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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 100, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397954

RESUMO

Hippocampal synaptic plasticity includes both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength, and has been implicated in shaping place field representations that form upon initial exposure to a novel environment. However, direct evidence causally linking either LTP or LTD to place fields remains limited. Here, we show that hippocampal LTD regulates the acute formation and maintenance of place fields using electrophysiology and blocking specifically LTD in freely-moving rats. We also show that exploration of a novel environment produces a widespread and pathway specific de novo synaptic depression in the dorsal hippocampus. Furthermore, disruption of this pathway-specific synaptic depression alters both the dynamics of place field formation and the stability of the newly formed place fields, affecting spatial memory in rats. These results suggest that activity-dependent synaptic depression is required for the acquisition and maintenance of novel spatial information.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Depressão Sináptica de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Endocitose , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 141(1): 93-110, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390452

RESUMO

There has been little information about the role of histamine on the central nervous system (CNS), different from dopamine and serotonin. In the present study, therefore, the effects of histamine and related compounds on the CNS were studied using rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine and 2-methylhistamine ameliorated memory deficit after long interrution of learning in active avoidance response. First generation H1-antagonists inhibited active avoidance response, whereas newly develpoed H1-antagonists showed little effect. α-Fluoromethylhistidine, an histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, also inhibited active avoidance response. In radial maze performance, almost the same findings were obtained. I.c.v. injection of histamine and H1-agonists inhibited amygdaloid kindled seizures. First generation H1-antagonists attenuated histamine-induced inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. Both i.c.v. and intraperitoneal injections of H3-antagonist, thioperamide, resulted in a dose-related inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures. The effect of thioperamide was inhibited by an H3-agonists and H1-antagonists. Similar to nitrazepam, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine caused a shortening of sleep latency. On the other hand, no significant effects were observed with second generation H1-antagonists. These findings suggest that histamine plays an important role in learning and memory via H1-receptors, an inhibition of amygdaloid kindled seizures induced by histamine occurred through not only H1-receptors but also H3-receptors, and that classic H1-antagonists can be useful as a effective hypnotic for difficulty in falling asleep.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/farmacologia , Histamina/farmacologia , Metilistaminas/farmacologia , Metilistidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Histamina/administração & dosagem , Histamina/metabolismo , Histamina/fisiologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Injeções Intraventriculares , Excitação Neurológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Metilistaminas/administração & dosagem , Metilistidinas/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Ratos , Receptores Histamínicos H3/metabolismo , Receptores Histamínicos H3/fisiologia , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 92: 104265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011429

RESUMO

Many older adults perform collision-avoidance behavior either insufficiently (i.e., frequent collision) or inefficiently (i.e., exaggerated behavior to ensure collision-avoidance). The present study examined whether a training system using virtual reality (VR) simulation enhanced older adults' collision-avoidance behavior in response to a VR image of an aperture during real walking. Twenty-five (n = 13 intervention group and n = 12 control group) older individuals participated. During training, a VR image of walking through an aperture was projected onto a large screen. Participants in the intervention group tried to avoid virtual collision with the minimum body rotation required to walk on the spot through a variety of narrow apertures. Participants in the control group remained without body rotation while walking on the spot through a wide aperture. A comparison between pre-test and post-test performances in the real environment indicated that after the training, significantly smaller body rotation angles were observed in the intervention group. This suggests that the training led participants to modify their behavior to try to move efficiently during real walking. However, although not significant, collision rates also tended to be greater, suggesting that, at least for some participants, the modification required to avoid collision was too difficult. Transfer of the learned behavior using the VR environment to real walking is discussed.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Idoso , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Humanos , Caminhada
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239817, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052978

RESUMO

Individuals tend to avoid cognitive demand, yet, individual differences appear to exist. Recent evidence from two studies suggests that individuals high in the personality traits Self-Control and Need for Cognition that are related to the broader construct Cognitive Effort Investment are less prone to avoid cognitive demand and show less effort discounting. These findings suggest that cost-benefit models of decision-making that integrate the costs due to effort should consider individual differences in the willingness to exert mental effort. However, to date, there are almost no replication attempts of the above findings. For the present conceptual replication, we concentrated on the avoidance of cognitive demand and used a longitudinal design and latent state-trait modeling. This approach enabled us to separate the trait-specific variance in our measures of Cognitive Effort Investment and Demand Avoidance that is due to stable, individual differences from the variance that is due to the measurement occasion, the methods used, and measurement error. Doing so allowed us to test the assumption that self-reported Cognitive Effort Investment is related to behavioral Demand Avoidance more directly by relating their trait-like features to each other. In a sample of N = 217 participants, we observed both self-reported Cognitive Effort Investment and behavioral Demand Avoidance to exhibit considerable portions of trait variance. However, these trait variances were not significantly related to each other. Thus, our results call into question previous findings of a relationship between self-reported effort investment and demand avoidance. We suggest that novel paradigms are needed to emulate real-world effortful situations and enable better mapping between self-reported measures and behavioral markers of the willingness to exert cognitive effort.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Motivação , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5076, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033264

RESUMO

Proper threat-reward decision-making is critical to animal survival. Emerging evidence indicates that the motor system may participate in decision-making but the neural circuit and molecular bases for these functions are little known. We found in C. elegans that GABAergic motor neurons (D-MNs) bias toward the reward behavior in threat-reward decision-making by retrogradely inhibiting a pair of premotor command interneurons, AVA, that control cholinergic motor neurons in the avoidance neural circuit. This function of D-MNs is mediated by a specific ionotropic GABA receptor (UNC-49) in AVA, and depends on electrical coupling between the two AVA interneurons. Our results suggest that AVA are hub neurons where sensory inputs from threat and reward sensory modalities and motor information from D-MNs are integrated. This study demonstrates at single-neuron resolution how motor neurons may help shape threat-reward choice behaviors through interacting with other neurons.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Locomoção/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Viés , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Glicerol/farmacologia , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Optogenética , Concentração Osmolar , Receptores Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866215

RESUMO

The term "retroactive avoidance" refers to a special class of effects of future stimulus presentations on past behavioral responses. Specifically, it refers to the anticipatory avoidance of aversive stimuli that were unpredictable through random selection after the response. This phenomenon is supposed to challenge the common view of the arrow of time and the direction of causality. Preliminary evidence of "retroactive avoidance" has been published in mainstream psychological journals and started a heated debate about the robustness and the true existence of this effect. A series of seven experiments published in 2014 in the Journal of Consciousness Studies (Maier et al., 2014) tested the influence of randomly drawn future negative picture presentations on avoidance responses based on key presses preceding them. The final study in that series used a sophisticated quantum-based random stimulus selection procedure and implemented the most severe test of retroactive avoidance within this series. Evidence for the effect, though significant, was meager and anecdotal, Bayes factor (BF10) = 2. The research presented here represents an attempt to exactly replicate the original effect with a high-power (N = 2004) preregistered multi-lab study. The results indicate that the data favored the null effect (i.e., absence of retroactive avoidance) with a BF01 = 4.38. Given the empirical strengths of the study, namely its preregistration, multi-lab approach, high power, and Bayesian analysis used, this failed replication questions the validity and robustness of the original findings. Not reaching a decisive level of Bayesian evidence and not including skeptical researchers may be considered limitations of this study. Exploratory analyses of the change in evidence for the effect across time, performed on a post-hoc basis, revealed several potentially interesting anomalies in the data that might guide future research in this area.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008163, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898146

RESUMO

Learning to avoid harmful consequences can be a costly trial-and-error process. In such situations, social information can be leveraged to improve individual learning outcomes. Here, we investigated how participants used their own experiences and others' social cues to avoid harm. Participants made repeated choices between harmful and safe options, each with different probabilities of generating shocks, while also seeing the image of a social partner. Some partners made predictive gaze cues towards the harmful choice option while others cued an option at random, and did so using neutral or fearful facial expressions. We tested how learned social information about partner reliability transferred across contexts by letting participants encounter the same partner in multiple trial blocks while facing novel choice options. Participants' decisions were best explained by a reinforcement learning model that independently learned the probabilities of options being safe and of partners being reliable and combined these combined these estimates to generate choices. Advice from partners making a fearful facial expression influenced participants' decisions more than advice from partners with neutral expressions. Our results showed that participants made better decisions when facing predictive partners and that they cached and transferred partner reliability estimates into new blocks. Using simulations we show that participants' transfer of social information into novel contexts is better adapted to variable social environments where social partners may change their cuing strategy or become untrustworthy. Finally, we found no relation between autism questionnaire scores and performance in our task, but do find autism trait related differences in learning rate parameters.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comunicação , Biologia Computacional , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201894, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900312

RESUMO

Some camouflaged animals hide colour signals and display them only transiently. These hidden colour signals are often conspicuous and are used as a secondary defence to warn or startle predators (deimatic displays) and/or to confuse them (flash displays). The hidden signals used in these displays frequently resemble typical aposematic signals, so it is possible that prey with hidden signals have evolved to employ colour patterns of a form that predators have previously learned to associate with unprofitability. Here, we tested this hypothesis by conducting two experiments that examined the effect of predator avoidance learning on the efficacy of deimatic and flash displays. We found that the survival benefits of both deimatic and flash displays were substantially higher against predators that had previously learned to associate the hidden colours with unprofitability than against naive predators. These findings help explain the phenological patterns we found in 1568 macro-lepidopteran species on three continents: species with hidden signals tend to occur later in the season than species without hidden signals.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Pigmentação , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Cor , Sinais (Psicologia) , Estações do Ano
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4484, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901027

RESUMO

Chronic stress is a key risk factor for mood disorders like depression, but the stress-induced changes in brain circuit function and gene expression underlying depression symptoms are not completely understood, hindering development of novel treatments. Because of its projections to brain regions regulating reward and anxiety, the ventral hippocampus is uniquely poised to translate the experience of stress into altered brain function and pathological mood, though the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are not fully understood. Here, we use a novel method of circuit-specific gene editing to show that the transcription factor ΔFosB drives projection-specific activity of ventral hippocampus glutamatergic neurons causing behaviorally diverse responses to stress. We establish molecular, cellular, and circuit-level mechanisms for depression- and anxiety-like behavior in response to stress and use circuit-specific gene expression profiling to uncover novel downstream targets as potential sites of therapeutic intervention in depression.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/deficiência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico
10.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13447, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902039

RESUMO

Nest building is an instinctive behavior toward protection from predators, body temperature regulation, and courtship. Previously, we discovered that acute and chronic social defeat stress suppresses the onset of nest-building behavior in male mice (C57BL/6J). Here, we analyzed nest building and other behavioral deficits induced by acute social defeat stress (ASDS). We utilized a customized cage and specifically developed observational programs for nest building, social avoidance, and other behaviors using an infrared depth camera to acquire three-dimensional (3D) data of animal behavior (Negura system). We determined the volume of nesting materials from these 3D depth images. Mice exposed to ASDS showed increased spontaneous activities, decreased rearing, and delayed nest building; however, nest-building activity was gradually recovered during the dark period of the 24 hr observation interval. At the endpoint following 24 hr, the ASDS and control groups showed no differences in nest volumes. Furthermore, we observed the time courses of both nest building and social avoidance behaviors and their relationship using the Negura system. Our data demonstrated a weak positive correlation between nest-building delay and social avoidance in ASDS mice. The Negura system can observe various behaviors that reflect the effects of social defeat stress.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/instrumentação , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Fotografação/instrumentação , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fotografação/métodos
11.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(12): 1287-1298, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Main aims of the study are to examine the early psychological correlates associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on the mental health of a Spanish older adult sample and to analyze the influence of past mental disorder (PMD) and current mental disorder (CMD) on those correlates. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on an online snowball recruiting questionnaire. Psychological correlates assessed with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and Impact of Event Scale (IES). Binary and multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify risk and protective factors. RESULTS: Final sample included 2,194 individuals aged 60 years or more (mean age [SD]: 65.62 [5.05]; females: 1,198 [54.6%]). There were 342 (15.6%) individuals who reported a PMD and 162 (7.4%) who reported a CMD. Avoidant (32.1%) and depressive (25.6%) styles were the most prevalent, regardless of mental health status. Main risk factors for negative affectivity were female gender and history CMD or PMD. However, job stability and the ability to enjoy free time were generally associated with better outcomes. No differences were found in psychological correlates between those with no lifetime history of mental disorder versus PMD on the DASS-21 or IES. However, CMD was associated with higher anxiety scores on the DASS-21 (odds ratio: 1.838, p < .001). CONCLUSION: Regardless of mental status, avoidant and depressive styles were the most prevalent in this older adult sample. Main protective factor in all subgroups was the ability to enjoy free time, whereas the main risk factors were being female and current or past history of mental disorder.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estresse Psicológico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
12.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(4): 346-354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory response exerts an important role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) are key components in inflammation and are involved in the cerebral I/R injury. Irisin is a skeletal muscle-derived myokine produced after exercise, which was found to suppress inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether irisin could protect the brain from I/R injury through the TLR4/MyD88 pathway. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats (20 months, 190 ∼ 240 g) were pretreated with irisin at 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg for consecutive 3 days and then subjected to surgery of middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham operation. Infarct size and neuron loss were measured to evaluate brain damage. The mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 and MyD88 were measured by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. NF-κB activation was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Neurological function was evaluated by neurobehavior score test and passive avoidance test. RESULTS: Irisin could reduce neuronal damage and neurofunctional impairment after I/R injury. This effect was mediated by downregulating the TLR4/MyD88 and inhibiting NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Irisin plays a beneficial effect in I/R injury through regulating the TLR4/MyD88 pathway.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibronectinas/farmacologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4220, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839437

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by emotional hypermnesia on which preclinical studies focus so far. While this hypermnesia relates to salient traumatic cues, partial amnesia for the traumatic context can also be observed. Here, we show in mice that contextual amnesia is causally involved in PTSD-like memory formation, and that treating the amnesia by re-exposure to all trauma-related cues cures PTSD-like hypermnesia. These findings open a therapeutic perspective based on trauma contextualization and the underlying hippocampal mechanisms.


Assuntos
Amnésia/prevenção & controle , Amnésia/terapia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785255

RESUMO

Airborne spatial repellency (SR) is characterized and distinguished from other chemical actions including contact locomotor excitation and toxicity. The use of volatile spatial repellents is a potential new intervention class for combatting mosquito-borne pathogen transmission; therefore, continuing investigations on the actions of these chemicals that modify mosquito host-seeking behavior (i.e., bite prevention) is needed. The objective of this study is to characterize the key behavioral avoidance actions of transfluthrin (TFT) to advance spatial repellent development into practical products. Behavioral avoidance responses were observed for adult laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and An. dirus, and two field populations of An. harrisoni and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Established TFT sublethal (LC50 and LC75), lethal concentrations (LC99) and discriminating concentrations (DCs) were selected corresponding to each mosquito test species. Spatial repellency and contact excitation ('irritancy') responses on adult mosquitoes to TFT were assessed using an excito-repellency assay system. At LC50, TFT exhibited strong avoidance with An. minimus (60.1% escape) and An. dirus (80% escape) laboratory strains, showing between 12 and 16x greater escape response than Ae. aegypti (5% escape). Repellency responses for field collected Ae. aegypti and An. harrisoni were 54.9 and 47.1% escape, respectively. After adjusting the initial contact escape response (a measure of combined irritancy and repellency) to estimate only escape due to contact, the LC50 and LC99 showed moderate escape irritancy with laboratory Ae. aegypti (41.4% escape) and no contact activity against the field population. Adjustment showed only weak contact activity (16.1% escape) in laboratory An. minimus at LC50. Spatial repellency is the predominant mode of action of TFT among colonized and field mosquitoes used in this study. Established baseline (susceptible) dose-response curves assist in optimizing SR products for mosquito control and pathogen transmission prevention.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Fluorbenzenos/farmacologia , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/fisiologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/prevenção & controle
15.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 94-98, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent psychological research into the effects of COVID-19 has focused largely on understanding excessive fear reactions ("over-responses"). Equally important, but neglected phenomena concern "under-responses", in which people downplay the significance of COVID-19. People who do not take the pandemic seriously may be less likely to adhere to social distancing policies. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate the differential predictors of over- and under-responses to COVID-19. METHODS: A large community sample from the United States and Canada (N = 6,854) completed measures of beliefs associated with over- and under-responses, along with measures of distress, excessive avoidance, and nonadherence to social distancing. Over-response beliefs were assessed by scales measuring beliefs about the dangerousness of COVID-19 (personal health and socio-economic threats) and COVID-19-related xenophobia (beliefs that foreigners are spreading the virus). Under-response beliefs were assessed by scales measuring beliefs that the threat of COVID-19 has been exaggerated, and beliefs that one is sufficiently healthy to be robust against the effects of COVID-19. RESULTS: In regression analyses, medium or large effects were obtained whereby over-response beliefs predicted distress (including distress associated with self-isolation) and excessive avoidance during the pandemic, whereas under-response beliefs predicted the disregard for social distancing. LIMITATIONS: This study relied on self-reported cross-sectional data and focused on extreme forms of disregard for social distancing guidelines, CONCLUSION: : It is important to understand under-responses to COVID-19 and how these relate to distress, excessive avoidance, and nonadherence to social distancing. Implications for addressing the problems of over- and under-response are discussed.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Angústia Psicológica , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Estados Unidos
16.
Cuad. bioét ; 31(102): 139-149, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194274

RESUMO

La crisis del COVID-19 deja una enseñanza en forma de reminiscencia. No aprendemos de ella nada nuevo, pero nos recuerda algo que supimos y olvidamos. Nos muestra con nueva luz nuestra vulnerabilidad, la imposibilidad de protegernos perfectamente mediante la predicción y el control. Las ciencias no predicen con certeza y las tecnologías no alcanzan a tenerlo todo bajo control, aunque las primeras y las segundas tengan otras muchas y beneméritas funciones. Las ideologías, no ven el futuro, por más que simulen hacerlo. Y, sin embargo, no carecemos que guía fiable para decidir nuestras acciones. Esta orientación hay que buscarla en el ser, no en el porvenir. Es la fidelidad a nuestra común naturaleza humana la que ha de aconsejarnos, es la realización plena de nuestro ser personal, de nuestra peculiar vocación la que nos guía. Y el medio para la autorrealización consiste en el desarrollo de un carácter virtuoso. El mismo carácter que ha mitigado los estragos de la pandemia, pues en cierto grado estaba ya presente en muchos de nuestros conciudadanos, el mismo que hubiera paliado aun más el sufrimiento de haber estado disponible en más personas y en mayor grado


The crisis of COVID-19 leaves us a teaching in the form of reminiscence. We do not learn anything new from it, but it reminds us of something we knew and forgot. It shows us in a new light our vulnerability, the impossibility of protecting ourselves perfectly through prediction and control. The sciences do not predict with certainty and the technologies do not manage to have everything under control, although the former and the latter have many other and worthwhile functions. Ideologies do not see the future, no matter how much they pretend to do so. However, we are not without reliable guidance in deciding our actions. This orientation must be sought in being, not in the future. It is fidelity to our common human nature that must advise us. It is the full realization of our personal being, of our peculiar vocation, that guides us. So, the means for self-realization consists in the development of a virtuous character. The same character that has mitigated the ravages of the pandemic, given that, to some degree, it was already present in many of our fellow citizens. The same that would have alleviated the suffering even more if it had been available in more people and to a greater degree


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Vulnerabilidade a Desastres , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/ética , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/ética , Previsões , Incerteza , Pandemias/ética , Prevenção de Doenças
17.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 1765456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655723

RESUMO

Purpose: Pacing, avoidance, and overdoing are considered the three main behavioral strategies, also labeled activity patterns. Their relationship with functioning of patients with chronic pain is debated. The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of activity patterns on lifting tasks commonly used in daily life. Method: We performed a monocentric observational study and included patients performing Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). Avoidance, pacing, and persistence were assessed with using the Patterns of Activity Measures-Pain (POAM-P). Maximal safe performance was measured for floor-to-waist, waist-to-overhead, horizontal lift, and carrying with dominant-hand tests according to the FCE guidelines. Descriptive statistics, associations of POAM-P subscales with various sociodemographic variables, and correlations are presented. Standard multiple linear regression models were applied to measure the associations between FCE tests and POAM-P subscales, adjusting for the following potential confounders: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), pain severity, trauma severity, localization of injury, and education. Results: Persistence was significantly positively associated with performance on the 4 FCE tests: floor-to-waist (coefficient = 0.20; p=0.001), waist-to-overhead (coefficient = 0.13; p=0.004), horizontal lift (coefficient = 0.31; p ≤ 0.001), and dominant-handed lifting (coefficient = 0.19; p=0.001). Pacing was found to have a negative influence on the carrying dominant-hand test (coefficient = -0.14; p=0.034), and avoidance was not found to have an influence on the 4 FCE tests. Conclusion: This study shows that task-persistence pattern is positively associated with physical performance in FCE, whereas pacing can have a negative influence on some tests.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Dor Crônica , Dor Musculoesquelética , Adulto , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/psicologia , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140368, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610235

RESUMO

Global climate changes are predicted for the 21st century. Alterations in soil contaminants' availability and soil invertebrates' behavior are expected, which may interfere with the avoidance capacity that invertebrates may have towards contaminated soils and, therefore, compromise their role in soil functioning. This study aimed to assess the individual effects of air temperature, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atmospheric CO2 concentration on the avoidance behavior of the arthropod Folsomia candida and the soft-bodied oligochaete Enchytraeus crypticus towards metal(loid)-contaminated soils. Avoidance behavior was evaluated under distinct climate treatments (simulating increases in air temperature, UV radiation exposure or atmospheric CO2 concentration) and compared to the response obtained at the standard conditions recommended by ISO guidelines. Both soil invertebrate species behave differently under standard conditions, with F. candida not avoiding the contaminated soils while E. crypticus did. Increases in air temperature and exposure to UV radiation did not change F. candida behavior towards contaminated soils. However, high atmospheric CO2 concentration modified this pattern and induced avoidance towards contaminated soils. As for E. crypticus, contaminated soils were also avoided under the different climate treatments simulated. Thus, our study shows that, depending on the species and the climate factor, changes in climate conditions may alter soil invertebrates' behavioral pattern towards meta(loid)-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Metais , Solo
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109193, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668205

RESUMO

Embryonic studies have demonstrated the neurotoxic, teratogenic, and neurobehavioral toxicity of ethanol (EtOH). Although multiple mechanisms may contribute to these effects, oxidative stress has been described as the major damage pathway. In this regard, natural antioxidants have the potential to counteract oxidative stress-induced cellular damage. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential protective role of 24-epibrassinolide (24-EPI), a natural brassinosteroid with proved antioxidant properties, in EtOH-induced teratogenic effects during early zebrafish development. Embryos (~2 h post-fertilization - hpf) were exposed to 1 % EtOH, co-exposed to 24-EPI (0.01, 0.1 and 1 µM) and to 24-EPI alone (1 µM) for 24 h. Following exposure, biochemical evaluations were made at 26 hpf, developmental analysis was made throughout the embryo-larval period, and behavioural responses were evaluated at 120 hpf. Exposure to 1 % EtOH caused an increase in the number of malformations, which were diminished by 24-EPI. In addition, EtOH induced an accumulation of GSSG and consequent reduction of GSH:GSSG ratio, indicating the involvement of oxidative mechanisms in the EtOH-induced effects. These were reverted by 24-EPI as proved by the GSSG levels and GSH:GSSG ratio that returned to control values. Furthermore, exposure to EtOH resulted in behavioural deficits at 120 hpf as observed by the disrupted response to an aversive stimulus, suggesting the involvement of neurotoxic mechanisms. 24-EPI restored the behavioural deficits observed in a dose-dependent manner. The absence of effects in the embryos exposed solely to 24-EPI showed its safety during the exposure period. In conclusion, EtOH caused developmental teratogenicity and behavioural toxicity by inducing glutathione changes, which were prevented by 24-EPI.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Embrião não Mamífero/patologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/anormalidades , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Social
20.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 47(1): 45-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this observational cohort study were to 1) cluster individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) into subgroups according to their level of anxiety sensitivity (AS) and experiential avoidance (EA), and 2) compare subgroups with respect to anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Individuals were recruited from an ABI outpatient clinic in Ontario, Canada and completed comprehensive psychosocial questionnaires. A two-step cluster analysis was performed to identify unique subgroups based on the clustering variables Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) which measure AS and EA, respectively. Clinical outcome measures were compared between clusters using multivariate analysis of variance: Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 item (anxiety); Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression), and EQ-5D overall health item (QoL). RESULTS: Among 86 participants included for analysis (mean age 47.1±14.2 years, 54.7% female), three unique clusters were produced. ASI and AAQ were significantly different among all groups (p < 0.001). Cluster 1 (n = 26) had the lowest levels of AS and EA whereas Cluster 3 (n = 24) had the highest levels of AS and EA; Cluster 2 (n = 36) had moderate levels of AS and EA. There was no significant difference between groups in age, gender, time since injury, or Glasgow Coma Scale scores. Cluster 3 had significantly higher anxiety and depression scores than Cluster 1 and 2 (p < 0.001 for all). Further, Cluster 2 had significantly higher anxiety and depression scores than Cluster 1 (p < 0.001 for all). There was no significant difference in EQ-5D scores between Clusters 1 and 2 or Cluster 2 and 3; however, Cluster 3 scored significantly lower on EQ-5D than Cluster 1 (p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: There exists a subgroup of individuals with ABI that have high levels of AS and EA; this was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety and depression, and poorer QoL. Interventions to address AS and EA may improve mood and QoL in this population.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
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