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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229857, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150570

RESUMO

Previous research established that young children are sensitive to prosodic cues discriminating between syntactic structures of otherwise similarly sounding sentences in a language unknown to them. In this study, we explore the role of working memory that children might deploy for the purpose of the sentence-level prosodic discrimination. Nine-year old Slovenian monolingual and bilingual children (N = 70) were tested on a same-different prosodic discrimination task in a language unknown to them (French) and on the working memory measures in the form of forward and backward digit span and non-word repetition tasks. The results suggest that both the storage and processing components of the working memory are involved in the prosodic discrimination task.


Assuntos
Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Aprendizagem Verbal
2.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(2)2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developmental stages characterized by greater neural plasticity might be critical periods during which the effects of cognitive training (CT) could theoretically be maximized. However, experiencing a first episode of schizophrenia during childhood or adolescence (ie, early-onset schizophrenia [EOS]) may reduce the brain's ability to benefit from CT. This study examined the effects of EOS versus onset at > 18 years of age (ie, adult-onset schizophrenia [AOS]) as a predictor of response to CT and the relationship between duration of illness and cognitive improvements. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of data from 2 randomized trials that examined the cognitive effects of neuroscience-informed auditory training (AT) exercises in 84 outpatients with schizophrenia (26 EOS, 58 AOS, recruited between 2004 and 2014). RESULTS: There was a significant effect of time in all cognitive domains (F > 10.22, P < .002). The effect of EOS was significant only for verbal learning and memory (F = 5.79, P = .018). AOS increased the mean change score by 5.70 points in this domain, whereas EOS showed no change (t = -2.280, P = .025). However, the difference between AOS and EOS was no longer statistically significant after control for multiple comparisons. Shorter duration of illness was associated with greater improvement in problem solving in the AOS group (r = -0.27, P = .040). CONCLUSIONS: Auditory training is effective in improving cognition in both EOS and AOS. Treatment effects in all cognitive domains were similar, with the exception of verbal learning and memory. This result requires replication. Cognitive training provided earlier in the course of the illness results in greater improvements in executive functions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00312962, NCT00694889​​.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Remediação Cognitiva , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Aprendizagem Verbal , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Remediação Cognitiva/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurociências , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Dyslexia ; 26(1): 18-35, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043745

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the relationship between reading difficulties in native language (NL: Polish) and English as a foreign language in dyslexia in English and Polish students, respectively, and to develop a model of relations between NL phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, verbal short-term memory, and reading in English. Thirteen English students with dyslexia (ED), 15 without (END) and 16 Polish students with dyslexia (PD) and 16 without (PND) participated. We found that dyslexic deficits and different phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules between Polish and English interfered with the accuracy and fluency of word and nonword decoding and word recognition. Whereas END scored higher than PD and PND in all reading measures, ED did not, despite a NL advantage. When compared with PND, ED performed equal in nonword decoding, which depends to a higher degree on phoneme-to-grapheme conversion rather than lexical access. When compared with PD, ED performed equally in nonword fluency, which is most likely a nonscript-dependant skill. More variance in reading was explained by NL than FL factors, even if analogical NL/FL skills predicted a given variable. While in ED and END, these relationships agreed with the literature; in PD and PND, NL phonological awareness was not beneficial for English as a foreign language reading.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Fonética , Leitura , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Polônia , Estudantes , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
4.
J Clin Neurosci ; 73: 31-36, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094071

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine prevalence and factors leading to verbal learning and memory dysfunction among patients with epilepsy. A total of 211 subjects were recruited. Their verbal memory was assessed by Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). This test was further subdivided into four major spheres for analysis, namely the verbal learning, interference list, immediate memory and delayed memory. All data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Among the 211 patients, 55% (n = 116) had focal seizures and the remaining 45% (n = 95) had generalized seizures. Prevalence of verbal learning and memory impairment was high at 39.97% overall, and found most commonly in patients with focal impaired awareness seizures. Verbal learning and immediate memory dysfunction were significantly lower in focal impaired awareness group compared to others. Age more than 50 years, exposure to three or more antiepileptic drugs and use of carbamazepine more than 1000 mg a day were the predictors in poor verbal memory outcome. No statistical difference was observed in the mean RAVLT scores among the gender and hand dominance groups. Between patients with and without electroencephalogram changes as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging changes, the mean RAVLT scores showed no statistically significant difference. Verbal learning and memory impairment is prevalent among the epilepsy patients. The consequences of the memory impairment can be as debilitating as the seizure control. RAVLT is a reliable and practical test in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Aprendizagem Verbal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(1): 122-129, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900801

RESUMO

Learning how to count is a crucial step in cognitive development, which progressively allows for more elaborate numerical processing. The existing body of research consistently reports how children associate the verbal code with exact quantity. However, the early acquisition of this code, when the verbal numbers are encoded in long-term memory as a sequence of words, has rarely been examined. Using an incidental assessment method based on serial recall of number words presented in ordered versus non-ordered sequences (e.g., one-two-three vs. two-one-three), we tracked the progressive acquisition of the verbal number sequence in children aged 3-6 years. Results revealed evidence for verbal number sequence knowledge in the youngest children even before counting is fully mastered. Verbal numerical knowledge thus starts to be organized as a sequence in long-term memory already at the age of 3 years, and this numerical sequence knowledge is assessed in a sensitive manner by incidental rather than explicit measures of number knowledge.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Memória de Longo Prazo , Memória de Curto Prazo , Aprendizagem Verbal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Rememoração Mental
6.
J Clin Neurosci ; 72: 93-97, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937503

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by central nervous system lesions that lead to neurological dysfunctions including fatigue, depression and anxiety. MS is affecting almost 2.3 million people around the world, with the significant highest prevalence in the North America. MS also affects different cognitive abilities, such as attention, memory and executive functions. Furthermore, a significant impairment in verbal fluency and naming abilities in patients with MS has been reported. RehaCom, is a software that has improvement effects on cognitive functions. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of treatment with RehaCom on verbal performance in patients with MS. To select the participants, 60 patients with MS who referred to our clinic were chosen randomly and divided into Control (n = 30) and Experimental (n = 30) groups. The participants in the experimental group were treated by RehaCom software for 10 sessions during 5 weeks (2 sessions per week and each session was 1 h). Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) and California Verbal Learning Test - Second Edition (CVLT-II), were used to assess verbal performance (verbal fluency, and verbal learning and memory) at weeks 0 (baseline), 5 (post-test) and 10 (follow-up). The results showed that, treatment with RehaCom improved verbal performance in patient with MS, at both post-test and follow-up stages. In conclusion, treatment with RehaCom cognitive rehabilitation software can improve verbal fluency, and verbal learning and memory in patient with MS, possibly by affecting the brain regions involved in language performance.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Software , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 45(1): 27-38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893945

RESUMO

One challenge in word learning research is how to operationalize learning. We combined behavioral measures with EEG to examine implicit and explicit recognition of words previously introduced with or without meaning in an incidental learning task. Participants (8-11-year-old children) were not able to recognize previously introduced nonsense words and better performance on the learning task resulted in poorer word recognition. The N400 amplitude differed between nonsense words with meaning versus nonsense words no meaning and novel nonsense words. Results indicate that introducing a nonsense word with meaning does not aid in explicit word learning but improves implicit word learning.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Dev Sci ; 23(2): e12885, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271684

RESUMO

The shape bias, a preference for mapping new word labels onto the shape rather than the color or texture of referents, has been postulated as a word-learning mechanism. Previous research has shown deficits in the shape bias in children with autism even though they acquire sizeable lexicons. While previous explanations have suggested the atypical use of color for label extension in individuals with autism, we hypothesize an atypical mapping of novel labels to novel objects, regardless of the physical properties of the objects. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate this phenomenon in some individuals with autism, but the novelty of objects only partially explains their lack of shape bias. In a second experiment, we present a computational model that provides a developmental account of the shape bias in typically developing children and in those with autism. This model is based on theories of neurological dysfunctions in autism, and it integrates theoretical and empirical findings in the literature of categorization, word learning, and the shape bias. The model replicates the pattern of results of our first experiment and shows how individuals with autism are more likely to categorize experimental objects together on the basis of their novelty. It also provides insights into possible mechanisms by which children with autism learn new words, and why their word referents may be idiosyncratic. Our model highlights a developmental approach to autism that emphasizes deficient representations of categories underlying an impaired shape bias.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Viés , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
9.
Neuropsychology ; 34(1): 63-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine neuropsychological test differences following concussion between collegiate athletes screening positive and negative for depression. METHOD: Participants included 113 (91 male) college athletes, who were assessed at baseline and following diagnosis of sport-related concussion (SRC). The Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen was used as a screener for depression. Athletes were categorized as either depressed (≥4) or nondepressed (<4) following injury and compared on composites for memory and attention-processing speed. Groups were also compared on reliable change index scores from baseline, as well as on proportion of impaired scores. RESULTS: Depressed athletes performed significantly worse than did nondepressed athletes on the Memory Composite (p = .04, d = .51) but not on the Attention-Processing Speed Composite score (p = .15, d = .46). Chi-square tests indicated that, compared with nondepressed athletes, a significantly higher number of depressed athletes showed reliable decreases on the following test indices: Verbal Memory Composite of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (p = .03, φ = .21), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised Total (p = .02, φ = .22), and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Total (p = .05, φ = .19). Chi-square test indicated that, compared with nondepressed athletes, a significantly higher proportion of depressed athletes met criteria for impairment (p = .02, φ = .23). CONCLUSION: Whether examining the data at the intraindividual or group level, there are memory deficits associated with the combination of an SRC and depression. The results highlight the importance of screening for depression to provide a more complete picture of an individual's functioning postconcussion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Atenção , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Desempenho Psicomotor , Aprendizagem Verbal , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(1): 278-291, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621021

RESUMO

Comprehensive interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often incorporate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC); however, variability in outcomes exists even among children who access similar intervention. This study investigated predictors of expressive language change for 48 children with ASD aged 31 to 67 months receiving AAC-infused intervention. The relationships between participants' initial responses to AAC and expressive language change were examined. Commonly reported predictors (IQ, chronological age, ASD symptomatology) did not significantly predict expressive language change. AAC factors (visual attention, object play, word learning) entered at Step 2 of a hierarchical multiple regression, explained an additional 42% of the variance. The findings provide preliminary data on child characteristics associated with expressive language changes within AAC-infused comprehensive interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Resultado do Tratamento , Aprendizagem Verbal
11.
Brain Lang ; 200: 104707, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704518

RESUMO

The current study aims to determine the brain areas critical for response to anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in PPA. Anodal tDCS and sham were administered over the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), combined with written naming/spelling therapy. Thirty people with PPA were included in this study, and assessed immediately, 2 weeks, and 2 months post-therapy. We identified anatomical areas whose volumes significantly predicted the additional tDCS effects. For trained words, the volumes of the left Angular Gyrus and left Posterior Cingulate Cortex predicted the additional tDCS gain. For untrained words, the volumes of the left Middle Frontal Gyrus, left Supramarginal Gyrus, and right Posterior Cingulate Cortex predicted the additional tDCS gain. These findings show that areas involved in language, attention and working memory contribute to the maintenance and generalization of stimulation effects. The findings highlight that tDCS possibly affects areas anatomically or functionally connected to stimulation targets.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/patologia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/terapia , Encéfalo/patologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Idoso , Afasia Primária Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
12.
Neuropsychology ; 34(3): 359-372, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although there is a consensus that cannabis intoxication will have deleterious effects on a wide spectrum of cognitive skills, there is no consensus regarding the duration of time from last use necessary to ameliorate these effects. METHOD: A systematic review and series of meta-analyses were undertaken to assess anticipated gains in verbal learning with longer periods of cannabis abstinence. Studies assessing verbal learning performance in abstinent regular cannabis users and nonusing control participants; studies reporting length of cannabis abstinence at the time of neuropsychological assessment; and studies implementing one of three highly comparable measures of verbal learning and memory were included in the analyses. The included tasks have demonstrated some of the most robust declines associated with cannabis use and are prevalent in the clinical practice of neuropsychology. We assessed associations between cannabis abstinence and verbal learning scores via mixed effects subgroup analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies (k = 28; N = 1,711) met all inclusion criteria. Cannabis users abstinent for 7 days or fewer performed worse than controls on verbal learning tasks, whereas cannabis users abstinent for longer periods showed no average significant difference in verbal learning performance compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Based on available evidence, some amelioration of verbal learning limitations presumed to result from cannabis appear to resolve between 7 and 28 days of sustained abstinence. However, in the reviewed studies, years of regular use were inversely related to longer periods of abstinence and verbal learning performance, undermining a confident inference that abstinence alone has direct benefits to verbal learning and memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Aprendizagem Verbal , Cognição , Humanos , Memória
13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225445, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dialogic reading (DR) is a shared storybook reading intervention previously shown to have a positive effect on both literacy and general language skills. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of DR compared to screen-based intervention on electrophysiological markers supporting narrative comprehension using EEG. METHODS: Thirty-two typically developing preschoolers, ages 4 to 6 years, were assigned to one of two intervention groups: Dialogic Reading Group (DRG, n = 16) or Screen Story Group (SSG, n = 16). We examined the effect of intervention type using behavioral assessment and a narrative comprehension task with EEG. RESULTS: The DRG showed improved vocabulary and decreased functional connectivity during the stories-listening task, whereas the SSG group showed no changes in vocabulary or connectivity. Significantly decreased network strength and transitivity and increased network efficiency were observed in the DRG following intervention. Greater network strength and transitivity at follow-up were correlated with increased vocabulary. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the beneficial effect of DR in preschool-age children on vocabulary and EEG-bands related to attention in the ventral stream during narrative comprehension. Decreased functional connectivity may serve as a marker for language gains following reading intervention. SIGNIFICANCE: DR intervention for preschool-age children may reduce interfering connections related to attention, which is related to better narrative comprehension.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Compreensão , Vocabulário , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Audição , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Leitura , Aprendizagem Verbal
14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224786, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710615

RESUMO

The input contains perceptually available cues, which might allow young infants to discover abstract properties of the target language. Thus, word frequency and prosodic prominence correlate systematically with basic word order in natural languages. Prelexical infants are sensitive to these frequency-based and prosodic cues, and use them to parse new input into phrases that follow the order characteristic of their native languages. Importantly, young infants readily integrate auditory and visual facial information while processing language. Here, we ask whether co-verbal visual information provided by talking faces also helps prelexical infants learn the word order of their native language in addition to word frequency and prosodic prominence. We created two structurally ambiguous artificial languages containing head nods produced by an animated avatar, aligned or misaligned with the frequency-based and prosodic information. During 4 minutes, two groups of 4- and 8-month-old infants were familiarized with the artificial language containing aligned auditory and visual cues, while two further groups were exposed to the misaligned language. Using a modified Headturn Preference Procedure, we tested infants' preference for test items exhibiting the word order of the native language, French, vs. the opposite word order. At 4 months, infants had no preference, suggesting that 4-month-olds were not able to integrate the three available cues, or had not yet built a representation of word order. By contrast, 8-month-olds showed no preference when auditory and visual cues were aligned and a preference for the native word order when visual cues were misaligned. These results imply that infants at this age start to integrate the co-verbal visual and auditory cues.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Percepção da Fala , Aprendizagem Verbal , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Fala
15.
Compr Psychiatry ; 95: 152132, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669790

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the gender differences in neurocognitive functioning in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) in China. METHODS: A total of 449 Chinese patients with FES (210 males, 239 females) were included in this study. Participants' psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed by 10 neuropsychological tests from a battery. Neurocognitive test scores were converted to scale scores and t-scores using normative data from Chinese populations. RESULTS: Males were younger and less likely to be married, had an earlier age of illness onset and a longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and scored higher on the PANSS negative, general and total scales than females. After controlling for potential confounders, females performed better than males in the verbal learning and memory domain (p=0.016). While most neurocognitive domains were correlated with PANSS negative scores for male patients with FES, for female patients with FES, negative associations were found between scores on the PANSS general subscales and neurocognitive domains. We also performed a case-control comparison with a group of patients with clinically stable schizophrenia (CSS) (n=60) who were matched by age, sex and education years with patients with FES (n=58). After controlling for potential confounders, no significant differences were found between patients with FES and patients with CSS in all neurocognitive domains. Female patients still performed better in the verbal learning and memory domain (t=2.14, p=0.034). No interaction effects of gender and disease were found. CONCLUSIONS: Gender was an independent influence factor for the verbal learning and memory domain. Both female patients with first-episode schizophrenia and female patients with clinically stable schizophrenia performed better than male patients.


Assuntos
Cognição , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Aprendizagem Verbal , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 322, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of universally accepted diagnostic criteria and the high rate of psychiatric comorbidity make it difficult to diagnose Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In an effort to improve the diagnosis of FASD, the current study aimed to identify a neurodevelopmental profile that is both sensitive and specific to FASD. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted on data obtained from the Canadian component of the World Health Organization International Study on the Prevalence of FASD. Data on neurodevelopmental status and behavior were derived from a battery of standardized tests and the Child Behavior Checklist for 21 children with FASD, 28 children with other neurodevelopmental disorders, and 37 typically developing control children, aged 7 to 11 years. Two latent profile analyses were performed to derive discriminative profiles: i) children with FASD compared with typically developing control children, and ii) children with FASD compared with typically developing control children and children with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The classification function of the resulting profiles was evaluated using the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Confidence intervals (CIs) were approximated using 10,000 bootstrapped samples. RESULTS: The neurodevelopmental profile of FASD tested consisted of impairments in perceptual reasoning, verbal comprehension, visual-motor speed and motor coordination, processing speed (nonverbal information), attention and executive function, visuospatial processing, and language, in combination with rule-breaking behavior and attention problems. When children with FASD were compared with typically developing control children, a 2-class model fit the data best and resulted in a sensitivity of 95.2% (95% CI: 84.2-100.0%), specificity of 89.2% (95% CI: 78.4-97.5%), PPV of 83.3% (95% CI: 66.7-96.2%), and NPV of 97.1% (95% CI: 90.3-100.0%). When children with FASD were compared with typically developing control children and children with other neurodevelopmental disorders, the neurodevelopmental profile correctly identified only 56.9% (95% CI: 45.1-69.2%) of typically developing children and children with other neurodevelopmental disorders as not having FASD, and thus the profile was found not to be specific to children with FASD. CONCLUSION: The findings question the uniqueness of children with FASD with respect to their neurodevelopmental impairments and behavioral manifestations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Atenção/fisiologia , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
17.
Brain Lang ; 199: 104699, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569040

RESUMO

Listening to white noise may facilitate cognitive performance, including new word learning, for some individuals. This study investigated whether auditory white noise facilitates the learning of novel written words from context in healthy young adults. Sixty-nine participants were required to determine the meaning of novel words placed within sentence contexts during a silent reading task. Learning was performed either with or without white noise, and recognition of novel word meanings was tested immediately after learning and after a short delay. Immediate recognition accuracy for learned novel word meanings was higher in the noise group relative to the no noise group, however this effect was no longer evident at the delayed recognition test. These findings suggest that white noise has the capacity to facilitate meaning acquisition from context, however further research is needed to clarify its capacity to improve longer-term retention of meaning.


Assuntos
Ruído , Leitura , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Brain Lang ; 198: 104692, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522094

RESUMO

Research has implicated the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in mapping acoustic-phonetic input to sound category representations, both in native speech perception and non-native phonetic category learning. At issue is whether this sensitivity reflects access to phonetic category information per se or to explicit category labels, the latter often being required by experimental procedures. The current study employed an incidental learning paradigm designed to increase sensitivity to a difficult non-native phonetic contrast without inducing explicit awareness of the categorical nature of the stimuli. Functional MRI scans revealed frontal sensitivity to phonetic category structure both before and after learning. Additionally, individuals who succeeded most on the learning task showed the largest increases in frontal recruitment after learning. Overall, results suggest that processing novel phonetic category information entails a reliance on frontal brain regions, even in the absence of explicit category labels.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Idioma , Fonética , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Acústica , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Som
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(36): 17723-17728, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427523

RESUMO

Reading involves transforming arbitrary visual symbols into sounds and meanings. This study interrogated the neural representations in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) that support this transformation process. Twenty-four adults learned to read 2 sets of 24 novel words that shared phonemes and semantic categories but were written in different artificial orthographies. Following 2 wk of training, participants read the trained words while neural activity was measured with functional MRI. Representational similarity analysis on item pairs from the same orthography revealed that right vOT and posterior regions of left vOT were sensitive to basic visual similarity. Left vOT encoded letter identity and representations became more invariant to position along a posterior-to-anterior hierarchy. Item pairs that shared sounds or meanings, but were written in different orthographies with no letters in common, evoked similar neural patterns in anterior left vOT. These results reveal a hierarchical, posterior-to-anterior gradient in vOT, in which representations of letters become increasingly invariant to position and are transformed to convey spoken language information.


Assuntos
Idioma , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Occipital , Leitura , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia
20.
Brain Lang ; 198: 104678, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450024

RESUMO

Word learning is a multifaceted perceptual and cognitive task that is omnipresent in everyday life. Currently, it is unclear whether this ability is influenced by age, musical expertise or both variables. Accordingly, we used EEG and compared behavioral and electrophysiological indices of word learning between older adults with and without musical expertise (older adults' perspective) as well as between musically trained and untrained children, young adults, and older adults (lifespan perspective). Results of the older adults' perspective showed that the ability to learn new words is preserved in elderly, however, without a beneficial influence of musical expertise. Otherwise, results of the lifespan perspective revealed lower error rates and faster reaction times in young adults compared to children and older adults. Furthermore, musically trained children and young adults outperformed participants without musical expertise, and this advantage was accompanied by EEG manifestations reflecting faster learning and neural facilitation in accessing lexical-semantic representations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Música/psicologia , Aprendizagem Verbal , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
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