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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 590, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the pedagogical use of immersive 360° videos is a rapidly expanding area within health and social care education. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of empirical data on its application. METHOD: A scoping review methodology framework was used to search for relevant articles published between 1970 and July 2021. Six databases were used to identify studies using immersive 360° videos for training and education purposes within health and social care: PubMed, Ovid Medline, Psych Info, Psych Articles, Cochrane Database and Embase. Research questions included: Is there any evidence that immersive 360° videos increase learning outcomes and motivation to learn in health and social care education? What are the key pedagogical concepts and theories that inform this area of research? What are the limitations of using immersive 360° videos within health and social education? The four dimensions contained within Keller's ARCS model (attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction) frame the results section. RESULTS: Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Learning outcomes confirm that immersive 360° videos as a pedagogical tool: increases attention, has relevance in skill enhancement, confidence in usability and user satisfaction. In particular, immersive 360° videos has a positive effect on the user's emotional response to the learning climate, which has a significant effect on users' motivation to learn. There was a notable lack of pedagogical theory within the studies retrieved and a general lack of clarity on learning outcomes. CONCLUSION: Studies examining the effectiveness of such interventions remains weak due to smaller sample sizes, lack of randomised control trials, and a gap in reporting intervention qualities and outcomes. Nevertheless, 360° immersive video is a viable alternative to VR and regular video, it is cost-effective, and although more robust research is necessary, learning outcomes are promising. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Future research would do well to focus on interactivity and application of pedagogical theory within immersive 360° videos experiences. We argue that more and higher quality research studies, beyond the scope of medical education, are needed to explore the acceptability and effective implementation of this technology.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Aprendizado Social , Atenção , Escolaridade , Humanos , Apoio Social
2.
J Sch Psychol ; 88: 85-100, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625212

RESUMO

Although there are reasons to believe that teachers' commitment to learn and enact an evidence-based program (i.e., their commitment to implement) predicts their implementation fidelity, there is surprisingly little quantitative research testing this relationship. Using a national large-scale evaluation of three preschool social-emotional interventions, this study investigated how strongly teachers' commitment predicted implementation fidelity and whether commitment was a meaningful predictor of fidelity as compared to other individual factors (i.e., teacher stress at baseline) and contextual factors (i.e., collegial supports, classroom behavioral problems, and classroom quality at baseline). We surveyed 230 preschool teachers in their first year of implementing the interventions; data sources include surveys from teachers and 52 intervention coaches as well as classroom observational data. We found that teachers' baseline commitment consistently predicted implementation fidelity across time and that commitment predicted unique variation in fidelity after accounting for other individual and contextual factors. In addition, implementation fidelity had a moderate positive relationship with teachers' baseline classroom quality and a small negative association with baseline classroom behavior problems. Findings are discussed with respect to implementation science in education.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Aprendizado Social , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Humanos , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682422

RESUMO

(1) Background: Implementing social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in Early Childhood Education (ECE) settings is a promising approach that can strengthen overall development and well-being during childhood and into adolescence and adulthood. This study described the development, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a universal SEL program, i.e., Roundies, in the Finnish ECE context to address the need for professional development opportunities. (2) Methods: The Roundies program was a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with intervention and control design. A total of 194 children were assigned to either the intervention group (n = 136) or control group (n = 58) (MAGE = 60.35 months at pre-test; 48% boys). Teachers rated the children's behaviors using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at the pre-and post-test. (3) Results: Feedback collected by teachers on the program suggested that teachers were highly satisfied with the overall program and the components. Multilevel models showed significantly increased prosocial behaviors and reduced SDQ total difficulties in the intervention group compared to the control group. (4) Conclusions: These preliminary findings provide evidence of the effectiveness of the Roundies program in improving teachers' capacity to support early SEL.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Educação , Aprendizado Social , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 388-397, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591589

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has had multifaceted effects on students, their families, and the educators who support their learning. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most notable changes for schools was the sudden move to distance learning-an unprecedented disruption to academic, social, and emotional instruction. Social and emotional learning (SEL) skills play an important role in human development by supporting academic success and overall well-being, including skills for effectively coping with stressors such as those imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Building on previous work, we created the Crisis Response Educator SEL Survey (CRESS) to examine predictors of SEL implementation during the pandemic. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to predict: (a) educators' reported challenges implementing SEL during distance learning; (b) educator SEL implementation with students and use of social and emotional (SE) strategies for themselves; and (c) educator self-judgment and emotional exhaustion. Predictors included school/district guidance to support SEL, school/district support of educator SE needs, and the priority on SEL for the school and the educator. Our sample consisted of 219 educators committed to SEL who reported on their experience with SEL during distance learning toward the end of the 2019-2020 school year. Findings suggest that school/district support of educator SE needs predicts lower levels of challenge implementing SEL during distance learning and lower levels of educator burnout and self-judgment, whereas greater school/district guidance to support SEL was associated with more SEL implementation with students and more educator use of SE strategies for themselves. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Pessoal de Educação , Emoções , Instituições Acadêmicas , Aprendizado Social , Ensino , Adulto , Idoso , Educação à Distância/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256901, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529662

RESUMO

The ability to transmit information between individuals through social learning is a foundational component of cultural evolution. However, how this transmission occurs is still debated. On the one hand, the copying account draws parallels with biological mechanisms for genetic inheritance, arguing that learners copy what they observe and novel variations occur through random copying errors. On the other hand, the reconstruction account claims that, rather than directly copying behaviour, learners reconstruct the information that they believe to be most relevant on the basis of pragmatic inference, environmental and contextual cues. Distinguishing these two accounts empirically is difficult based on data from typical transmission chain studies because the predictions they generate frequently overlap. In this study we present a methodological approach that generates different predictions of these accounts by manipulating the task context between model and learner in a transmission episode. We then report an empirical proof-of-concept that applies this approach. The results show that, when a model introduces context-dependent embedded signals to their actions that are not intended to be transmitted, it is possible to empirically distinguish between competing predictions made by these two accounts. Our approach can therefore serve to understand the underlying cognitive mechanisms at play in cultural transmission and can make important contributions to the debate between preservative and reconstructive schools of thought.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Comportamento Social , Aprendizado Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 25(10): 896-910, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417094

RESUMO

Social learning is often portrayed as a passive process of copying and trusting others. This view, however, does not fully capture what makes human social learning so powerful: social information is often 'curated' by helpful teachers. I argue that both learning from others (social learning) and helping others learn (teaching) can be characterized as probabilistic inferences guided by an intuitive understanding of how people think, plan, and act. Consistent with this idea, even young children draw rich inferences from evidence provided by others and generate informative evidence that helps others learn. By studying social learning and teaching through a common theoretical lens, inferential social learning provides an integrated account of how human cognition supports acquisition and communication of abstract knowledge.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Conhecimento , Confiança
7.
Science ; 373(6553): 456-460, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437121

RESUMO

The emergence, spread, and establishment of innovations within cultures can promote adaptive responses to anthropogenic change. We describe a putative case of the development of a cultural adaptation to urban environments: opening of household waste bins by wild sulphur-crested cockatoos. A spatial network analysis of community science reports revealed the geographic spread of bin opening from three suburbs to 44 in Sydney, Australia, by means of social learning. Analysis of 160 direct observations revealed individual styles and site-specific differences. We describe a full pathway from the spread of innovation to emergence of geographic variation, evidencing foraging cultures in parrots and indicating the existence of cultural complexity in parrots. Bin opening is directly linked to human-provided opportunities, highlighting the potential for culture to facilitate behavioral responses to anthropogenic change.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Cacatuas , Criatividade , Comportamento Alimentar , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Cidades , Feminino , Masculino , New South Wales , Análise Espaço-Temporal
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379646

RESUMO

Prestige-biased social learning (henceforth "prestige-bias") occurs when individuals predominantly choose to learn from a prestigious member of their group, i.e. someone who has gained attention, respect and admiration for their success in some domain. Prestige-bias is proposed as an adaptive social-learning strategy as it provides a short-cut to identifying successful group members, without having to assess each person's success individually. Previous work has documented prestige-bias and verified that it is used adaptively. However, the domain-specificity and generality of prestige-bias has not yet been explicitly addressed experimentally. By domain-specific prestige-bias we mean that individuals choose to learn from a prestigious model only within the domain of expertise in which the model acquired their prestige. By domain-general prestige-bias we mean that individuals choose to learn from prestigious models in general, regardless of the domain in which their prestige was earned. To distinguish between domain specific and domain general prestige we ran an online experiment (n = 397) in which participants could copy each other to score points on a general-knowledge quiz with varying topics (domains). Prestige in our task was an emergent property of participants' copying behaviour. We found participants overwhelmingly preferred domain-specific (same topic) prestige cues to domain-general (across topic) prestige cues. However, when only domain-general or cross-domain (different topic) cues were available, participants overwhelmingly favoured domain-general cues. Finally, when given the choice between cross-domain prestige cues and randomly generated Player IDs, participants favoured cross-domain prestige cues. These results suggest participants were sensitive to the source of prestige, and that they preferred domain-specific cues even though these cues were based on fewer samples (being calculated from one topic) than the domain-general cues (being calculated from all topics). We suggest that the extent to which people employ a domain-specific or domain-general prestige-bias may depend on their experience and understanding of the relationships between domains.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desejabilidade Social , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
10.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 61: 317-334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266569

RESUMO

Since the proliferation of television sets into households began over half a century ago there has been widespread interest in the impact that viewing has on young children's development. Such interest has grown with the increasing availability of smart phones and tablets. In this review we examine the literature documenting human social learning and how this learning is impacted when the instructing agent appears on a screen instead of face-to-face. We then explore the shifting nature of screen-based media, with a focus on the increasingly socio-normative manner information is portrayed. We discuss how the changing nature of screen technology might be altering how children interpret what they see, and raise the possibility that this may render prevailing evidence as historical documentation, rather than setting out established developmental milestones that transcend the period in which they were documented. We contend that recognizing the significance of historically changing contexts in developmental psychology is timely when the COVID-19 climate is pushing data collection on-line for many labs, often using tasks that were developed primarily for face-to-face contexts.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento , Tempo de Tela , Aprendizado Social , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Televisão
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 568822, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222160

RESUMO

Smartphone technologies can support older adults in their daily lives as they age in place at home. However, they may struggle to use these technologies which impacts acceptance, adoption, and sustainable use. Peer to peer community learning has the potential to support older adults to learn using (smartphone) technologies. This paper studies such a learning community approach and how it can support older adults to learn using and adopt the smartphone application GoLivePhone. This technology assists older adults in their daily living by supporting them through fall detection and activity tracking. In particular, the interface of this application can evolve and adapt as older adults become more knowledgeable during the use process or as their abilities change. This paper shows a field study with seven older adults learning and using the GoLivePhone technology through a living lab approach. These older adults participated in this research in a technology learning community that was set-up for research purposes. For this we used ordinary Samsung A3 smartphones with the simplified GoLivePhone software, particularly designed for older adults. At the end of the learning class we conducted an additional focus group to both explore factors facilitating older adults to learn using this technology and to identify their main personal drivers and motivators to start and adopt this technology. We collected qualitative data via open questions and audio recording during the focus group. This collected data was subject to a thematic analysis, coding was primarily performed by the first author, and reviewed by the other authors. We provide insights into how peer to peer community learning can contribute, and found both super-users and recall tools to be helpful to support sustainable use of smartphone technology to support older adults to age in place.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Aprendizado Social , Grupos Focais , Aprendizagem , Tecnologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299848

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that social and emotional learning (SEL) programming has the potential to be effective in conflict-affected regions, yet evidence is limited, and findings to date are mixed. One hypothesis about why SEL interventions in education in emergencies (EiE) settings have not generated the anticipated results is that the SEL content and materials have not been sufficiently localized to the context, leading to poor cultural relevance or fit. A second hypothesis is that SEL program demands tend to be high and capacity for implementation is low, undermining sustainability and impact. The current study addresses these challenges by investing in locally driven SEL content and design as a way to ensure that SEL materials are grounded in local values and needs, culturally appropriate, relevant to the specific context, and feasible to implement. The study draws on the developmental and prevention sciences as well as the field of behavioral insights to test evidence-based interventions intended to encourage desired behaviors around uptake and implementation. This paper documents the activities conducted during the project's design phase, including landscape research, creation of initial prototypes, design workshops and rapid prototyping, and field testing. Findings suggest that using local values, practices, and framing in SEL programming increases relevance and appropriateness for the Northeast Nigeria setting. Furthermore, targeted behavioral insights interventions increased the uptake, habitual and regular use, as well as correct implementation of SEL activities. The findings contribute to the emerging literature on the cultural variability of SEL and the need to consider the context when designing and implementing programs in any setting.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social , Cognição , Emoções , Humanos , Nigéria , Comportamento Social
13.
J Sch Psychol ; 87: 64-81, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303448

RESUMO

Technoference refers to incidents in which technology use interferes with interpersonal exchanges (e.g., conversations, playing). Although research on technoference is in its infancy, there is preliminary evidence that mothers believe technoference has a detrimental impact on the social-emotional functioning of their child. The current study investigated the degree to which technoference was associated with attachment between mothers and their elementary-aged children. A second aim was to determine if the relationship between technoference and children's social-emotional functioning may be moderated by mother-child attachment. Surveys were completed by a sample of 80 mothers and their elementary-aged children. This study is unique in asking elementary-aged children to report their perceptions of parental technoference and the impact it has on their relationship with their mother and their own social-emotional functioning. More frequent technoference was associated with less secure mother-child attachment as rated by children, but not as rated by mothers. That is, frequent technoference may not significantly influence a mother's attachment to their child, but it is associated with a child's attachment to their mother. More frequent technoference was associated with decreased ratings by mothers regarding their child's social-emotional functioning. Furthermore, maternal attachment moderated the relationship between technoference and child externalizing behaviors, such that a more secure attachment served as a protective factor against the negative impact of technoference on child externalizing behaviors. However, attachment did not moderate the relationship between technoference and most social skills assessed in our study. Implications from this study are discussed, including ways to increase awareness of technoference among school personnel, parents, and youth.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Apego ao Objeto , Pais
14.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 212: 105229, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284228

RESUMO

Cultural evolutionary theory posits that human cultural complexity rests on a set of adaptive learning biases that help to guide functionality and optimality in social learning, but this sits in contrast with the commonly held view that children are unselective "over-imitators." Here, we tested whether 4- and 6-year-old children use social learning biases flexibly to fine-tune their copying of irrelevant actions. Children watched a video of a majority demonstrating causally irrelevant actions and a minority demonstrating only causally relevant actions. In one condition observers approved of the majority and disapproved of the minority, and in the other condition observers watched the majority and minority neutrally. Results showed that both 4- and 6-year-olds copied the inefficient majority more often than the efficient minority when the observers had approved of the majority's actions, but they copied the efficient minority significantly more when the observers had watched neutrally. We discuss the implications of children's optimal selectivity in copying and the importance of integrating social approval into majority-biased learning when acquiring norms and conventions and in broader processes of cultural evolution.


Assuntos
Comportamento Imitativo , Aprendizado Social , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Comportamento Social
15.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 759, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145380

RESUMO

Behavioral phenotypic traits or "animal personalities" drive critical evolutionary processes such as fitness, disease and information spread. Yet the stability of behavioral traits, essential by definition, has rarely been measured over developmentally significant periods of time, limiting our understanding of how behavioral stability interacts with ontogeny. Based on 32 years of social behavioral data for 179 wild bottlenose dolphins, we show that social traits (associate number, time alone and in large groups) are stable from infancy to late adulthood. Multivariate analysis revealed strong relationships between these stable metrics within individuals, suggesting a complex behavioral syndrome comparable to human extraversion. Maternal effects (particularly vertical social learning) and sex-specific reproductive strategies are likely proximate and ultimate drivers for these patterns. We provide rare empirical evidence to demonstrate the persistence of social behavioral traits over decades in a non-human animal.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Animais , Personalidade/fisiologia , Fatores Sociológicos
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071320

RESUMO

Risks of sociality, including competition and conspecific aggression, are particularly pronounced in venomous invertebrates such as arachnids. Spiders show a wide range of sociality, with differing levels of cannibalism and other types of social aggression. To have the greatest chance of surviving interactions with conspecifics, spiders must learn to assess and respond to risk. One of the major ways risk assessment is studied in spiders is via venom metering, in which spiders choose how much venom to use based on prey and predator characteristics. While venom metering in response to prey acquisition and predator defense is well-studied, less is known about its use in conspecific interactions. Here we argue that due to the wide range of both sociality and venom found in spiders, they are poised to be an excellent system for testing questions regarding whether and how venom use relates to the evolution of social behavior and, in return, whether social behavior influences venom use and evolution. We focus primarily on the widow spiders, Latrodectus, as a strong model for testing these hypotheses. Given that successful responses to risk are vital for maintaining sociality, comparative analysis of spider taxa in which venom metering and sociality vary can provide valuable insights into the evolution and maintenance of social behavior under risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Venenos de Aranha , Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Canibalismo , Corte , Medição de Risco , Aprendizado Social
17.
Biol Lett ; 17(6): 20200767, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157236

RESUMO

Social learning enables adaptive information acquisition provided that it is not random but selective. To understand species typical decision-making and to trace the evolutionary origins of social learning, the heuristics social learners use need to be identified. Here, we experimentally tested the nature of majority influence in the zebra finch. Subjects simultaneously observed two demonstrator groups differing in relative and absolute numbers (ratios 1 : 2/2 : 4/3 : 3/1 : 5) foraging from two novel food sources (black and white feeders). We find that demonstrator groups influenced observers' feeder choices (social learning), but that zebra finches did not copy the majority of individuals. Instead, observers were influenced by the foraging activity (pecks) of the demonstrators and in an anti-conformist fashion. These results indicate that zebra finches are not conformist, but are public information users.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Vocalização Animal
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13117, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162951

RESUMO

Explicit rewards are commonly used to reinforce a behavior, a form of learning that engages the dopaminergic neuromodulatory system. In contrast, skill acquisition can display dramatic improvements from a social learning experience, even though the observer receives no explicit reward. Here, we test whether a dopaminergic signal contributes to social learning in naïve gerbils that are exposed to, and learn from, a skilled demonstrator performing an auditory discrimination task. Following five exposure sessions, naïve observer gerbils were allowed to practice the auditory task and their performance was assessed across days. We first tested the effect of an explicit food reward in the observer's compartment that was yoked to the demonstrator's performance during exposure sessions. Naïve observer gerbils with the yoked reward learned the discrimination task significantly faster, as compared to unrewarded observers. The effect of this explicit reward was abolished by administration of a D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist during the exposure sessions. Similarly, the D1/D5 antagonist reduced the rate of learning in unrewarded observers. To test whether a dopaminergic signal was sufficient to enhance social learning, we administered a D1/D5 receptor agonist during the exposure sessions in which no reward was present and found that the rate of learning occurred significantly faster. Finally, a quantitative analysis of vocalizations during the exposure sessions suggests one behavioral strategy that contributes to social learning. Together, these results are consistent with a dopamine-dependent reward signal during social learning.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , 2,3,4,5-Tetra-Hidro-7,8-Di-Hidroxi-1-Fenil-1H-3-Benzazepina/farmacologia , Animais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gerbillinae , Masculino , Recompensa , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
PLoS Biol ; 19(5): e3001173, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010339

RESUMO

As a part of growing up, immature orangutans must acquire vast repertoires of skills and knowledge, a process that takes several years of observational social learning and subsequent practice. Adult female and male orangutans show behavioral differences including sex-specific foraging patterns and male-biased dispersal. We investigated how these differing life trajectories affect social interest and emerging ecological knowledge in immatures. We analyzed 15 years of detailed observational data on social learning, associations, and diet repertoires of 50 immatures (16 females and 34 males), from 2 orangutan populations. Specific to the feeding context, we found sex differences in the development of social interest: Throughout the dependency period, immature females direct most of their social attention at their mothers, whereas immature males show an increasing attentional preference for individuals other than their mothers. When attending to non-mother individuals, males show a significant bias toward immigrant individuals and a trend for a bias toward adult males. In contrast, females preferentially attend to neighboring residents. Accordingly, by the end of the dependency period, immature females show a larger dietary overlap with their mothers than do immature males. These results suggest that immature orangutans show attentional biases through which they learn from individuals with the most relevant ecological knowledge. Diversifying their skills and knowledge likely helps males when they move to a new area. In sum, our findings underline the importance of fine-grained social inputs for the acquisition of ecological knowledge and skills in orangutans and likely in other apes as well.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Pongo/psicologia , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pongo abelii/psicologia , Pongo pygmaeus/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social
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