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1.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 690: 108460, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous research revealed that trypsin is abundantly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques and its distribution overlaps with that of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). This study was performed to explore the possible roles of trypsin in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four rabbits were randomly assigned to a normal (control) group, an atherosclerosis (experimental) group and a trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin) group. In the 13th feeding week, the aprotinin group was treated with 5 mg/kg/day aprotinin via ear vein for 4 weeks. At the end of the 16th week, coronary arterial and aortic expression of trypsin, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), activated MMP-9, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group. Aprotinin decreased trypsin expression and activation in plaques, blocked PAR-2 and MMP-9 activation, and decreased cytokine expression; it also increased fibrous cap thickness, decreased the intima-media thickness and intimal/medial ratio, thus significantly ameliorating plaque vulnerability. Upregulated trypsin, MMP-9 and PAR-2 were also found in coronary intimal atherosclerotic plaques of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. CONCLUSIONS: Ectopic trypsin was significantly upregulated in atherosclerotic plaques, which increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels by activating PAR-2 and promoted plaque instability by activating proMMP-9, thereby promoting atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability. In addition, the high trypsin expression in human coronary intimal atherosclerotic plaques suggests that targeting trypsin may be a new strategy for acute coronary syndrome prevention.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica/química , Tripsina/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/química , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Aprotinina/metabolismo , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Coelhos , Receptor PAR-2/metabolismo , Tripsina/genética , Inibidores da Tripsina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Tripsina/metabolismo
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(5)2018 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is still uncertainty about the safety of aprotinin for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The ART (Arterial Revascularization Trial) was designed to compare survival after bilateral versus single internal thoracic artery grafting. Many of the ART patients (≈30%) received perioperative aprotinin. We investigated the association between perioperative aprotinin administration and short-term (in-hospital) and long-term outcomes by performing a post hoc analysis of the ART. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among patients enrolled in the ART (n=3102) from 2004 to 2007, we excluded those who did not undergo surgery (n=18) and those with no information about use of perioperative aprotinin (n=9). Finally, 836 of 3076 patients (27%) received aprotinin. Propensity matching was used to select 536 pairs for final comparison. Aprotinin was also associated with an increased risk of hospital mortality (9 [1.7%] versus 1 [0.2%]; odds ratio, 9.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-72.2; P=0.03), intra-aortic balloon pump insertion (37 [6.9%] versus 17 [3.2%]; odds ratio, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.26-4.07; P=0.006), and acute kidney injury (102 [19.0%] versus 76 [14.2%]; odds ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.03-1.97; P=0.03). Aprotinin was not associated with a lower incidence of transfusion (37 [6.9%] versus 28 [5.2%]; odds ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.23; P=0.25) and reexploration (26 [4.9%] versus 19 [3.5%]; hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.76-2.53; P=0.28). At 5 years, all-cause mortality was significantly increased in the aprotinin group (56 [10.6%] versus 38 [7.3%]; hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.0-2.28; P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: In the present post hoc ART analysis, aprotinin was associated with a significantly increased risk of early and late mortality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN46552265.


Assuntos
Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aprotinina/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hemostáticos/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(2): 211-215, 2018 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29375206

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate appropriate and rapid polyglycolic acid sheet (PGAs) covering time using device delivery station system (DDSS). METHODS: This pilot basic study was conducted to evaluate the potential of accurate and rapid PGAs delivery using DDSS. Three 11-mo-old female Beagle dogs were used in this study. Two endoscopic submucosal dissections (ESDs) 4cm in diameter were performed in lesser curvature of middle gastric body and greater curvature of antrum (total 6 ESDs performed). DDSS (3 cm length, 12 mm in outer diameter) has 2 chambers which 16 cm2 large 2 PGAs were stored, and DDSS was attached post ESD ulcers, respectively. Beriplast P® (CSL Behring K.K., Tokyo, Japan) (combination of fibrin glue and thrombin) was applied equally to the artificial ulcer, and tight attachment of 2 PGAs with DDSS were completed. The evaluation items were covering times, post ESD bleeding and perforation during ESD. RESULTS: The covering time of PGAs (defined as the duration from the beginning of endoscope insertion into the mouth to the end of the fibrin glue coating process) was 6.07 (4.86-8.29) min. There was no post-ESD bleeding (1-7 d after ESD), and there was no perforation during ESD. CONCLUSION: DDSS was very useful for rapid delivering and tight attachment of PGAs, and has potentials of multi-purpose delivery station system.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/instrumentação , Gastroscópios , Gastroscopia/instrumentação , Ácido Poliglicólico/administração & dosagem , Antro Pilórico/efeitos dos fármacos , Antro Pilórico/cirurgia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Cães , Formas de Dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Composição de Medicamentos , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Fator XIII/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/administração & dosagem , Gastroscopia/efeitos adversos , Duração da Cirurgia , Projetos Piloto , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Trombina/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD001884, 2017 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is administered during many types of surgery, but its efficacy and safety are increasingly questioned. Evaluation of the efficacy of agents, such as desmopressin (DDAVP; 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin), that may reduce perioperative blood loss is needed. OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence for the efficacy of DDAVP in reducing perioperative blood loss and the need for red cell transfusion in people who do not have inherited bleeding disorders. SEARCH METHODS: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2017, issue 3) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases (all searches to 3 April 2017). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials comparing DDAVP to placebo or an active comparator (e.g. tranexamic acid, aprotinin) before, during, or immediately after surgery or after invasive procedures in adults or children. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 65 completed trials (3874 participants) and four ongoing trials. Of the 65 completed trials, 39 focused on adult cardiac surgery, three on paediatric cardiac surgery, 12 on orthopaedic surgery, two on plastic surgery, and two on vascular surgery; seven studies were conducted in surgery for other conditions. These trials were conducted between 1986 and 2016, and 11 were funded by pharmaceutical companies or by a party with a commercial interest in the outcome of the trial.The GRADE quality of evidence was very low to moderate across all outcomes. No trial reported quality of life. DDAVP versus placebo or no treatmentTrial results showed considerable heterogeneity between surgical settings for total volume of red cells transfused (low-quality evidence) and for total blood loss (very low-quality evidence) due to large differences in baseline blood loss. Consequently, these outcomes were not pooled and were reported in subgroups.Compared with placebo, DDAVP may slightly decrease the total volume of red cells transfused in adult cardiac surgery (mean difference (MD) -0.52 units, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.96 to -0.08 units; 14 trials, 957 participants), but may lead to little or no difference in orthopaedic surgery (MD -0.02, 95% CI -0.67 to 0.64 units; 6 trials, 303 participants), vascular surgery (MD 0.06, 95% CI -0.60 to 0.73 units; 2 trials, 135 participants), or hepatic surgery (MD -0.47, 95% CI -1.27 to 0.33 units; 1 trial, 59 participants).DDAVP probably leads to little or no difference in the total number of participants transfused with blood (risk ratio (RR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06; 25 trials; 1806 participants) (moderate-quality evidence).Whether DDAVP decreases total blood loss in adult cardiac surgery (MD -135.24 mL, 95% CI -210.80 mL to -59.68 mL; 22 trials, 1358 participants), orthopaedic surgery (MD -285.76 mL, 95% CI -514.99 mL to -56.53 mL; 5 trials, 241 participants), or vascular surgery (MD -582.00 mL, 95% CI -1264.07 mL to 100.07 mL; 1 trial, 44 participants) is uncertain because the quality of evidence is very low.DDAVP probably leads to little or no difference in all-cause mortality (Peto odds ratio (pOR) 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.34; 22 trials, 1631 participants) or in thrombotic events (pOR 1.36, 95% CI, 0.85 to 2.16; 29 trials, 1984 participants) (both low-quality evidence). DDAVP versus placebo or no treatment for people with platelet dysfunctionCompared with placebo, DDAVP may lead to a reduction in the total volume of red cells transfused (MD -0.65 units, 95% CI -1.16 to -0.13 units; 6 trials, 388 participants) (low-quality evidence) and in total blood loss (MD -253.93 mL, 95% CI -408.01 mL to -99.85 mL; 7 trials, 422 participants) (low-quality evidence).DDAVP probably leads to little or no difference in the total number of participants receiving a red cell transfusion (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.04; 5 trials, 258 participants) (moderate-quality evidence).Whether DDAVP leads to a difference in all-cause mortality (pOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.12 to 4.22; 7 trials; 422 participants) or in thrombotic events (pOR 1.58, 95% CI 0.60 to 4.17; 7 trials, 422 participants) is uncertain because the quality of evidence is very low. DDAVP versus tranexamic acidCompared with tranexamic acid, DDAVP may increase the volume of blood transfused (MD 0.6 units, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.11 units; 1 trial, 40 participants) and total blood loss (MD 142.81 mL, 95% CI 79.78 mL to 205.84 mL; 2 trials, 115 participants) (both low-quality evidence).Whether DDAVP increases or decreases the total number of participants transfused with blood is uncertain because the quality of evidence is very low (RR 2.42, 95% CI 1.04 to 5.64; 3 trials, 135 participants).No trial reported all-cause mortality.Whether DDAVP leads to a difference in thrombotic events is uncertain because the quality of evidence is very low (pOR 2.92, 95% CI 0.32 to 26.83; 2 trials, 115 participants). DDAVP versus aprotininCompared with aprotinin, DDAVP probably increases the total number of participants transfused with blood (RR 2.41, 95% CI 1.45 to 4.02; 1 trial, 99 participants) (moderate-quality evidence).No trials reported volume of blood transfused or total blood loss and the single trial that included mortality as an outcome reported no deaths.Whether DDAVP leads to a difference in thrombotic events is uncertain because the quality of evidence is very low (pOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.89; 2 trials, 152 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Most of the evidence derived by comparing DDAVP versus placebo was obtained in cardiac surgery, where DDAVP was administered after cardiopulmonary bypass. In adults undergoing cardiac surgery, the reduction in volume of red cells transfused and total blood loss was small and was unlikely to be clinically important. It is less clear whether DDAVP may be of benefit for children and for those undergoing non-cardiac surgery. A key area for researchers is examining the effects of DDAVP for people with platelet dysfunction. Few trials have compared DDAVP versus tranexamic acid or aprotinin; consequently, we are uncertain of the relative efficacy of these interventions.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Transplante Homólogo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28472911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the present investigation were to prepare recombinant human insulin entrapped Eudragit-S100 microspheres containing protease inhibitors and to precisely analyze the outcome of different formulation variables on the microspheres properties using a response surface methodology to develop an optimized formulation with desirable features. METHODS: A central composite design was employed to produce microspheres of therapeutic protein by w/o/w multiple emulsion solvent evaporation technique using Eudragit S-100 as coating material and polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizer. The effect of formulation variables (independent variables) that is levels of Eudragit S-100 (X1), therapeutic protein (X2), volumes of inner aqueous phase (X3) and external aqueous phase (X4) on dependant variables, that are encapsulation efficiency (Y1), drug release at pH 1.2 after 2 h (Y2) and drug release at pH 7.4 after of 2 h (Y3) were evaluated. RESULTS: The significant terms in the mathematical models were generated for each response parameter using multiple linear regression analysis and analysis of variance. All the formulation variables except the volume of external aqueous phase (X4) exerted a significant effect (P <0.05) on drug encapsulation efficiency (Y1) whereas first two variables, namely the levels of Eudragit S-100 (X1) and therapeutic protein (X2) materialized as the determining factors which significantly influenced drug release at pH 1.2 after 2 h (Y2) and drug release at pH 7.4 after of 2 h (Y3). The formulation was numerically optimized by framing the constraints on the dependent and independent variables using the desirability approach. The experimental values for Y1 and Y2 of optimized formulation were found to be 77.65% and 3.64%, respectively which were quite closer to results suggested by software. CONCLUSION: The results recorded indicate that the recombinant human insulin loaded Eudragit S-100 microspheres containing aprotinin have the benefits of higher loading efficiency, pH responsive and prolonged release characteristics, which may help to carry insulin to the optimum site of absorption.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacocinética , Microesferas , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Aprotinina/química , Aprotinina/farmacocinética , Bovinos , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Propriedades de Superfície
6.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 34(5): 280-287, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aprotinin appears to be more efficacious than lysine analogues to reduce bleeding and transfusion of blood products in high-transfusion-risk cardiac surgical patients. However, in isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, the results from head-to-head trials remain less conclusive. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the efficacies and safety of aprotinin and tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients undergoing isolated on-pump CABG. DESIGN: A multicentre before-and-after study pooling individual data from published trials and unpublished data from three other databases. SETTING: Four tertiary care teaching hospitals (Haut-Lévêque Hospital in Bordeaux, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital and Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital in Paris, and Laennec Hospital in Nantes). PATIENTS: We included data of 2496 isolated on-pump CABG surgery patients who received either aprotinin between November 2003 and May 2008 (n = 1267) or TXA between November 2007 and November 2013 (n = 1229). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was total blood loss within 24 h after operation. Secondary outcomes were transfusion of blood products, reoperation for bleeding, renal replacement therapy, ICU length of stay and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Adjusted mean (SEM) 24-h blood loss after surgery [483 (11) vs. 634 (11) ml, P < 0.0001] and the proportion of patients requiring intraoperative blood product transfusion (32.7 vs. 46.5%, P = 0.01) were lower in aprotinin-treated patients. No difference was observed with regard to reoperations for bleeding, renal replacement therapy and in-hospital mortality. However, patients receiving aprotinin had a significantly shorter adjusted ICU length of stay. CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing isolated CABG, aprotinin was more effective than TXA in reducing postoperative blood loss, and no safety concerns were identified. The benefits of aprotinin should be considered when evaluating the risk of major blood loss and transfusion in patients scheduled for isolated CABG surgery.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27801403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Liquorrhea is a condition characterized by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage from the cranial cavity due to injury to the integrity of the dura mater (DM) and bone structures of the skull base. Surgery for posterior cranial fossa (PCF) lesions distinguishes wound CSF leakage when CSF leaks from a surgical wound as well as basal CSF leakage (nasal liquorrhea and, less often, otoliquorrhea). The main cause of basal CSF leakage is injury (including surgical injury) resulting in a defect in the DM and bone structures (cells of the mastoid process in the case of a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach). There are a variety of DM restoration techniques ranging from DM closure or placement of a synthetic or autologous patch to application of various synthetic adhesives in the form of adhesive compositions (Tissucol) and adhesive substances (TachoComb). This article describes the experience with application of a TachoComb® sponge gained at the 5th Clinical Department of the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 176 patients with acoustic neurinomas. At the final stage of surgery, all the patients underwent DM reconstruction with a TachoComb® collagen sponge. CSF leakage occurred in 3 (1.7%) patients, with each of them having Koos grade 4 tumor. One (0.56%) patient had wound liquorrhea, and 2 (1.1%) patients had nasal liquorrhea. CSF leakage was managed by placement of a lumbar drain; postoperative wound revision was not required. CONCLUSION: Using the TachoComb® sponge for DM reconstruction in PCF surgery is an effective way to prevent postoperative CSF leakage, provided that the algorithm of manipulations described in the article is followed.


Assuntos
Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Dura-Máter , Fibrinogênio/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Infratentoriais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Trombina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Dura-Máter/patologia , Dura-Máter/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/patologia , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Anesteziol Reanimatol ; 61(2): 90-5, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468495

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Restricted infusion strategy in combination with antifibrinolytic agents such as aprotinin and tranexamic acid is effective for blood saving in maxillofacial surgery. But reduction of infusion volume can lead to intraoperative hypovolemia. The goal of this study was to assess compensative effect of different regimes of infusion therapy and antifibrinolytics on intraoperative volume status and electrolyte balance in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 65 patients were included in the study. There were 4 groups: (1) Infusion rate 8-12 mg/kg/h and acute normo/hypervolemic hemodilution; (2) 4-6 mg/kg/h and aprotinin 500,000 - 100,000 IU/4 hours; 3.6-8 mg/kg/h and tranexamic acid 8-10 mg/kg every 4 hours; 4.6-8 mg/kg/h and tranexamic acid 8-10 mg/kg every 4 hours and regional analgesia offacial nerves. We assessed parameters of central hemodynamic, peripheral perfusion, water-electrolyte balance and acid-base status. RESULTS: Different infusion strategies were effective in maintaining positive volume balance despite intraoperative blood loss and continuous diuresis. Hypovolemia or peripheral perfusion insufficiency weren't mentioned in the study. Water-electrolyte and acid-base balance was also secured in every case. Nevertheless, CVP and diuresis in the group with infusion rate 4-6 ml/kg/h were near the critical threshold and could be dangerous in poorly controlled intraoperative bleeding. CONCLUSION: The optimal infusion rate for surgical interventions in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery is 6-8 ml/kg/h. Infusion rate 8-12 ml/kg/h can potentially lead to dilutional coagulopathy and thus to increase the volume of blood loss. Infusion rate 4-6 ml/kg/h is associated with relative risk of hypovolemia and can't be recommended.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cirurgia Bucal/métodos , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/fisiopatologia , Transfusão de Sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hemostáticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos
9.
Clin J Sport Med ; 26(1): 12-6, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26331468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of high-volume image-guided injection in the middle term in patients with recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy. DESIGN: Case series study; Level of evidence, 4. SETTING: All tertiary referrals, public, and private healthcare. PATIENTS: Forty-four patients (41 men and 3 women) with diagnosis of recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy were included. INTERVENTION: Tendon injection of a mixture of 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride, 62 500 international units of aprotinin, and 40 mL of normal saline solution. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patellar tendon (VISA-P), visual analogue scale, and Roles and Maudsley were assessed at baseline and at the last follow-up. RESULTS: The baseline VISA-P score of 46 ± 18.2 (range, 28-75) improved to 75.3 ± 19.2 (range, 68-100) by 15 months (P = 0.003). The mean pain visual analogue scale changed from 91 mm (range, 66-92 mm) before the injection to 28 mm (2-52 mm) (P = 0.01). Of 32 physically active patients, 23 (72%) had returned to sport at the same level practiced before the onset of symptoms. Thirty-five of the 44 patients (80%) rated their condition as good or excellent. CONCLUSIONS: High-volume injection at the interface between the deep surface of the patellar tendon and Hoffa body improves in the short-term symptoms and function of the knee. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This procedure is minimally invasive, safe, and effective in the short term in athletes.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Traumatismos em Atletas/tratamento farmacológico , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Dor Musculoesquelética/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Ligamento Patelar , Tendinopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição da Dor , Ligamento Patelar/irrigação sanguínea , Retratamento , Volta ao Esporte , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Tendinopatia/complicações , Tendinopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Adulto Jovem
10.
Macromol Biosci ; 16(1): 95-105, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26309129

RESUMO

Encapsulation of model proteins (catalase, insulin, aprotinin) into multilayer dextran sulphate/protamin capsules by templating on CaCO3 microparticles is investigated employing: (i) PRE-loading into CaCO3 particles by adsorption or co-synthesis and (ii) POST-loading into performed capsules. Protein encapsulation is governed by both its size and electrostatic interactions with the carbonate microparticles and multilayer shell. PRE-loading enables improved encapsulation compared to POST-loading (catalase content in capsules 630 and 70 mg · g(-1)). Bioactivity of encapsulated protein is not affected by interaction with multilayers but may be reduced at slightly alkaline pH due to CaCO3 hydrolysis. This study might help to successfully encapsulate fragile bio-macromolecules into multilayer capsules.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio , Cápsulas/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Catalase/administração & dosagem , Dextranos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Protaminas
11.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 12(6): 668-79, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306401

RESUMO

The object of the current study was to prepare novel microemulsion formulations of aprotinin for parenteral delivery and to compare in vitro characteristics and release behaviour of different Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-Aprotinin loaded microemulsion formulations. In addition, cytotoxicity of microemulsion formulation was evaluated with cell culture studies on human immortalized pancreatic duct epithelial-like cells. For this aim, firstly, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted to detect the formulation region and optimal microemulsions were characterized for their thermodynamic stability, conductivity, particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, pH and in vitro release properties. For in vitro release studies aprotinin was labelled with (99m)Tc and labelling efficiency, radiochemical purity and stability of the radiolabeled complex were determined by several chromatography techniques. Radiolabeling efficiency of (99m)Tc-Aprotinin was found over than 90% without any significant changes up to 6 hours after labelling at room temperature. After that, in vitro release studies of (99m)Tc-Aprotinin loaded microemulsions were performed with two different methods; dissolution from diffusion cells and dialysis bags. Both methods showed that release rate of (99m)Tc- Aprotinin from microemulsion could be controlled by microemulsion formulations. Drug release from the optimized microemulsion formulations was found lower compared to drug solution at the end of six hours. According to stability studies, the optimized formulation was found to be stable over a period of 12 months. Also, human immortalized pancreatic duct epithelial-like cells were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of optimum formulation. Developed microemulsion did not reveal cytotoxicity. In conclusion the present study indicated that the M1-APT microemulsion is appropriate for intravenous application of aprotinin.


Assuntos
Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Tripsina/administração & dosagem , Aprotinina/química , Aprotinina/toxicidade , Células Cultivadas , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Ductos Pancreáticos/citologia , Ductos Pancreáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Tecnécio/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Tripsina/química , Inibidores da Tripsina/toxicidade , Viscosidade
13.
Oncol Rep ; 34(3): 1337-44, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26166362

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to develop a new therapeutic drug to improve the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. Human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)17-34-kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) eukaryotic expression vector was constructed and recombinant human uPA17-34-KPI (rhuPA17-34-KPI) in P. pastoris was expressed. In the present study, the DNA sequences that encode uPA 17-34 amino acids were created according to the native amino acids sequence and inserted into the KPI-pPICZαC vector, which was constructed. Then, uPA17­34-KPI-pPICZαC was transformed into P. pastoris X-33, and rhuPA17-34-KPI was expressed by induction of methanol. The bioactivities of a recombinant fusion protein were detected with trypsin inhibition analysis, and the inhibitory effects on the growth of ovarian cancer cells were identified using the TUNEL assay, in vitro wound­healing assay and Matrigel model analysis. The results of the DNA sequence analysis of the recombinant vector uPA17-34-KPI­pPICZα demonstrated that the DNA­encoding human uPA 17-34 amino acids, 285-288 amino acids of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and 1-57 amino acids of KPI were correctly inserted into the pPICZαC vector. Following induction by methonal, the fusion protein with a molecular weight of 8.8 kDa was observed using SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. RhuPA17-34-KPI was expressed in P. pastoris with a yield of 50 mg/l in a 50-ml tube. The recombinant fusion protein was able to inhibit the activity of trypsin, inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of SKOV3 cells, and inhibit the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. By considering uPA17-34 amino acid specific binding uPAR as the targeted part of fusion protein and utilizing the serine protease inhibitor activity of KPI, it was found that the recombinant fusion protein uPA17-34-KPI inhibited the invasion and metastasis of ovarian tumors, and may therefore be regarded as effective in targeted treatment.


Assuntos
Aprotinina/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colágeno , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Laminina , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Proteoglicanas , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/administração & dosagem
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (5): CD010960, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26009861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition, often with significant functional consequences. As a wide range of injection treatments are available, a review of randomised trials evaluating injection therapies to help inform treatment decisions is warranted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of injection therapies for people with Achilles tendinopathy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to 20 April 2015: the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus. We also searched trial registers (29 May 2014) and reference lists of articles to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating injection therapies in adults with an investigator-reported diagnosis of Achilles tendinopathy. We accepted comparison arms of placebo (sham) or no injection control, or other active treatment (such as physiotherapy, pharmaceuticals or surgery). Our primary outcomes were function, using measures such as the VISA-A (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire), and adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from the included studies. We assessed treatment effects using mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous variables and risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs for dichotomous variables. For follow-up data, we defined short-term as up to six weeks, medium-term as up to three months and longer-term as data beyond three months. We performed meta-analysis where appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: We included 18 studies (732 participants). Seven trials exclusively studied athletic populations. The mean ages of the participants in the individual trials ranged from 20 years to 50 years. Fifteen trials compared an injection therapy with a placebo injection or no injection control, four trials compared an injection therapy with active treatment, and one compared two different concentrations of the same injection. Thus no trials compared different injection therapies. Two studies had three trial arms and we included them twice in two different categories. Within these categories, we further subdivided injection therapies by mode of action (injury-causing versus direct repair agents).The risk of bias was unclear (due to poor reporting) or high in six trials published between 1987 and 1994. Improved methodology and reporting for the subsequent trials published between 2004 and 2013 meant that these were at less risk of bias.Given the very low quality evidence available from each of four small trials comparing different combinations of injection therapy versus active treatment and the single trial comparing two doses of one injection therapy, only the results of the first comparison (injection therapy versus control) are presented.There is low quality evidence of a lack of significant or clinically important differences in VISA-A scores (0 to 100: best function) between injection therapy and control groups at six weeks (MD 0.79, 95% CI -4.56 to 6.14; 200 participants, five trials), three months (MD -0.94, 95% CI -6.34 to 4.46; 189 participants, five trials) or between six and 12 months (MD 0.14, 95% CI -6.54 to 6.82; 132 participants, three trials). Very low quality evidence from 13 trials showed little difference between the two groups in adverse events (14/243 versus 12/206; RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.89), most of which were minor and short-lasting. The only major adverse event in the injection therapy group was an Achilles tendon rupture, which happened in a trial testing corticosteroid injections. There was very low quality evidence in favour of the injection therapy group in short-term (under three months) pain (219 participants, seven trials) and in the return to sports (335 participants, seven trials). There was very low quality evidence indicating little difference between groups in patient satisfaction with treatment (152 participants, four trials). There was insufficient evidence to conclude on subgroup differences based on mode of action given that only two trials tested injury-causing agents and the clear heterogeneity of the other 13 trials, which tested seven different therapies that act directly on the repair pathway. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence from randomised controlled trials to draw conclusions on the use, or to support the routine use, of injection therapies for treating Achilles tendinopathy. This review has highlighted a need for definitive research in the area of injection therapies for Achilles tendinopathy, including in older non-athletic populations. This review has shown that there is a consensus in the literature that placebo-controlled trials are considered the most appropriate trial design.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Injeções Intralesionais/métodos , Tendinopatia/terapia , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Atletas , Fibroblastos/transplante , Glicosaminoglicanos/administração & dosagem , Soluções para Hemodiálise/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Polidocanol , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Drug Target ; 23(6): 525-37, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25738992

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop aprotinin-loaded microemulsion (MA) for intravenous administration and evaluate the biodistribution and therapeutic potential of developed formulation in acute pancreatitis models in rats. Phase diagrams were constructed to identify microemulsion region and the optimal microemulsion was evaluated for physicochemical properties and treatment effect in rats, and comparisons made with the solution of aprotinin (SA). To evaluate the biodistribution of the drug by gamma scintigraphy aprotinin was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc radionuclide. Mild and severe acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injections of cerulein and introductal infusion of 3% sodium taurocholate into the bile-pancreatic duct, respectively. In addition, serum amylase and pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase activities were measured to evaluate the pancreatic damage. According to gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution studies, accumulation times and distribution of (99m)Tc-MA and SA were different. While MA was highly uptake by reticuloendothelial system, SA was mostly excreted by kidneys and bladder. Compared with the mild acute pancreatitis group, treatment with MA significantly decreased the serum amylase activity and pancreas myeloperoxidase activity. Furthermore, the protease inhibitor molecule aprotinin has therapeutic potential in acute pancreatitis. Finally, MA may be suggested as a promising alternative for treatment of acute pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Aprotinina/farmacocinética , Aprotinina/uso terapêutico , Emulsões/farmacocinética , Emulsões/uso terapêutico , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa , Amilases/sangue , Animais , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Ceruletídeo , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pancreatite/sangue , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Cintilografia , Ratos , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Ácido Taurocólico , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Transplant Proc ; 46(5): 1393-9, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24935303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study compared clinical outcomes for a large number of liver transplant patients receiving intraoperative epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), aprotinin, or no antifibrinolytic agent over an 8-year period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records for deceased donor liver transplants were reviewed. Data included antifibrinolytic agent, blood loss, early graft function, and postoperative complications. Study groups included low-dose aprotinin, high-dose aprotinin, EACA (25 mg/kg, 1-hour infusion), or no antifibrinolytic agent. RESULTS: Data were included for 1170 consecutive transplants. Groups included low-dose aprotinin (n = 324 [28%]), high-dose aprotinin (n = 308 [26%]), EACA (n = 216 [18%]), or no antifibrinolytic (n = 322 [28%]). EACA had the lowest intraoperative blood loss and required the fewest transfusions of plasma. Patients receiving no agent required the most blood transfusions. Early graft loss was lowest in the EACA group, and 90-day and 1-year patient survival rates were significantly higher for the low-dose aprotinin and EACA groups according to Cox regression. Complications were similar, but there were more episodes of deep vein thrombosis in patients receiving EACA. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that transitioning from aprotinin to EACA did not result in worse outcomes. In addition to decreased intraoperative blood loss, a trend toward improved graft and patient survival was seen in patients receiving EACA.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminocaproico/administração & dosagem , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Fígado , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 73(5): 387-402, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24709679

RESUMO

Intracerebral-intraventricular hemorrhages (ICH/IVH) in very preterm neonates are responsible for high mortality and subsequent disabilities. In humans, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) initiates fibrinolysis and activates endoluminal-endothelial receptors; dysfunction of the t-PA inhibitor (PAI-1) results in recurrent hemorrhages. We used PAI-1 knockout (PAI-1) mice to examine the role of t-PA in age-dependent intracranial hemorrhages as a possible model of preterm ICH/IVH. Intracortical injection of 2 µL of phosphate-buffered saline produced a small traumatic injury and a high rate of hemorrhage in PAI-1 pups at postnatal day 3 (P3) or P5, whereas it had no effect in wild-type neonates. This resulted in white matter and cortical lesions, ventricle enlargement, hyperlocomotion, and altered cortical levels of serotonin and dopamine in the adult PAI mice. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockers, plasmin- and matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors reduced hemorrhage and tissue lesions. In contrast to P3 to P5, no significant hemorrhages were induced in P10 PAI-1 pups and there were no behavioral or neurochemical alterations in adulthood. These data suggest that microvascular immaturity up to P5 in mice is a determinant factor required for t-PA-dependent vascular rupture. Neonatal PAI-1 mice could be a useful ICH/IVH model for studying the ontogenic window of vascular immaturity and vascular protection against later neurodisabilities.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Serpina E2/deficiência , Fatores Etários , Ácido Aminocaproico/administração & dosagem , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Serpina E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Serpina E2/fisiologia
20.
Med Res Rev ; 34(6): 1168-216, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24659483

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that plasmin is involved in a number of physiological processes in addition to its key role in fibrin cleavage. Plasmin inhibition is critical in preventing adverse consequences arising from plasmin overactivity, e.g., blood loss that may follow cardiac surgery. Aprotinin was widely used as an antifibrinolytic drug before its discontinuation in 2008. Tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid, two small molecule plasmin inhibitors, are currently used in the clinic. Several molecules have been designed utilizing covalent, but reversible, chemistry relying on reactive cyclohexanones, nitrile warheads, and reactive aldehyde peptidomimetics. Other major classes of plasmin inhibitors include the cyclic peptidomimetics and polypeptides of the Kunitz and Kazal-type. Allosteric inhibitors of plasmin have also been designed including small molecule lysine analogs that bind to plasmin's kringle domain(s) and sulfated glycosaminoglycan mimetics that bind to plasmin's catalytic domain. Plasmin inhibitors have also been explored for resolving other disease states including cell metastasis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and embryo implantation. This review highlights functional and structural aspects of plasmin inhibitors with the goal of advancing their design.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Fibrinolisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fibrinólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/química , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Aprotinina/administração & dosagem , Aprotinina/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Guanidinas/administração & dosagem , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia
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