promoted the radioresistance of NPC cells. This novel working model related to TP53 suppression provided new insight into NPC radioresistence clinically.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Serpinas/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Serpinas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
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