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1.
Brain Lang ; 199: 104699, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569040

RESUMO

Listening to white noise may facilitate cognitive performance, including new word learning, for some individuals. This study investigated whether auditory white noise facilitates the learning of novel written words from context in healthy young adults. Sixty-nine participants were required to determine the meaning of novel words placed within sentence contexts during a silent reading task. Learning was performed either with or without white noise, and recognition of novel word meanings was tested immediately after learning and after a short delay. Immediate recognition accuracy for learned novel word meanings was higher in the noise group relative to the no noise group, however this effect was no longer evident at the delayed recognition test. These findings suggest that white noise has the capacity to facilitate meaning acquisition from context, however further research is needed to clarify its capacity to improve longer-term retention of meaning.


Assuntos
Ruído , Leitura , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291370

RESUMO

Is our memory for pairs of items dependent on item characteristics? The present study explores this question using a word learning paradigm; specifically, we examined whether referent characteristics, such as referent type (face/object) and familiarity (known/unknown), may influence word-referent mapping. Moreover, we examined this effect across two test sessions to determine if the influence of referent characteristics might be more pronounced over time, and across two age groups (young vs. older adults) to determine if there might be age-related differences. Participants were presented with pseudoword-referent mappings in four referent conditions (face/object × known/unknown) and then were tested with a recognition task immediately after learning, and again after a short delay. Our findings indicated that names for faces were not learned better than names for objects, despite previous literature suggesting that faces are processed differently. We also found that known referents (defined as having a pre-existing label for a referent) were learned better than unknown items but this familiarity advantage was only observed for faces and not for objects. While there were several age-related findings, these might be due to the longer delay between the immediate and delayed tests among the older adults relative to young adults. Taken together, our results suggest that certain referent characteristics do interact and influence our learning of and memory for such pairings.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Semântica , Singapura , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
3.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(9): 1240-1250, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants who are iron-deficient anemic seek and receive less stimulation from their caregivers, predisposing such children to be functionally isolated. OBJECTIVES: To test the sequence whereby iron deficiency in infancy contributes to children's disengagement from the environment, which reduces parent stimulation which, in turn, contributes to children's poor verbal skills. METHODS: Chilean children (N = 875, 54% male) were studied, 45% of whom were iron deficient or iron-deficient anemic in infancy. We used structural equation modeling to test the sequence outlined above and to examine the effect of infant iron status on children's verbal performance at ages 5 and 10 years including the roles of child and parent intermediate variables. RESULTS: Severity of iron deficiency in infancy was associated with higher levels of children's dull affect and social reticence at 5 years (ß = .10, B = .26, SE = .12, p < .05), and these behaviors were associated with parent unresponsiveness (ß = .29, B = .13, SE = .03, p < .001), which related to children's lower verbal abilities at age 5 (ß = - .29, B = - 2.33, SE = .47, p < .001) and age 10 (ß = - .22, B = - 3.04, SE = .75, p < .001). An alternate model where poor iron status related directly to children's verbal ability was tested but not supported. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support functional isolation processes resulting from a nutritional deficiency, with iron-deficient anemic infants showing affective and behavioral tendencies that limit developmentally stimulating caregiving which, in turn, hinder children's verbal abilities.


Assuntos
Afeto , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Ferro/deficiência , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pais/psicologia
4.
Brain Cogn ; 135: 103578, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233961

RESUMO

Cystinosis is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the accumulation of cystine in lysosomes. Many organ systems are vulnerable to this cystine accumulation including the CNS. A past study demonstrated that children with cystinosis have deficits in visual learning and memory while their verbal learning and memory and global intellectual function are spared (Spilkin, Ballantyne, & Trauner, 2009). However, no related study has been performed to assess the dissociation between visual and verbal learning and memory in adults with cystinosis who have had the benefit of longterm treatment with the cystine-depleting agent, cysteamine. In this study we assessed visual and verbal learning and memory in 15 adults with cystinosis, with a mean age of 30.2 years. The results indicate that adults with cystinosis have no significant deficits in either verbal or visual learning and memory. However, the individuals did perform better on the verbal assessment. The results suggest that if early and continued treatment is given to individuals with cystinosis there is a relative sparing of visual learning and memory that might have otherwise declined. This emphasizes the essential nature of the proper clinical management of cystinosis.


Assuntos
Cistinose/psicologia , Memória/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(6): e196126, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225892

RESUMO

Importance: Changes in estradiol during aging are associated with increased dementia risk. It remains unclear how estradiol supports cognitive health and whether risk factors, such as midlife obesity, are exacerbated by estrogen loss. Objectives: To assess whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) moderates the association between age and brain network structure and to investigate whether estradiol moderates the association between VAT and brain network structure. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of data from 974 cognitively healthy adults in Germany who participated in the Health Study of the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases, a previously described population-based cohort study. Two moderation analyses were performed, including VAT as the moderator variable between age and brain network structure and estradiol as the moderator variable between VAT and brain network structure. The study was conducted from August 1, 2011, to November 23, 2014. Analyses were conducted from August 2017 to September 2018. Exposures: Serum estradiol levels from fasting blood and visceral adipose tissue volume from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Main Outcomes and Measures: Brain network covariance (individual loading on structural network derived from T1-weighted MRI) and memory performance (composite score from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer Disease [CERAD] verbal episodic memory test on learning [score range, 0-30], recall [score range, 0-10], and recognition [score range, 0-20]). Results: Final analyses included data from 473 women (mean [SD] age, 50.10 [15.63] years) and 501 men (mean [SD] age, 51.24 [15.67] years). Visceral adipose tissue was associated with an exacerbation of the negative association of aging with network covariance for women (interaction term ß = -0.02; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI, -0.03 to -0.01; P = .001) and men (interaction term ß = -0.02; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI, -0.03 to -0.01; P < .001). Estradiol level was associated with a reduction in the negative association of VAT with network covariance in women (interaction term ß = 0.63; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI, 0.14-1.12; P = .01), with no significant association in men. In the female midlife subgroup (age range, 35-55 years, when menopause transition occurs), low estradiol levels were associated with lower memory network covariance (Cohen d = 0.61; t80 = 2.76; P = .007) and worse memory performance (Cohen d = 0.63; t76 = 2.76; P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: This study reports a novel association between VAT, estradiol, and structural brain networks as a potential mechanism underlying cognitive decline in women. These findings appear to highlight the need for sex-specific strategies, including VAT and hormonal screening during midlife, to support healthy cognitive aging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estradiol/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
6.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(12): 3439-3450, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250074

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cannabis use is widespread and has previously been associated with memory impairments. However, the role of cannabis in relation to false memory production, i.e., memories of events that were not experienced, is less well-understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current field study was to examine the impact of cannabis use on false memory production. METHODS: The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was used to induce false memories. In this paradigm, participants study word lists that are associatively related to a non-presented word, termed the critical lure. In a later memory test, true recognition rates and false alarm rates toward critical lures and unrelated items are assessed. Memory performance was compared between three groups: regular cannabis consumers who were acutely intoxicated (n = 53), regular cannabis consumers who were sober (n = 50), and cannabis-naïve controls (n = 53). The participants were approached in Dutch coffee shops (cannabis outlets) and cafes and asked to participate in our study. After collecting general information on their cannabis use, they were subjected to the DRM procedure. RESULTS: Although false memory rates for critical lures did not statistically differ between groups, both intoxicated and sober cannabis consumers falsely recognized more unrelated items than control participants. Also, individuals without a history of cannabis use demonstrated higher memory accuracy compared with the intoxicated group. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that cannabis intoxication and history of cannabis use induce a liberal response criterion for newly presented words for which the level of association with previously learned words is low and uncertainty is high.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Repressão Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/efeitos dos fármacos , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cogn Behav Neurol ; 32(2): 76-86, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive training has been shown to improve cognitive functions in healthy older adults. However, little is known about which specific variables are responsible for the improvement. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate whether healthy older adults benefit more from a structured cognitive training program than an unstructured brain jogging program and to identify possible predictors for training success, including apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4). METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, participants completed either a 6-week structured cognitive training program (n=35) or a 6-week unstructured brain jogging program (n=35). A control group received no training and was not part of the randomization procedure (n=35). Overall, 105 participants were included in the training data analyses, focusing on verbal memory, attention, and executive functions. Data from an additional 45 previously trained, healthy older adults were used for the predictor analysis. RESULTS: A significant Time×Training interaction in favor of the structured cognitive training program was found in verbal memory. Low baseline performance on neuropsychological tests was a significant predictor for benefits in verbal memory, attention, and executive functions. A subgroup analysis (n=35) revealed that only noncarriers of the apoE4 allele showed significant gains in long-term verbal memory and attention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the greater effectiveness of structured cognitive training on verbal memory compared with brain jogging and no training. The success of this type of training program may be predicted by sociodemographic, cognitive, and genetic variables.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(8): 3102-3112, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073750

RESUMO

The relation between caregiver follow-in utterances with verbs presented in different states of dyadic engagement and later child expressive verb vocabulary in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined in 29 toddlers with ASD and their caregivers. Caregiver verb input in follow-in utterances presented during higher order supported joint engagement (HSJE) accounted for a significant, large amount of variance in later child verb vocabulary; R2= .26. This relation remained significant when controlling for early verb vocabulary or verb input in lower support engagement states. Other types of talk in follow-in utterances in HSJE did not correlate with later verb vocabulary. These findings are an important step towards identifying interactional contexts that facilitate verb learning in children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Cuidadores , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Vocabulário
9.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 37: 100649, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100507

RESUMO

Memory representations of words are thought to undergo changes with consolidation: Episodic memories of novel words are transformed into lexical representations that interact with other words in the mental dictionary. Behavioral studies have shown that this lexical integration process is enhanced when there is more time for consolidation. Neuroimaging studies have further revealed that novel word representations are initially represented in a hippocampally-centered system, whereas left posterior middle temporal cortex activation increases with lexicalization. In this study, we measured behavioral and brain responses to newly-learned words in children. Two groups of Dutch children, aged between 8-10 and 14-16 years, were trained on 30 novel Japanese words depicting novel concepts. Children were tested on word-forms, word-meanings, and the novel words' influence on existing word processing immediately after training, and again after a week. In line with the adult findings, hippocampal involvement decreased with time. Lexical integration, however, was not observed immediately or after a week, neither behaviorally nor neurally. It appears that time alone is not always sufficient for lexical integration to occur. We suggest that other factors (e.g., the novelty of the concepts and familiarity with the language the words are derived from) might also influence the integration process.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Linguagem , Semântica , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1656-1665, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094555

RESUMO

According to prediction-based learning theories, erroneous predictions support learning. However, empirical evidence for a relation between prediction error and children's language learning is currently lacking. Here we investigated whether and how prediction errors influence children's learning of novel words. We hypothesized that word learning would vary as a function of 2 factors: the extent to which children generate predictions, and the extent to which children redirect attention in response to errors. Children were tested in a novel word learning task, which used eye tracking to measure (a) real-time semantic predictions to familiar referents, (b) attention redirection following prediction errors, and (c) learning of novel referents. Results indicated that predictions and prediction errors interdependently supported novel word learning, via children's efficient redirection of attention. This study provides a developmental evaluation of prediction-based theories and suggests that erroneous predictions play a mechanistic role in children's language learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica
11.
Neuroimage ; 195: 165-173, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946951

RESUMO

In a multi- and inter-cultural world, we daily encounter new words. Adult learners often rely on a situational context to learn and understand a new word's meaning. Here, we explored whether interactive learning facilitates word learning by directing the learner's attention to a correct new word referent when a situational context is non-informative. We predicted larger involvement of inferior parietal, frontal, and visual cortices involved in visuo-spatial attention during interactive learning. We scanned participants while they played a visual word learning game with and without a social partner. As hypothesized, interactive learning enhanced activity in the right Supramarginal Gyrus when the situational context provided little information. Activity in the right Inferior Frontal Gyrus during interactive learning correlated with post-scanning behavioral test scores, while these scores correlated with activity in the Fusiform Gyrus in the non-interactive group. These results indicate that attention is involved in interactive learning when the situational context is minimal and suggest that individual learning processes may be largely different from interactive ones. As such, they challenge the ecological validity of what we know about individual learning and advocate the exploration of interactive learning in naturalistic settings.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Linguagem , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 196: 26-32, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974399

RESUMO

This study aims at assessing and comparing two different methods for learning new vocabulary words in a foreign language. Learning vocabulary with images as non-verbal aids was compared to learning vocabulary with real objects. The Rwandan children who participated in this study learnt French as a third language. They took part in training sessions to learn different French words either seeing the corresponding image or holding the corresponding object. The training program was implemented in a Rwandan primary school with children of different ages (from five to 10 years old). The results showed that the words associated to objects that were held by the children during learning were better memorized than the words associated with images. The global memory performance was lower for the youngest children; however, learning with objects proved to be superior over learning with images for all ages. Taken together, the findings underscore that learning vocabulary with real objects is particularly efficient and support the idea that the embodied theory of language is a key element to effectively master a foreign language.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Apego ao Objeto , Tato/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino
13.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(6): 1846-1879, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924054

RESUMO

To investigate if top-down contingent capture by color cues relies on verbal or semantic templates, we combined different stimuli representing colors physically or semantically in six contingent-capture experiments. In contingent capture, only cues that match the top-down search templates lead to validity effects (shorter search times and fewer errors for validly than for invalidly cued targets) resulting from attentional capture by the cue. We compared validity effects of color cues and color-word cues in top-down search for color targets (Experiment 1a) and color-word targets (Experiment 2). We also compared validity effects of color cues and color-associated symbolic cues during search for color targets (Experiment 1b) and of color-word cues during search for both color and color-word targets (Experiment 3). Only cues of the same stimulus category as the target (either color or color-word cues) captured attention. This makes it unlikely that color search is based on verbal or semantic search templates. Additionally, the validity effect of matching color-word cues during search for color-word targets was neither changed by cue-target graphic (font) similarity versus dissimilarity (Experiment 4) nor by articulatory suppression (Experiment 5). These results suggested either a phonological long-term memory template or an orthographically mediated effect of the color-word cues during search for color-words. Altogether, our findings are in line with a pronounced role of color-based templates during contingent capture by color and do not support semantic or verbal influences in this situation.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Semântica , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Cor , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
14.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(7): 1050-1057, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance is a substantial health issue for American Indians, with type 2 diabetes overrepresented in this population as compared with non-Hispanic whites. Insulin resistance and its related conditions in turn increase risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. The aim of the current study was to determine whether type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance at midlife was associated with later-life cognitive testing in a large sample of older American Indians, aged 65 and older. METHODS: American Indian participants who underwent both fasting blood draw as part of the Strong Heart Study and had subsequent cognitive testing as part of the later adjunct Cerebrovascular Disease and its Consequences in American Indians study were included (n = 790). Regression models examined type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose and subsequent cognitive test performance as part of a longitudinal study design. The relationship between a continuous measure of insulin resistance and later cognitive test performance was assessed using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Controlling for demographic and clinical factors, verbal fluency and processing speed/working memory were significantly negatively associated with having type 2 diabetes and with insulin resistance, but not with impaired fasting glucose. CONCLUSION: In this sample of American Indians, type 2 diabetes at midlife was associated with subsequent lower performance on measures of executive function. These results may have important implications for future implementation of diagnostic and intervention services in this population.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Idoso , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
15.
Cogn Behav Neurol ; 32(1): 39-45, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction affects 40% to 70% of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sex may influence a person's cognition. Although a few studies have reported greater cognitive deficits in men than women, it is unclear whether specific cognitive domains are more vulnerable than others to the effects of sex or whether cognition is influenced by neurologic or psychiatric variables. METHODS: A chart review was undertaken of 408 people with MS referred to neuropsychological services. Demographic and MS-related variables were extracted from the patients' records. We used the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Multiple Sclerosis for the neuropsychological assessment. Raw test scores were converted to z scores using Canadian regression-based normative means. A general linear model was conducted on the adjusted scores, controlling for age; years of education; disease course; illness duration; and disability, anxiety, and depression scores. RESULTS: Men were more likely than women to have primary progressive MS (χ=6.415, P=0.011). There were no other sex differences with respect to demographic, neurologic, or psychiatric data. Women performed significantly better than men on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition Total Learning index (F=7.846, P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: An analysis of a large, consecutive sample of people with MS demonstrated that sex, independent of demographic, neurologic, or psychiatric factors, is an important determinant in cognitive impairment, with men being more impaired than women on tests of verbal learning and memory.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Adulto , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
16.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(7): 982-989, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to present the psychometric properties of a newly designed cognitive screening instrument, the Multicultural Cognitive Examination (MCE), and to compare it with the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) in a multicultural population. METHODS: The study was a Western European cross-sectional multicenter study. The MCE consists of four components evaluating separate cognitive functions and was constructed by adding measures of memory, verbal fluency, and visuospatial function to the RUDAS to create a scale with 0 to 100 points. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients with dementia and 123 cognitively intact participants were included across six memory clinics; 96 had minority ethnic background, and 93 had majority ethnic background. Moderate to large differences were present between patients with dementia and control participants on all MCE components. The MCE significantly improved diagnostic accuracy compared with using the RUDAS alone, with area under the curves of .918, .984, and .991 for the RUDAS, MCE composite, and demographically corrected composite scores, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of the MCE did not significantly differ between minority and majority ethnic groups. Across MCE subcomponents, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia performed significantly poorer on the memory component compared with those with non-AD dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The MCE is a brief cross-cultural cognitive screening instrument that expands evaluation of the cognitive functions covered by the RUDAS, does not require any specialized training, and may be useful for classification of mild dementia or dementia subtypes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Cognição/fisiologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Psicometria , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
17.
Dev Psychol ; 55(5): 934-950, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730174

RESUMO

Associative word learning, the ability to pair a concept to a word, is an essential mechanism for early language development. One common method by which researchers measure this ability is the Switch task (Werker, Cohen, Lloyd, Casasola, & Stager, 1998), wherein infants are habituated to 2 word-object pairings and then tested on their ability to notice a switch in those pairings. In this comprehensive meta-analysis, we summarized 141 Switch task studies involving 2,723 infants of 12 to 20 months to estimate an average effect size for the task (random-effect model) and to explore how key experimental factors affect infants' performance (fixed-effect model). The average effect size was low to moderate in size, Cohen's d = 0.32. The use of language-typical and dissimilar-sounding words as well as the presence of additional facilitative cues aided performance, particularly for younger infants. Infants learning 2 languages at home outperformed those learning 1, indicating a bilingual advantage in learning word-object associations. Together, these findings support the Processing Rich Information from Multidimensional Interactive Representations (PRIMIR) theoretical framework of infant speech perception and word learning (e.g., Werker & Curtin, 2005), but invite further theoretical work to account for the observed bilingual advantage. Lastly, some of our analyses raised the possibility of questionable research practices in this literature. Therefore, we conclude with suggestions (e.g., preregistration, transparent data peeking, and alternate statistical approaches) for how to address this important issue. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Multilinguismo
18.
Neuropsychology ; 33(2): 263-274, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wernicke's area is a key component of the cortical language network, and it is functionally related to the comprehension of oral and written language. In addition to its main role in the perception of language, some other functions related to verbal learning also seem to involve the activity of this cortical region. It is unknown whether different degrees of neuromodulation on this area determine its effect on word learning. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the influence of the application of anodal transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) over Wernicke's area at two different intensities on word learning. METHOD: We compared the effect of anodal tDCS at an intensity of 0.5 mA and 1.5 mA with sham tDCS, separately in different groups, on performance in a word learning and recall task. RESULTS: The results show that 1.5 mA anodal tDCS improved performance. The number of words learned in this condition was higher compared with stimulation at 0.5 mA current strength and sham stimulation. Furthermore, stimulation with 1.5 mA specifically prevented the interference effect over word learning, compared to the other two tDCS conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results show an intensity-dependent effect of anodal tDCS on verbal memory formation. These findings are discussed in the context of the various functions of Wernicke's area and the ability of tDCS to modulate the activity and functionality of this cortical area at different intensities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Área de Wernicke/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 380-386, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599442

RESUMO

Genetic variation may impact on local DNA methylation patterns. Therefore, information about allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) within disease-related loci has been proposed to be useful for the interpretation of GWAS results. To explore mechanisms that may underlie associations between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia risk CLU gene and verbal memory, one of the most affected cognitive domains in both conditions, we studied DNA methylation in a region between AD-associated SNPs rs9331888 and rs9331896 in 72 healthy individuals and 73 schizophrenia patients. Using single-molecule real-time bisulfite sequencing we assessed the haplotype-dependent ASM in this region. We then investigated whether its methylation could influence episodic verbal memory measured with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in these two cohorts. The region showed a complex methylation pattern, which was similar in healthy and schizophrenia individuals and unrelated to haplotypes. The pattern predicted memory scores in controls. The results suggest that epigenetic modifications within the CLU locus may play a role in memory variation, independent of ASM.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Clusterina/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 595-602, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the specificity of executive functioning (EF) decline in older adults with bipolar disorders (OABD), or the impact of bipolar disorders (BD) on the timing and slope of age-related declines in EF processes implicated in both BD etiology and normative aging-cognitive control (CC). This cross-sectional study investigated age-related CC decline in BD. METHODS: Participants were 43 adults with BD (M age = 61.5, SD = 15.8; 86% male) and 45 Controls (M age = 65.2, SD = 12.2; 98% male). Two-way ANOVAs examined the effects of median-age-split and diagnostic groups on cognitive processes with established BD deficits-CC processes (mental flexibility and response inhibition), verbal learning, and verbal fluency. RESULTS: The median-split-age-by-diagnostic-group interaction was significant for mental flexibility; OABD performed significantly worse than younger adults with BD and younger and older Controls. Exploratory multivariate adaptive regression spline characterized non-linear nature of aging-slope changes in mental flexibility for each diagnostic group, yielding an inflection point at older age and steeper subsequent decline in OABD versus Controls. LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by a small sample (particularly for select neuropsychological measures) of mostly Caucasian men and BD diagnoses based on clinical interview and medical records review. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to healthy older adults, OABD showed steeper age-related decline in mental flexibility-select EF processes that depend on the integrity of the CC system. Preliminary evidence links CC integrity to daily functioning in OABD; accelerated aging decline in CC may pose a mechanism for high risk of functional impairment and dementia in OABD.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Idoso , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
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