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1.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307071

RESUMO

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced a new look (or modernization) for both the obligations and approaches to achieve best-practices in global health learning. These best-practices have moved beyond traditional, face-to-face (F2F), classroom-based didactics to the use of innovative online, asynchronous and synchronous instructional design and the information and communication technology (ICT) tools to support it. But moving to this higher level of online in-service and pre-service training, key obligations (e.g., stopping neocolonialization, cultural humility, reversing brain drain, gender equity) must guide the modernization of instructional design and the supporting ICT. To positively impact global health training, educators must meet the needs of learners where they are. Purpose: We describe a set of multi-communication methods, e-Learning principles, strategies, and ICT approaches for educators to pivot content delivery from traditional, F2F classroom didactics into the modern era. These best-practices in both the obligations and approaches utilize thoughtful, modern strategies of instructional design and ICT. Approach: We harnessed our collective experiences in global health training to present thoughtful insights on the guiding principles, strategies, and ICT environment central to develop learning curricula that meet trainee needs and how they can be actualized. Specifically, we describe five strategies: 1. Individualized learning; 2. Provide experiential learning; 3. Mentor … Mentor … Mentor; 4. Reinforce learning through assessment; and 5. Information and communication technology and tools to support learning. Discussion: We offer a vision, set of guiding principles, and five strategies for successful curricula delivery in the modern era so that global health training can be made available to a wider audience more efficiently and effectively.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância/métodos , Saúde Global/educação , Aprendizagem , Tutoria/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
2.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307064

RESUMO

Objectives: The changing global landscape of disease and public health crises, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, call for a new generation of global health leaders. As global health leadership programs evolve, many have incorporated experiential learning and mentoring (ELM) components into their structure. However, there has been incomplete consideration on how ELM activities are deployed, what challenges they face and how programs adapt to meet those challenges. This paper builds on the co-authors' experiences as trainees, trainers, organizers and evaluators of six global health leadership programs to reflect on lessons learned regarding ELM. We also consider ethics, technology, gender, age and framing that influence how ELM activities are developed and implemented. Findings: Despite the diverse origins and funding of these programs, all six are focused on training participants from low- and middle-income countries drawing on a diversity of professions. Each program uses mixed didactic approaches, practice-based placements, competency and skills-driven curricula, and mentorship via various modalities. Main metrics for success include development of trainee networks, acquisition of skills and formation of relationships; programs that included research training had specific research metrics as well. Common challenges the programs face include ensuring clarity of expectations of all participants and mentors; maintaining connection among trainees; meeting the needs of trainee cohorts with different skill sets and starting points; and ensuring trainee cohorts capture age, gender and other forms of diversity. Conclusions: ELM activities for global health leadership are proving even more critical now as the importance of effective individual leaders in responding to crises becomes evident. Future efforts for ELM in global health leadership should emphasize local adaptation and sustainability. Practice-based learning and established mentoring relationships provide the building blocks for competent leaders to navigate complex dynamics with the flexibility and conscientiousness needed to improve the health of global populations. Key Takeaways: Experiential learning and mentorship activities within global health leadership programs provide the hands-on practice and support that the next generation of global health leaders need to address the health challenges of our times.Six global health leadership programs with experiential learning and mentorship components are showcased to highlight differences and similarities in their approaches and capture a broad picture of achievements that can help inform future programs.Emphasis on inter-professional training, mixed-learning approaches and mentorship modalities were common across programs. Both individual capacity building and development of trainees' professional networks were seen as critical, reflecting the value of inter-personal connections for long-term leadership success.During program design, future programs should recognize the "frame" within which the program will be incorporated and intentionally address diversity-in all its forms-during recruitment as well as consider North-South ethics, leadership roles, hierarchies and transition plans.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Saúde Global/educação , Liderança , Tutoria/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Clínica , Países em Desenvolvimento , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Tutoria/organização & administração , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos
4.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1938504, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134610

RESUMO

In May 2019, the World Health Assembly, in an unprecedented move, endorsed the inclusion of traditional medicine in the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision. In Japan, traditional medicine (known as Kampo) is regulated by the government and prescribed by over 90% of physicians along with modern medicine under the national health insurance system. Although Kampo education must be included in Japan's core medical curricula, there are significant challenges to implementation. In the educational context, the flipped classroom teaching method has received considerable attention in recent years. This study developed a Kampo e-learning program and verified the effectiveness of a flipped classroom using Kampo e-learning. The Kampo e-learning Committee determined three courses and assigned an administrator for each. The administrators appointed lecturers who developed Kampo e-learning lessons. Physicians, pharmacists, medical students, and pharmacy students were asked to participate in the e-learning program, and their comments and suggestions were collected after program completion. The flipped classroom was evaluated by implementing Kampo e-learning in the Kampo session with fourth-year students at Keio University School of Medicine in Japan. Seven courses were created, including four based on volunteer suggestions. The 'Systematic Kampo Curricula' featured 88 lessons developed by 54 Kampo specialists. Out of 118 fourth-year medical students who participated in the flipped classroom, 113 registered for the Kampo e-learning program, 100 attended the session, and 88 answered the post-session questionnaire. Among the students who answered the questionnaire, 86.4% were satisfied with the flipped classroom, 79.5% replied that the program made them understand Kampo and 80.7% stated that it should be adopted. The flipped classroom using Kampo e-learning program was shown to be attractive in one medical school. Further expanded study is necessary in the near future to reveal the usefulness of the flipped classroom of Kampo learning.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Currículo , Humanos , Internet , Japão , Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Universidades
5.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 739-742, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074500

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the challenges of pharmacy schools worldwide is the need to link theoretical training with the mastery of practical skills. A virtual pharmacy simulation, MyDispense, developed by the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at Monash University, enables students to practice the skills of a professional pharmacist, from novice to highly advanced, in a safe virtual environment that is web-based and highly accessible. The free online simulation allows students to undertake scenarios where patients can present with prescription or self-care requirements, and are also challenged with validation tasks requiring them to check the work of virtual colleagues for accuracy, legality, and medicine safety. COMMENTARY: This commentary describes the use of a virtual simulation, MyDispense, in enhancing didactic instruction, complementing experiential education, and the challenges of the virtual simulation to pharmacy educators. MyDispense is now deployed to 186 schools of pharmacy across 34 countries to over 25,000 students worldwide who have completed over 963,000 exercises globally. IMPLICATIONS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (aka COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to pharmacy education requiring many educators to switch to remote online learning. Simulation programs, such as MyDispense, help to replicate aspects of pharmacy practice and can be used creatively to meet course needs. The use of MyDispense is an excellent example of pharmacy educators collaborating globally and learning from each other to improve student learning.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Profissional , Humanos
6.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 819-825, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of online learning and subsequent online testing has expanded rapidly in pharmacy programs across the United States. Numerous published studies have compared online learning with traditional methods in pharmacy. However, no such studies have been published in pharmacy. This study's objective is to compare first-professional year student preferences for computer-based vs. traditional paper-and-pencil testing for a required social and administrative pharmacy class. METHODS: All students enrolled in the class were invited to complete one brief survey at the end of the semester to determine their testing preference. RESULTS: Of the 138 first-professional year students completing the survey, 79% (109 of 138) preferred computer-based testing, 9% had no preference, 6% (8 of 138) preferred paper-and-pencil testing, and the remainder (8 of 138) stated it depended on what was being tested. Ninety-one percent of students did not perceive the testing method to impact their grades. Students preferred computer-based testing over traditional paper-and-pencil as a convenient testing method (mean 4.73 vs. 3.4, P < .001), providing immediate feedback (mean 4.87 vs. 1.91, P < .001), and as a more effective testing method (mean 4.57 vs. 3.96, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: First-professional year students preferred computer-based over traditional paper-and-pencil testing for a social and administrative science class, with the method of testing not perceived to impact grade. This finding is timely, given the recent required transitioning of all pharmacy classes and subsequent testing to an online format due to the coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador/métodos , Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 862-867, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 restricted student involvement in direct patient care. Virtual learning is an effective education strategy in pharmacy curriculums. This study aimed to evaluate student perceptions of virtual learning advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) utilizing an electronic 12-question survey. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Virtual learning was developed and implemented, and students were surveyed at the end of the APPE. The survey was comprised of one open-ended and 11 Likert scale questions. It assessed implementation and use of virtual learning in place of a standard on-site APPE. FINDINGS: Responses were attained from 19 students. Questions regarding resources provided and virtual learning enabling autonomous, independent learning had the highest percent of strong agreement. No responses indicated strong disagreement. Three questions solicited >10% response rate of somewhat disagree, 16% associated with virtual learning helping the student become a better member of the healthcare team after graduation. Open-ended responses acknowledged appreciation of the virtual APPE and presented material. One in six students commented on the ability to apply the learned information to direct patient care. Feedback was delivered on consideration for increased utility of patient care-orientated applications to facilitate simulation of real-life patient cases. SUMMARY: Students who completed the virtual APPE were satisfied overall. Virtual teaching modalities may be incorporated into APPEs, particularly when direct patient care access is limited, but should not be used to completely replace the experience gained during direct patient care.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Profissional , Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos
8.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 881-884, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this reflection or wisdom of experience article is to describe and reflect on the impacts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on experiential education (EE) leadership and teams. Additionally, this reflection will shift the focus from the spring 2020 environment of SARS-CoV-2 to what EE teams and college administration can learn from those experiences. Moving forward, EE teams and administrators can be better equipped to proactively plan for future emergencies. DESCRIPTION: Using the "What? So What? Now What?" model of reflection, this manuscript will broadly describe the experiences of three EE administrators and their teams during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Proposed lessons learned as well as future planning strategies will be presented. ANALYSIS/INTERPRETATION: The world of education was unprepared for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and most sectors were left scrambling to adjust to new models very quickly with no planning or preparation. In the realm of pharmacy education, SARS-CoV-2 caused complete disruption for pharmacy students on rotations, clinical sites, preceptors, and EE teams. In reflecting on spring 2020, much can be gained and applied to future planning efforts so that institutions can be better prepared for future crises. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: While still in the pandemic, schools must plan for the coming year. EE teams can work together to prepare for emergencies, craft contingency plans, and build additional capacity into their teams and available rotation offerings.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Preceptoria/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(10): 890-895, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954423

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A collaborative advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) education model established within a healthcare institution during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is described. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a nationwide disruption of APPE pharmacy education. Healthcare institutions faced the challenge of educating APPE students while attempting to simultaneously de-densify work areas and reduce transmission risk for employees and patients. A pharmacist coordinator and pharmacist academic partners at a large teaching hospital created a collaborative common core curriculum model for resourceful implementation of APPE education. Healthcare network pharmacists, clinical pharmacist academic partners, and pharmacy residents delivered the curriculum to 35 pharmacy students over a 9-week time period. Main components of the curriculum included patient case discussions, topic discussions, journal club presentations, live continuing education (CE) webinars, and development of pharmacy technician CE programs. A majority of students reported positive experiences working with a variety of preceptors from different specialties (81%) and collaborating with students from other universities (62%). CONCLUSION: A health system can leverage institutional, network-wide, and academic partner resources to implement a collaborative APPE curriculum during challenging times such as those experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Currículo , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Pandemias , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Adulto , Educação Continuada em Farmácia , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Farmacêuticos , Residências em Farmácia , Técnicos em Farmácia/educação , Estudantes de Farmácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25918, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011060

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the application of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology with problem-based learning (PBL) teaching model in clinical nursing education of congenital heart surgery, and to further improve the teaching quality of clinical nursing in congenital heart surgery. In this study, a total of 132 trainees of clinical nursing in congenital heart surgery from a grade-A tertiary hospital in 2019 were selected and randomly divided into 3D printing group or traditional group. The 3D printing group was taught with 3D printed heart models combined with PBL teaching technique, while the traditional group used conventional teaching aids combined with PBL technique for teaching. After the teaching process, the 2 groups of nursing students were assessed and surveyed separately to evaluate the results. Compared to the traditional group, the theoretical scores, clinical nursing thinking ability, self-evaluation for comprehensive ability, and teaching satisfaction from the questionnaires filled by the 3D printing group were all higher than the traditional group. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < .05). Our study has shown the 3D printing technology combined with the PBL teaching technique in the clinical nursing teaching of congenital heart surgery achieved good results.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/educação , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Impressão Tridimensional , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(2): 16-32, maio 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1282559

RESUMO

Introdução:Verifica-se que a educação em saúde é uma estratégia de ensino e aprendizagem com objetivo de melhorar a qualidade de vida e de saúde da população.Objetivo:Descrever uma estratégia educativa sobre primeiros socorros para adolescentes. Metodologia:Trata-se de uma pesquisa ação realizada em maio de 2019 com 27 adolescentes, estudantes de uma escola situada nacidade de Itapajé, Ceará. A pesquisa seguiu as seguintes etapas: Iniciação do Projeto de Pesquisa Ação; A Definição da Estrutura Conceitual Teórica; Definição do Contexto e Propósito da Pesquisa; eColeta de dados, que se deu em quatro momentos, por meio de um Instrumento de Coleta de Dados semiestruturado e aplicação da Gincana Educativa ­Como salvar uma vida. Pesquisa aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú com número 3.241.797. Resultados:A Gincana foi organizada em seis etapas: Torta na cara, Jogo de Cooperação, Desafio, Resistência física, Quiz e Demonstração, buscando deixar o momento descontraído,dinâmico, competitivo e de aprendizado. Verificou-se que os participantes tiveram interesse na aprendizagem sobre primeiros socorros, principalmente quando acompanhadas pela utilização de tecnologias educativas.Conclusões:A gincana contribuiu no aprendizado sobre primeiros socorros dos escolares, o que lhes permitiu prevenir possíveis agravos em saúde,além de torná-los possíveis disseminadores de conhecimento (AU).


Introduction:It appears that health education is a teaching and learning strategy aimed at improving the quality of life and health of the population. Objective:Describe an educative strategy on first aid for adolescents. Methodology:This is an action research carried out in May 2019 with 27 adolescents, students from a school located in the city of Itapajé, Ceará. The research followed thesteps:Initiation of the Action Research Project; The Definition of Theoretical Conceptual Framework; Definition of the Context and Purpose of the Research; and data collection, which took place in four moments, using a semi-structured Data Collection Instrument and application of the Educational Gymkhana -How to save a life.Research approved by the Research Ethics Committee of theState University Vale do Acaraú with number 3,241,797. Results:The Gymkhana was organized in six stages: Pie in the face, Cooperation Game, Challenge,Physical resistance, Quiz and Demo, seeking to leave the moment relaxed, dynamic, competitive and learning. It was found that the participants had interested in learning about first aid, mainly when accompanied by the use of educative Technologies. Conclusions:The gymkhana contributed to the students' first aid learning, which allowed them to prevent possible health problems, in addition to making them possible disseminators of knowledge (AU).


Introducción: Verifica que la educación para la salud es una estrategia de enseñanza y aprendizaje dirigida a mejorar la calidad de vida y la salud de la población. Objetivo: Describir una estrategia educativa sobre primeros auxilios para adolescentes.Metodología: Se trata de una investigación-acción realizada en mayo de 2019 con 27 adolescentes,estudiantes de una escuela ubicada en la ciudad de Itapajé, Ceará.La investigación siguió los siguientes pasos: Inicio del proyecto de investigación-acción; La definición de marco conceptual teórico; Definición del contexto y propósito de la investigación;y Recopilación de datos, que tuvo lugar en cuatro momentos, a través de un Instrumento de Recolección de Datos semi-estructurado y aplicación de la Gymkhana Educativa -Cómo salvar una vida.Investigación aprobada por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la Universidad Estatal Vale do Acaraú con el número 3.241.797.Resultados: La Gymkhana se organizó en seis etapas: Torta en la cara, Juego de cooperación, Desafío, Resistencia física,Quizy Demostración,buscando salir del momento relajado, dinámico, competitivo y aprendiendo. Se encontró que los participantes tenían interesados en aprender sobre primeros auxilios, especialmente cuando se acompañan del uso de tecnologías educativas.Conclusiones: La gymkana contribuyó al aprendizaje de los estudiantes en primeros auxilios, lo que les permitió prevenir posibles problemas de salud, además de hacerlos posibles divulgadores de conocimientos (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Adolescente , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Primeiros Socorros/instrumentação , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudantes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1353-1365, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883396

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Performing a gynecological exam is an essential skill for physicians. While interventions have been implemented to optimize how this skill is taught in medical school, it remains an area of concern and anxiety for many medical students. To date, a comprehensive assessment of these interventions has not been done. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature on interventions that aim to improve medical student education on gynecological exams. METHOD: The authors searched 6 databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL Plus, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, and ERIC [Proquest]) from inception to August 4, 2020. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: focus on medical students, intervention with the purpose of teaching students to better perform gynecological exams, and reported outcomes/evaluation. Extracted data included study location, study design, sample size, details of the intervention and evaluation, and context of the pelvic exam. All outcomes were summarized descriptively; key outcomes were coded as subjective or objective assessments. RESULTS: The search identified 5,792 studies; 50 met the inclusion criteria. The interventions described were diverse, with many controlled studies evaluating multiple methods of instruction. Gynecological teaching associates (GTAs), or professional patients, were the most common method of education. GTA-led teaching resulted in improvements in student confidence, competence, and communication skills. Physical adjuncts, or anatomic models and simulators, were the second most common category of intervention. Less resource-intensive interventions, such as self-directed learning packages, online training modules, and video clips, also demonstrated positive results in student comfort and competence. All studies highlighted the need for improved education on gynecological exams. CONCLUSIONS: The literature included evaluations of numerous interventions for improving medical student comfort and competence in performing gynecological exams. GTA-led teaching may be the most impactful educational tool described, though less resource-intensive interventions can also be effective.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Exame Ginecológico/psicologia , Ginecologia/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente
14.
Acad Med ; 96(7): 997-1001, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735131

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education calls for resident participation in real or simulated interprofessional analysis of a patient safety event. There are far more residents who must participate in these investigations than available institutional root cause analyses (RCAs) to accommodate them. To correct this imbalance, the authors developed an institutionally sponsored, interprofessional RCA simulation program and implemented it across all graduate medical education (GME) residency programs at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. APPROACH: The authors developed RCA simulations based upon authentic adverse events experienced at their institution. To provide relevance to all GME programs, RCA simulation cases varied widely and included examples of errors involving high-risk medications, communication, invasive procedures, and specimen labeling. Each simulation included residents and other health care professionals such as nurses or pharmacists whose disciplines were involved in the actual event. Participants adopted the role of RCA investigation team, and in small groups systematically progressed through the RCA process. OUTCOMES: A total of 289 individuals from 18 residency programs participated in an RCA simulation in 2019-2020. This included 84 interns (29%), 123 residents (43%), 20 attending physicians (7%), and 62 (21%) other health care professionals. There was an increase in ability of GME trainees to correctly identify factors required for an RCA investigation (62% pre vs 80% post, P = .02) and an increase in intent to "always report" for each adverse event category (3% pre vs 37% post, P < .001) following the simulation. NEXT STEPS: The authors plan to expand the RCA simulation program to other GME clinical sites while striving to involve all GME learners in this educational experience at least once during training. Additionally, by collaborating with health system patient safety leaders, they will annually review all new RCAs to identify cases suitable for simulation adaptation.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Interprofissional/métodos , Análise de Causa Fundamental/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Relações Interprofissionais/ética , Liderança , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Pennsylvania , Resolução de Problemas/ética , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Análise de Causa Fundamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento por Simulação/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24660, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in gynecology and obstetrics education in China. METHODS: English and Chinese databases were systematically searched for eligible studies that compared the effects of PBL and traditional teaching methods measuring theoretical knowledge, student satisfaction, clinical operations, and clinical practice scores in gynecology and obstetrics education in China. The authors restricted included studies to randomized controlled trials and performed a meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 38 randomized controlled trials with 3005 participants were included. Compared with traditional teaching group, the PBL group significantly increased theoretical knowledge scores (SMD: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.28, 4.07), student satisfaction (risk ratio: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.43), clinical operations (SMD: 1.15, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.37) and clinical practice (SMD: 2.17, 95% CI: 3.63, 2.71). CONCLUSION: The current research shows that PBL in gynecology and obstetrics education in China is more effective than the traditional teaching in enhancing theoretical knowledge, student satisfaction, clinical operations, and clinical practice scores. However, more delicate-designed studies on this topic are needed in the future to validate these results.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Ginecologia/educação , Obstetrícia/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , China , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24829, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655944

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: An increasing number of studies focus on the effectiveness of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC)-based blended learning, whereas none have yet studied using it for teaching fundamental nursing skills at an undergraduate level.To evaluate the effectiveness of MOOC-based blended learning versus face-to-face classroom teaching techniques within the fundamental nursing course at the Faculty of Nursing, University of Xiang Nan, China.This cluster randomized controlled trial enrolled 181 students and assigned them into either an MOOC-based blended or a face-to-face classroom teaching group, both involving the Fundamental Nursing course for undergraduate nursing students. The analyzed outcomes included test scores, critical thinking ability, and feedback received from the students on the Fundamental Nursing course.MOOC-based blended techniques versus face-to-face classroom teaching methods demonstrated higher daily performance (P = .014), operational performance (P = .001), theoretical achievements (P < .001), and final grades (P < .001) in Fundamental Nursing.Moreover, the mean change in the participants' critical thinking ability items between groups were, mostly, statistically significant. The items focusing on the feedback from the students demonstrated significant differences between the groups in terms of their satisfaction with the teaching they received (P < .001) and the overall learning effects (P = .030).This study confirmed that receiving MOOC-based blended learning was superior when compared against face-to-face classroom teaching techniques for learning within the Fundamental Nursing course.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Internet , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Ensino/organização & administração , China , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 141, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Educational pedagogies were modified during the COVID-19 pandemic to minimise interruption to teaching. One approach has been the distance learning problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial utilising the online peer-to-peer platform. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of students using distance learning PBL tutorials using with that of students utilising the conventional face-to-face approach. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in a single academic institution. We compared two groups of fourth-year medical students from the same class: one group used distance learning (DL); the other, the face-to-face (FF) method. We used students' baseline performance at the preceding block for one-to-one propensity score matching. Students utilising the PBL tutorial were given grades by their tutors according to a standardised scoring system encompassing five key areas (score range: 0-10). The main outcome was a student's total score (i.e., the sum of the scores from the five key areas, ranging from 0 to 50). RESULT: We matched 62 students in each group. With four tutorials, there were 490 observations, with 245 in each group. The mean total score for the DL group was 37.5 ± 4.6, which was significantly lower than that of the FF group (39.0 ± 4.4, p < 0.001). We noted that students in the DL group had a significantly lower scores for all five areas of proficiency: participation, communication, preparation, critical thinking and group skills. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study revealed that the performance of students utilising the DL PBL tutorials was lower than that of students participating in the conventional FF approach. Further studies are needed to ascertain the underlying cause.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Pandemias , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Osteopath Med ; 121(5): 475-481, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694343

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Medical students are faced with the challenge of synthesizing large volumes of information quickly. With the increasing accessibility of technology, a "flipped classroom" allows students to learn foundational material independently. Class time is instead devoted to in-depth skill building with instructors, promoting an active learning environment. This method of content delivery is also relevant given the current COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively evaluate the benefit of adopting a flipped classroom approach in teaching physical exam skills (PES) to first-year osteopathic medical students. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted comparing first-year osteopathic students in the class of 2022 (n=201), who had taken the PES course traditionally, with the class of 2023 (n=203), who experienced the flipped classroom approach. Objective metrics such as cumulative grades, objective structural clinical examination performance (OSCE), and practical exam performance were compared using nonparametric Mann-Whitney U rank sum tests. Subjective measures such as student course evaluations were used to analyze course perceptions using independent sample t-tests assuming unequal variances. A faculty survey was administered to faculty who taught both cohorts to assess instructor attitudes toward the flipped classroom approach. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Spring 2020 quarter data was not included, given the transition of all classes to an online learning environment. RESULTS: The flipped classroom approach significantly improved objective student performance for the Fall (p=0.009) and Winter (p<0.001) student cumulative grades and the History-Taking OSCE (p=0.010). Performance on Fall and Winter practical exam scores had no significant association with the flipped classroom. General student perceptions of the course remained unchanged between both cohorts. Faculty survey results from 10 faculty members showed that six (60%) faculty members preferred the traditional classroom, while four (40%) preferred the flipped classroom. CONCLUSIONS: The flipped classroom approach showed some statistically significant improvement in student PES. Further studies are needed to evaluate the benefits of a flipped classroom approach using skills-based assessments styles to measure student performance, with a focus on standardization of in-classroom groupwork.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação Médica/métodos , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Exame Físico/normas , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 149, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a need for educational materials and methods that can replace clinical clerkships (CCs) for online simulated clinical practice (online-sCP). This study evaluates the impact of using simulated electronic health records (sEHR) for inpatients, and electronic problem-based learning (e-PBL) and online virtual medical interviews (online-VMI) for outpatients, for an online-sCP using a learning management system (LMS) and online meeting system facilitated by a supervising physician. METHODS: The sEHR was reviewed by medical students and subsequently discussed with a supervising physician using an online meeting system. In the e-PBL, medical students reviewed the simulated patients and discussed on the LMS. For the online-VMI, a faculty member acted as an outpatient and a student acted as the doctor. Small groups of students discussed the clinical reasoning process using the online meeting system. A mixed-method design was implemented. Medical students self-assessed their clinical competence before and after the online-sCP. They answered questionnaires and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews (FGIs) regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the practice. RESULTS: Forty-three students completed the online-sCP during May and June 2020. All students indicated significant improvement in all aspects of self-evaluation of clinical performance after the online-sCP. Students using sEHR reported significant improvement in writing daily medical records and medical summaries. Students using e-PBL and online-VMI reported significant improvement in medical interviews and counseling. Students also indicated CCs as more useful for learning associated with medical interviews, physical examinations, and humanistic qualities like professionalism than the online-sCP. Eight FGIs were conducted (n = 42). The advantages of online-sCP were segregated into five categories (learning environment, efficiency, accessibility, self-paced learning, and interactivity); meanwhile, the disadvantages of online-sCP were classified into seven categories (clinical practice experience, learning environment, interactivity, motivation, memory retention, accessibility, and extraneous cognitive load). CONCLUSIONS: Online-sCP with sEHR, e-PBL, and online-VMI could be useful in learning some of the clinical skills acquired through CC. These methods can be implemented with limited preparation and resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estágio Clínico , Competência Clínica , Educação à Distância , Pandemias , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Documentação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Anamnese , Registros Médicos , Simulação de Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoavaliação (Psicologia)
20.
Curationis ; 44(1): e1-e7, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The real-world problems and ever-changing challenges currently confronting the future of nursing education and healthcare require a problem-based learning approach using simulation strategy. This is exacerbated by the increasing burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV and AIDS) and more recently the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, as well as advancing technology and changing regulations and policies. Problem-based learning is a student-centred learning strategy, where students are presented with situations drawn from practice, which can be used to bridge the theory-practice gap. OBJECTIVES: To explore the perceptions and views of healthcare educators on how problem-based learning can be facilitated through simulation. METHOD: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Thirteen educators from the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Johannesburg, with 5 years' teaching experience, were purposively selected from the Dean's office, the Nursing Department, emergency medical care and the departments of podiatry, somatology and radiography. The participants were selected based on their extensive knowledge of problem-based learning and the use of simulation. Data were collected through in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis provided six themes and 13 related sub-themes. The article focuses on the perceptions and views of educators regarding problem-based learning through simulation. RESULTS: Problem-based learning through simulation allows students to work together in teams, which demonstrates a new modus operandi and renders a holistic approach to patient care. CONCLUSION: Problem-based learning through simulation should be utilised to encourage reflective knowledge exchange. Students from various departments can learn about new innovations, creativity and develop critical thinking when solving complex health-related problems.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Docentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
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