Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 31.155
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502105

RESUMO

The human brain and central nervous system (CNS) harbor a select sub-group of potentially pathogenic microRNAs (miRNAs), including a well-characterized NF-kB-sensitive Homo sapiens microRNA hsa-miRNA-146a-5p (miRNA-146a). miRNA-146a is significantly over-expressed in progressive and often lethal viral- and prion-mediated and related neurological syndromes associated with progressive inflammatory neurodegeneration. These include ~18 different viral-induced encephalopathies for which data are available, at least ~10 known prion diseases (PrD) of animals and humans, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other sporadic and progressive age-related neurological disorders. Despite the apparent lack of nucleic acids in prions, both DNA- and RNA-containing viruses along with prions significantly induce miRNA-146a in the infected host, but whether this represents part of the host's adaptive immunity, innate-immune response or a mechanism to enable the invading prion or virus a successful infection is not well understood. Current findings suggest an early and highly interactive role for miRNA-146a: (i) as a major small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) regulator of innate-immune responses and inflammatory signaling in cells of the human brain and CNS; (ii) as a critical component of the complement system and immune-related neurological dysfunction; (iii) as an inducible sncRNA of the brain and CNS that lies at a critical intersection of several important neurobiological adaptive immune response processes with highly interactive associations involving complement factor H (CFH), Toll-like receptor pathways, the innate-immunity, cytokine production, apoptosis and neural cell decline; and (iv) as a potential biomarker for viral infection, TSE and AD and other neurological diseases in both animals and humans. In this report, we review the recent data supporting the idea that miRNA-146a may represent a novel and unique sncRNA-based biomarker for inflammatory neurodegeneration in multiple species. This paper further reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the nature and mechanism of miRNA-146a in viral and prion infection of the human brain and CNS with reference to AD wherever possible.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/imunologia , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Fator H do Complemento/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/análise , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Priônicas/genética , Doenças Priônicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
Gene ; 805: 145904, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418470

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality in women. Breast cancer metastasis which usually is observed at the last stage is the major cause of breast cancer-related death. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are member of the non-coding RNA family. It is known that lncRNAs have important functions in the genes regulation of different processes and pathways such as EMT (Epithelial mesenchymal transition), metastasis and apoptosis. Therefore, it is inevitable that lncRNAs have potential contribution for the understanding of cancer pathogenesis. lncRNA-ZEB2NAT is the natural antisense transcript of ZEB2. Herein, we investigated the effects of lncRNA-ZEB2NAT on process of EMT, metastasis and apoptosis in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The effect of ZEB2NAT on the expression of important genes in EMT, metastasis and apoptosis, and some protein levels was determined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of ZEB2NAT on cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and colony formation were evaluated using XTT, annexin V, invasion and colony assays, respectively. The ZEB2NAT knockdown caused anti-metastatic and apoptotic effects. The ZEB2NAT knockdown resulted in a decrease in ZEB2 and N-cadherin but an increase in E-cadherin protein levels. In addition, it was determined that ZEB2NAT knockdown significantly decreased cell proliferation and stimulated apoptosis in both cells. It was found that ZEB2NAT knockdown significantly decreased invasion and colony formation in both cells. ZEB2NAT knockdown showed anti-metastatic and apoptotic effect by affecting the important genes in both cells. These results have suggested that ZEB2NAT has an important role in EMT, metastasis and apoptosis in breast cancer and ZEB2NAT knockdown caused significant anti-cancer activities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445327

RESUMO

The fight against cancer is one of the main challenges for medical research. Recently, nanotechnology has made significant progress, providing possibilities for developing innovative nanomaterials to overcome the common limitations of current therapies. In this context, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) represent a promising nano-tool able to offer interesting applications for cancer research. Following this path, we combined the silver proprieties with Artemisia arborescens characteristics, producing novel nanoparticles called Artemisia-AgNPs. A "green" synthesis method was performed to produce Artemisia-AgNPs, using Artemisia arborescens extracts. This kind of photosynthesis is an eco-friendly, inexpensive, and fast approach. Moreover, the bioorganic molecules of plant extracts improved the biocompatibility and efficacy of Artemisia-AgNPs. The Artemisia-AgNPs were fully characterized and tested to compare their effects on various cancer cell lines, in particular HeLa and MCF-7. Artemisia-AgNPs treatment showed dose-dependent growth inhibition of cancer cells. Moreover, we evaluated their impact on the cell cycle, observing a G1 arrest mediated by Artemisia-AgNPs treatment. Using a clonogenic assay after treatment, we observed a complete lack of cell colonies, which demonstrated cell reproducibility death. To have a broader overview on gene expression impact, we performed RNA-sequencing, which demonstrated the potential of Artemisia-AgNPs as a suitable candidate tool in cancer research.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisia/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/genética , Artemisia/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Células PC-3 , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Prata/uso terapêutico
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445790

RESUMO

The normal developmental sequence in a grass grain entails the death of several maternal and filial tissues in a genetically regulated process termed programmed cell death (PCD). The progression and molecular aspects of PCD in developing grains have been reported for domesticated species such as barley, rice, maize and wheat. Here, we report a detailed investigation of PCD in the developing grain of the wild model species Brachypodium distachyon. We detected PCD in developing Brachypodium grains using molecular and histological approaches. We also identified in Brachypodium the orthologs of protease genes known to contribute to grain PCD and surveyed their expression. We found that, similar to cereals, PCD in the Brachypodium nucellus occurs in a centrifugal pattern following anthesis. However, compared to cereals, the rate of post-mortem clearance in the Brachypodium nucellus is slower. However, compared to wheat and barley, mesocarp PCD in Brachypodium proceeds more rapidly in lateral cells. Remarkably, Brachypodium mesocarp PCD is not coordinated with endosperm development. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that barley and wheat possess more vacuolar processing enzymes that drive nucellar PCD compared to Brachypodium and rice. Our expression analysis highlighted putative grain-specific PCD proteases in Brachypodium. Combined with existing knowledge on grain PCD, our study suggests that the rate of nucellar PCD moderates grain size and that the pattern of mesocarp PCD influences grain shape.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Brachypodium/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Endosperma/genética , Hordeum/genética , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Triticum/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445793

RESUMO

Spaceflight causes cardiovascular changes due to microgravity-induced redistribution of body fluids and musculoskeletal unloading. Cardiac deconditioning and atrophy on Earth are associated with altered Trp53 and oxidative stress-related pathways, but the effects of spaceflight on cardiac changes at the molecular level are less understood. We tested the hypothesis that spaceflight alters the expression of key genes related to stress response pathways, which may contribute to cardiovascular deconditioning during extended spaceflight. Mice were exposed to spaceflight for 15 days or maintained on Earth (ground control). Ventricle tissue was harvested starting ~3 h post-landing. We measured expression of select genes implicated in oxidative stress pathways and Trp53 signaling by quantitative PCR. Cardiac expression levels of 37 of 168 genes tested were altered after spaceflight. Spaceflight downregulated transcription factor, Nfe2l2 (Nrf2), upregulated Nox1 and downregulated Ptgs2, suggesting a persistent increase in oxidative stress-related target genes. Spaceflight also substantially upregulated Cdkn1a (p21) and cell cycle/apoptosis-related gene Myc, and downregulated the inflammatory response gene Tnf. There were no changes in apoptosis-related genes such as Trp53. Spaceflight altered the expression of genes regulating redox balance, cell cycle and senescence in cardiac tissue of mice. Thus, spaceflight may contribute to cardiac dysfunction due to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes cdc/genética , Coração/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Voo Espacial/métodos , Ausência de Peso
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443600

RESUMO

Organotin(IV) compounds are a class of non-platinum metallo-conjugates exhibiting antitumor activity. The effects of different organotin types has been related to several mechanisms, including their ability to modify acetylation protein status and to promote apoptosis. Here, we focus on triorganotin(IV) complexes of butyric acid, a well-known HDAC inhibitor with antitumor properties. The conjugated compounds were synthesized and characterised by FTIR spectroscopy, multi-nuclear (1H, 13C and 119Sn) NMR, and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In the triorganotin(IV) complexes, an anionic monodentate butyrate ligand was observed, which coordinated the tin atom on a tetra-coordinated, monomeric environment similar to ester. FTIR and NMR findings confirm this structure both in solid state and solution. The antitumor efficacy of the triorganotin(IV) butyrates was tested in colon cancer cells and, among them, tributyltin(IV) butyrate (BT2) was selected as the most efficacious. BT2 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, ER stress, and apoptotic cell death. These effects were obtained using low concentrations of BT2 up to 1 µM, whereas butyric acid alone was completely inefficacious, and the parent compound TBT was poorly effective at the same treatment conditions. To assess whether butyrate in the coordinated form maintains its epigenetic effects, histone acetylation was evaluated and a dramatic decrease in acetyl-H3 and -H4 histones was found. In contrast, butyrate alone stimulated histone acetylation at a higher concentration (5 mM). BT2 was also capable of preventing histone acetylation induced by SAHA, another potent HDAC inhibitor, thus suggesting that it may activate HDACs. These results support a potential use of BT2, a novel epigenetic modulator, in colon cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Ácido Butírico/química , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Trialquitina/química , Compostos de Trialquitina/farmacologia , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Sci Adv ; 7(34)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407940

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is highly variable, with pediatric patients typically experiencing less severe infection than adults and especially the elderly. The basis for this difference is unclear. We find that mRNA and protein expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell entry receptor for the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19, increases with advancing age in distal lung epithelial cells. However, in humans, ACE2 expression exhibits high levels of intra- and interindividual heterogeneity. Further, cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 experience endoplasmic reticulum stress, triggering an unfolded protein response and caspase-mediated apoptosis, a natural host defense system that halts virion production. Apoptosis of infected cells can be selectively induced by treatment with apoptosis-modulating BH3 mimetic drugs. Notably, epithelial cells within young lungs and airways are more primed to undergo apoptosis than those in adults, which may naturally hinder virion production and support milder COVID-19 severity.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Apoptose/genética , COVID-19/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Células Vero , Internalização do Vírus
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 375, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) is an aquatic monocot that develops leaves with uniquely formed perforations through the use of a developmentally regulated process called programmed cell death (PCD). The process of perforation formation in lace plant leaves is subdivided into several developmental stages: pre-perforation, window, perforation formation, perforation expansion and mature. The first three emerging "imperforate leaves" do not form perforations, while all subsequent leaves form perforations via developmentally regulated PCD. PCD is active in cells called "PCD cells" that do not retain the antioxidant anthocyanin in spaces called areoles framed by the leaf veins of window stage leaves. Cells near the veins called "NPCD cells" retain a red pigmentation from anthocyanin and do not undergo PCD. While the cellular changes that occur during PCD are well studied, the gene expression patterns underlying these changes and driving PCD during leaf morphogenesis are mostly unknown. We sought to characterize differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that mediate lace plant leaf remodelling and PCD. This was achieved performing gene expression analysis using transcriptomics and comparing DEGs among different stages of leaf development, and between NPCD and PCD cells isolated by laser capture microdissection. RESULTS: Transcriptomes were sequenced from imperforate, pre-perforation, window, and mature leaf stages, as well as PCD and NPCD cells isolated from window stage leaves. Differential expression analysis of the data revealed distinct gene expression profiles: pre-perforation and window stage leaves were characterized by higher expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, plant proteases, expansins, and autophagy-related genes. Mature and imperforate leaves upregulated genes associated with chlorophyll development, photosynthesis, and negative regulators of PCD. PCD cells were found to have a higher expression of genes involved with ethylene biosynthesis, brassinosteroid biosynthesis, and hydrolase activity whereas NPCD cells possessed higher expression of auxin transport, auxin signalling, aspartyl proteases, cysteine protease, Bag5, and anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: RNA sequencing was used to generate a de novo transcriptome for A. madagascariensis leaves and revealed numerous DEGs potentially involved in PCD and leaf remodelling. The data generated from this investigation will be useful for future experiments on lace plant leaf development and PCD in planta.


Assuntos
Alismatales/genética , Alismatales/fisiologia , Apoptose , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Alismatales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Apoptose/genética , Parede Celular/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Células Vegetais , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
9.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7960-7969, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic joint disease. The study aimed to explore the effects of microRNA (miR)-449 and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) on the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Synovial tissue was collected from 20 patients with RA and 20 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent joint replacement surgery. RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) and OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) were isolated and cultured. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression levels of miR-449 and HDAC1 in synovial tissues and cells. Western blot was performed to detect the cellular expression levels of HDAC1 protein, and apoptosis and invasion-related proteins. The proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of RASFs were detected by MTT assay, Transwell assay, and flow cytometry. The dual-luciferase reporter gene was used to test the targeting relationship between inflammatory miR-449 and HDAC1. RESULTS: Compared with normal synovial tissue and OASFs, the levels of HDAC1 messenger RNA in RA synovial tissue and RASF cells were significantly increased (P<0.01), while the expression levels of miR-449 were significantly decreased (P<0.01). The dual-luciferase reporter gene experiment confirmed that miR-449 could specifically bind to the 3' untranslated region of HDAC1 to inhibit its luciferase activity (P<0.05). HDAC1 inhibition or miR-449 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of RASFs (P<0.001), while inducing their apoptosis (P<0.001). HDAC1 overexpression reversed the biological effects of miR-449 on RASFs (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: miR-449 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of RASFs and induces their apoptosis by targeting HDAC1, thereby exerting a protective effect against RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , MicroRNAs , Apoptose/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Fibroblastos , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360748

RESUMO

Research on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has yielded fundamental discoveries on highly conserved biological pathways and yeast remains the best-studied eukaryotic cell in the world. Studies on the mitotic cell cycle and the discovery of cell cycle checkpoints in budding yeast has led to a detailed, although incomplete, understanding of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. In multicellular eukaryotic organisms, uncontrolled aberrant cell division is the defining feature of cancer. Some of the most successful classes of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents are mitotic poisons. Mitotic poisons are thought to function by inducing a mitotic spindle checkpoint-dependent cell cycle arrest, via the assembly of the highly conserved mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), leading to apoptosis. Even in the presence of mitotic poisons, some cancer cells continue cell division via 'mitotic slippage', which may correlate with a cancer becoming refractory to mitotic poison chemotherapeutic treatments. In this review, knowledge about budding yeast cell cycle control is explored to suggest novel potential drug targets, namely, specific regions in the highly conserved anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) subunits Apc1 and/or Apc5, and in a specific N-terminal region in the APC/C co-factor cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20), which may yield molecules which block 'mitotic slippage' only in the presence of mitotic poisons.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Mitose , Neoplasias , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Venenos/química , Venenos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360779

RESUMO

Pro-inflammatory cytokines promote cellular iron-import through enhanced divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) expression in pancreatic ß-cells, consequently cell death. Inhibition of ß-cell iron-import by DMT1 silencing protects against apoptosis in animal models of diabetes. However, how alterations of signaling networks contribute to the protective action of DMT1 knock-down is unknown. Here, we performed phosphoproteomics using our sequential enrichment strategy of mRNA, protein, and phosphopeptides, which enabled us to explore the concurrent molecular events in the same set of wildtype and DMT1-silenced ß-cells during IL-1ß exposure. Our findings reveal new phosphosites in the IL-1ß-induced proteins that are clearly reverted by DMT1 silencing towards their steady-state levels. We validated the levels of five novel phosphosites of the potential protective proteins using parallel reaction monitoring. We also confirmed the inactivation of autophagic flux that may be relevant for cell survival induced by DMT1 silencing during IL-1ß exposure. Additionally, the potential protective proteins induced by DMT1 silencing were related to insulin secretion that may lead to improving ß-cell functions upon exposure to IL-1ß. This global profiling has shed light on the signal transduction pathways driving the protection against inflammation-induced cell death in ß-cells after DMT1 silencing.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Autofagia/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células Secretoras de Insulina/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4932, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389733

RESUMO

BAX is a pro-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family, which regulates the balance between cellular life and death. During homeostasis, BAX predominantly resides in the cytosol as a latent monomer but, in response to stress, transforms into an oligomeric protein that permeabilizes the mitochondria, leading to apoptosis. Because renegade BAX activation poses a grave risk to the cell, the architecture of BAX must ensure monomeric stability yet enable conformational change upon stress signaling. The specific structural features that afford both stability and dynamic flexibility remain ill-defined and represent a critical control point of BAX regulation. We identify a nexus of interactions involving four residues of the BAX core α5 helix that are individually essential to maintaining the structure and latency of monomeric BAX and are collectively required for dimeric assembly. The dual yet distinct roles of these residues reveals the intricacy of BAX conformational regulation and opportunities for therapeutic modulation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/genética , Apoptose/genética , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citosol/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/química , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
13.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3400-3409.e3, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352203

RESUMO

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is one of two critical mechanisms utilized in humans to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Unrepaired or incorrect repair of DSBs can lead to apoptosis or cancer. NHEJ involves several proteins, including the Ku70/80 heterodimer, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), X-ray cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4), XRCC4-like factor (XLF), and ligase IV. These core proteins bind DSBs and ligate the damaged DNA ends. However, details of the structural assembly of these proteins remain unclear. Here, we present cryo-EM structures of NHEJ supercomplexes that are composed of these core proteins and DNA, revealing the detailed structural architecture of this assembly. We describe monomeric and dimeric forms of this supercomplex and also propose the existence of alternate dimeric forms of long-range synaptic complexes. Finally, we show that mutational disruption of several structural features within these NHEJ complexes negatively affects DNA repair.


Assuntos
DNA Ligase Dependente de ATP/ultraestrutura , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/ultraestrutura , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/ultraestrutura , Complexos Multiproteicos/ultraestrutura , Apoptose/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/genética , DNA Ligase Dependente de ATP/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Autoantígeno Ku/genética , Autoantígeno Ku/ultraestrutura , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Fosforilação/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360899

RESUMO

(1) Background: caspase-12 is activated during cytomegalovirus retinitis, although its role is presently unclear. (2) Methods: caspase-12-/- (KO) or caspase-12+/+ (WT) mice were immunosup eyes were analyzed by plaque assay, TUNEL assay, immunohistochemical staining, western blotting, and real-time PCR. (3) Results: increased retinitis and a more extensive virus spread were detected in the retina of infected eyes of KO mice compared to WT mice at day 14 p.i. Compared to MCMV injected WT eyes, mRNA levels of interferons α, ß and γ were significantly reduced in the neural retina of MCMV-infected KO eyes at day 14 p.i. Although similar numbers of MCMV infected cells, similar virus titers and similar numbers of TUNEL-staining cells were detected in injected eyes of both KO and WT mice at days 7 and 10 p.i., significantly lower amounts of cleaved caspase-3 and p53 protein were detected in infected eyes of KO mice at both time points. (4) Conclusions: caspase-12 contributes to caspase-3-dependent and independent retinal bystander cell death during MCMV retinitis and may also play an important role in innate immunity against virus infection of the retina.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Caspase 12/deficiência , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/enzimologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Muromegalovirus/fisiologia , Retina/enzimologia , Neurônios Retinianos/enzimologia , Animais , Caspase 12/genética , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/genética , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas/métodos , Interferons/biossíntese , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Retina/virologia , Neurônios Retinianos/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360911

RESUMO

Pyrimethamine (Pyri) is being used in combination with other medications to treat serious parasitic infections of the body, brain, or eye and to also reduce toxoplasmosis infection in the patients with HIV infection. Additionally, Pyri can display significant anti-cancer potential in different tumor models, but the possible mode of its actions remains unclear. Hence, in this study, the possible anti-tumoral impact of Pyri on human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was deciphered. Pyri inhibited cell growth in various types of tumor cells and exhibited a marked inhibitory action on CML cells. In addition to apoptosis, Pyri also triggered sustained autophagy. Targeted inhibition of autophagy sensitized the tumor cells to Pyri-induced apoptotic cell death. Moreover, the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and its downstream target gene Bcl-2 was attenuated by Pyri. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated STAT5 knockdown augmented Pyri-induced autophagy and apoptosis and promoted the suppressive action of Pyri on cell viability. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of Bcl-2 protected the cells from Pyri-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. Overall, the data indicated that the attenuation of STAT5-Bcl-2 cascade by Pyri can regulate its growth inhibitory properties by simultaneously targeting both apoptosis and autophagy cell death mechanism(s).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Pirimetamina/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/deficiência , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/deficiência , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/deficiência , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células THP-1 , Transfecção , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
16.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372579

RESUMO

Numerous viruses have evolved sophisticated countermeasures to hijack the early programmed cell death of host cells in response to infection, including the use of proteins homologous in sequence or structure to Bcl-2. Orf virus, a member of the parapoxviridae, encodes for the Bcl-2 homolog ORFV125, a potent inhibitor of Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis in the host. ORFV125 acts by directly engaging host proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins including Bak and Bax as well as the BH3-only proteins Hrk and Puma. Here, we determined the crystal structures of ORFV125 bound to the BH3 motif of proapoptotic proteins Puma and Hrk. The structures reveal that ORFV125 engages proapoptotic BH3 motif peptides using the canonical ligand binding groove. An Arg located in the structurally equivalent BH1 region of ORFV125 forms an ionic interaction with the conserved Asp in the BH3 motif in a manner that mimics the canonical ionic interaction seen in host Bcl-2:BH3 motif complexes. These findings provide a structural basis for Orf virus-mediated inhibition of host cell apoptosis and reveal the flexibility of virus encoded Bcl-2 proteins to mimic key interactions from endogenous host signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Vírus do Orf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/ultraestrutura , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/ultraestrutura , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Vírus do Orf/metabolismo , Parapoxvirus/genética , Parapoxvirus/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/genética , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361750

RESUMO

The purpose of this work is to investigate the protein kinase inhibitory activity of constituents from Acacia auriculiformis stem bark. Column chromatography and NMR spectroscopy were used to purify and characterize betulin from an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of acacia bark. Betulin, a known inducer of apoptosis, was screened against a panel of 16 disease-related protein kinases. Betulin was shown to inhibit Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1) kinase, casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε), glycogen synthase kinase 3α/ß (GSK-3 α/ß), Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), NIMA Related Kinase 6 (NEK6), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 kinase (VEGFR2) with activities in the micromolar range for each. The effect of betulin on the cell viability of doxorubicin-resistant K562R chronic myelogenous leukemia cells was then verified to investigate its putative use as an anti-cancer compound. Betulin was shown to modulate the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, with activity similar to that of imatinib mesylate, a known ABL1 kinase inhibitor. The interaction of betulin and ABL1 was studied by molecular docking, revealing an interaction of the inhibitor with the ABL1 ATP binding pocket. Together, these data demonstrate that betulin is a multi-target inhibitor of protein kinases, an activity that can contribute to the anticancer properties of the natural compound and to potential treatments for leukemia.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/genética , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Células K562 , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/genética , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
18.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21814, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369624

RESUMO

Alteration in glucose homeostasis during cancer metabolism is an important phenomenon. Though several important transcription factors have been well studied in the context of the regulation of metabolic gene expression, the role of epigenetic readers in this regard remains still elusive. Epigenetic reader protein transcription factor 19 (TCF19) has been recently identified as a novel glucose and insulin-responsive factor that modulates histone posttranslational modifications to regulate glucose homeostasis in hepatocytes. Here we report that TCF19 interacts with a non-histone, well-known tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and co-regulates a wide array of metabolic genes. Among these, the p53-responsive carbohydrate metabolic genes Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and Cytochrome C Oxidase assembly protein 2 (SCO2), which are the key regulators of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation respectively, are under direct regulation of TCF19. Remarkably, TCF19 can form different transcription activation/repression complexes which show substantial overlap with that of p53, depending on glucose-mediated variant stress situations as obtained from IP/MS studies. Interestingly, we observed that TCF19/p53 complexes either have CBP or HDAC1 to epigenetically program the expression of TIGAR and SCO2 genes depending on short-term high glucose or prolonged high glucose conditions. TCF19 or p53 knockdown significantly altered the cellular lactate production and led to increased extracellular acidification rate. Similarly, OCR and cellular ATP production were reduced and mitochondrial membrane potential was compromised upon depletion of TCF19 or p53. Subsequently, through RNA-Seq analysis from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, we observed that TCF19/p53-mediated metabolic regulation is fundamental for sustenance of cancer cells. Together the study proposes that TCF19/p53 complexes can regulate metabolic gene expression programs responsible for mitochondrial energy homeostasis and stress adaptation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Glucose/genética , Células Hep G2 , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
19.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21827, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383980

RESUMO

Neuron-derived orphan receptor 1, NR4A3 (Nor1)/NR4A3 is an orphan nuclear receptor involved in the transcriptional control of developmental and neurological functions. Oxidative stress-induced conditions are primarily associated with neurological defects in humans, yet the impact on Nor1-mediated transcription of neuronal genes remains with unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that Nor1 is a non-conventional target of SUMO2/3 conjugation at Lys-137 contained in an atypic ψKxSP motif referred to as the pSuM. Nor1 pSuM SUMOylation differs from the canonical process with the obligate phosphorylation of Ser-139 by Ras signaling to create the required negatively charged interface for SUMOylation. Additional phosphorylation at sites flanking the pSuM is also mediated by the coordinated action of protein kinase casein kinase 2 to function as a small ubiquitin-like modifier enhancer, regulating Nor1-mediated transcription and proteasomal degradation. Nor1 responsive genes involved in cell proliferation and metabolism, such as activating transcription factor 3, cyclin D1, CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator, and enolase 3 were upregulated in response to pSuM disruption in mouse HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We also identified critical antioxidant genes, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase 1, and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2, as responsive targets of Nor1 under pSuM regulation. Nor1 SUMOylation impaired gene transcription through less effective Nor1 chromatin binding and reduced enrichment of histone H3K27ac marks to gene promoters. These effects resulted in decreased neuronal cell growth, increased apoptosis, and reduced survival to oxidative stress damage, underlying the role of pSuM-modified Nor1 in redox homeostasis. Our findings uncover a hierarchical post-translational mechanism that dictates Nor1 non-canonical SUMOylation, disrupting Nor1 transcriptional competence, and neuroprotective redox sensitivity.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Sumoilação/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fosforilação/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
20.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21789, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383983

RESUMO

Normal pregnancy is essential for human reproduction. However, BaP (benzo(a)pyrene) and its metabolite BPDE (benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide) could cause dysfunctions of human trophoblast cells and might further induce miscarriage. Yet, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Herein, we identified a novel upregulated lnc-HZ04 and a novel downregulated miR-hz04 in villous tissues of unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) relative to those in healthy control tissues and also in BPDE-treated human trophoblast cells. Lnc-HZ04 directly and specifically bound with miR-hz04, diminished the reduction effects of miR-hz04 on IP3 R1 mRNA expression level and on IP3 R1 mRNA stability, and then activated the Ca2+ -mediated IP3 R1 /p-CaMKII/SGCB pathway, which further promoted trophoblast cell apoptosis. The miR-hz04 target site on lnc-HZ04 played crucial roles in these regulations. In normal trophoblast, relatively less lnc-HZ04 and more miR-hz04 suppressed this apoptosis pathway and gave normal pregnancy. After exposure to BPDE or in RM tissues, p53 was upregulated, which might promote p53-mediated lnc-HZ04 transcription. Relatively more lnc-HZ04 and less miR-hz04 activated this apoptosis pathway and might further induce miscarriage. BaP could also induce mice miscarriage by upregulating its corresponding murine apoptosis pathway. Therefore, BPDE-induced apoptosis of human trophoblast cells was associated with the occurrence of miscarriage. This work discovered the regulation roles of lnc-HZ04 and miR-hz04 and provided scientific and clinical understanding of the occurrence of unexplained miscarriage.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/genética , Apoptose/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética , 7,8-Di-Hidro-7,8-Di-Hidroxibenzo(a)pireno 9,10-óxido/farmacologia , Aborto Habitual/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez , Sarcoglicanas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...