Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 661
Filtrar
1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013400, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (ConHD) affects approximately 1% of all live births. People with ConHD are living longer due to improved medical intervention and are at risk of developing non-communicable diseases. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is reduced in people with ConHD, who deteriorate faster compared to healthy people. CRF is known to be prognostic of future mortality and morbidity: it is therefore important to assess the evidence base on physical activity interventions in this population to inform decision making. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of all types of physical activity interventions versus standard care in individuals with congenital heart disease. SEARCH METHODS: We undertook a systematic search on 23 September 2019 of the following databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, BIOSIS Citation Index, Web of Science Core Collection, LILACS and DARE. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and we reviewed the reference lists of relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared any type of physical activity intervention against a 'no physical activity' (usual care) control. We included all individuals with a diagnosis of congenital heart disease, regardless of age or previous medical interventions.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (CAW and CW) independently screened all the identified references for inclusion. We retrieved and read all full papers; and we contacted study authors if we needed any further information. The same two independent reviewers who extracted the data then processed the included papers, assessed their risk of bias using RoB 2 and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The primary outcomes were: maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) assessed by peak oxygen consumption; health-related quality of life (HRQoL) determined by a validated questionnaire; and device-worn 'objective' measures of physical activity. MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 RCTs with 924 participants in the review. The median intervention length/follow-up length was 12 weeks (12 to 26 interquartile range (IQR)). There were five RCTs of children and adolescents (n = 500) and 10 adult RCTs (n = 424). We identified three types of intervention: physical activity promotion; exercise training; and inspiratory muscle training. We assessed the risk of bias of results for CRF as either being of some concern (n = 12) or at a high risk of bias (n = 2), due to a failure to blind intervention staff. One study did not report this outcome. Using the GRADE method, we assessed the certainty of evidence as moderate to very low across measured outcomes. When we pooled all types of interventions (physical activity promotion, exercise training and inspiratory muscle training), compared to a 'no exercise' control CRF may slightly increase, with a mean difference (MD) of 1.89 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% CI -0.22 to 3.99; n = 732; moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of physical activity and exercise interventions on HRQoL. There was a standardised mean difference (SMD) of 0.76 (95% CI -0.13 to 1.65; n = 163; very low certainty evidence) in HRQoL. However, we could pool only three studies in a meta-analysis, due to different ways of reporting. Only one study out of eight showed a positive effect on HRQoL. There may be a small improvement in mean daily physical activity (PA) (SMD 0.38, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.92; n = 328; low-certainty evidence), which equates to approximately an additional 10 minutes of physical activity daily (95% CI -2.50 to 22.20). Physical activity and exercise interventions likely result in an increase in submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness (MD 2.05, 95% CI 0.05 to 4.05; n = 179; moderate-certainty evidence). Physical activity and exercise interventions likely increase muscular strength (MD 17.13, 95% CI 3.45 to 30.81; n = 18; moderate-certainty evidence). Eleven studies (n = 501) reported on the outcome of adverse events (73% of total studies). Of the 11 studies, six studies reported zero adverse events. Five studies reported a total of 11 adverse events; 36% of adverse events were cardiac related (n = 4); there were, however, no serious adverse events related to the interventions or reported fatalities (moderate-certainty evidence). No studies reported hospital admissions. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review summarises the latest evidence on CRF, HRQoL and PA. Although there were only small improvements in CRF and PA, and small to no improvements in HRQoL, there were no reported serious adverse events related to the interventions. Although these data are promising, there is currently insufficient evidence to definitively determine the impact of physical activity interventions in ConHD. Further high-quality randomised controlled trials are therefore needed, utilising a longer duration of follow-up.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/reabilitação , Adolescente , Adulto , Viés , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236986, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866198

RESUMO

White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are among the most commonly observed marker of cerebrovascular disease. Age is a key risk factor for WMH development. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with increased vessel compliance, but it remains unknown if high CRF affects WMH volume. This study explored the effects of CRF on WMH volume in community-dwelling older adults. We further tested the possibility of an interaction between CRF and age on WMH volume. Participants were 76 adults between the ages of 59 and 77 (mean age = 65.36 years, SD = 3.92) who underwent a maximal graded exercise test and structural brain imaging. Results indicated that age was a predictor of WMH volume (beta = .32, p = .015). However, an age-by-CRF interaction was observed such that higher CRF was associated with lower WMH volume in older participants (beta = -.25, p = .040). Our findings suggest that higher levels of aerobic fitness may protect cerebrovascular health in older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Fatores de Risco , Substância Branca/irrigação sanguínea , Substância Branca/patologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article aimed to systematically review the contribution of physical education (PE) classes to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in children and adolescents; and to define potentially relevant factors for promoting CRF in PE classes. METHODS: Studies were identified from searches in ERIC, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases. Primary source articles, relating PE classes and CRF, published up to July 2019 in peer-reviewed journals were eligible for inclusion. Specific inclusion criteria were: (a) having cross-sectional or longitudinal and observational or interventional study designs; (b) targeting school-aged children or adolescents; (c) measuring CRF, heart rate or CRF test results as an outcome; (d) having statistical analyses of the CRF, heart rate or CRF test results outcomes reported; (e) focusing on PE classes or PE interventions that did not extended time or frequency of the classes; and (f) published in English, French, Portuguese, or Spanish. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 10 studies have found a neutral effect of PE classes in students' CRF, eight studies found that PE indeed contributed to the improvement of CRF and six studies revealed mixed findings, when PE classes where controlled for others variables (e.g. body mass index, intensity). Higher intensity PE classes consistently demonstrated contributions to improving students' CRF. CONCLUSION: Review findings suggest that PE classes can contribute to the improvement of students' CRF. Intensity, age and weight status were identified as potentially relevant factors for promoting CRF in PE classes. To improve CRF, higher intensity classes should be provided.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento/tendências , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1975-1983, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654588

RESUMO

This paper examined effects of two interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills, and whether these effects are influenced by baseline levels, and dose of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the intervention. A cluster randomized controlled trial was implemented in 22 schools (n = 891; 9.2 ± 07 years). Intervention groups received aerobic or cognitively engaging exercise (14-weeks, four lessons per week). Control groups followed their regular physical education programme. Cardiorespiratory fitness, motor skills and MVPA were assessed. Multilevel analysis showed no main effects on cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills although the amount of MVPA was higher in the aerobic than in the cognitively engaging and control group. Intervention effects did not depend on baseline cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills. Children with a higher dose of MVPA within the intervention groups had better cardiorespiratory fitness after both interventions and better motor skills after the cognitively engaging intervention. In conclusion, the interventions were not effective to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills at a group level, possibly due to large individual differences and to a total dose of MVPA too low to find effects. However, the amount of MVPA is an important factor that influence the effectiveness of interventions.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 120-123, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is defined as the capacity of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to meet the oxygen demands of the body during physical work. Poor CRF is connected with a higher risk for the development of various noninfectious diseases such as cardiovascular disease or malignancies. The standard test for the assessment of CRF is exercise testing with the measurement of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Standard VO2 max values for adult men and women in the Czech Republic have been available since the 1970s without being updated. According to experts, these standard values are now unusable for contemporary CRF measurements of the population in the Czech Republic. The Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: a National Database (FRIEND) - 4,494 patients (1,717 men) defined new standard values for bicycle ergometry CRF for the population in the United States of America. The aim of the study was the statistical comparison of VO2 max values (reference standards) in the 1970s population in the Czech Republic with the new reference standards of the FRIEND registry. METHODS: All analyses were performed using IBM SPSS statistics and all tests with a p-value of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: VO2 max norms for women in the Czech population were higher in all age categories with statistically significant differences in the categories 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 (p < 0.001). In the male population aged 20-29 years, VO2 max was significantly higher in the FRIEND registry (p < 0.001) in contrast to the other age categories, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59, which were significantly higher in the Czech population (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Czech VO2 max population norms from the 1970s are (with the exception of age category 20-29 years) higher than values from the recent FRIEND registry.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Adulto , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526771

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) is a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness often used to monitor changes in fitness during and after treatment in cancer patients. There is, however, limited knowledge in how criteria verifying [Formula: see text] work for patients newly diagnosed with cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of fulfillment of typical criteria verifying [Formula: see text] and to investigate the associations between the criteria and the test leader's evaluation whether a test was performed "to exhaustion". An additional aim was to establish new cut-points within the associated criteria. METHODS: From the Phys-Can randomized controlled trial, 535 patients (59 ±12 years) newly diagnosed with breast (79%), prostate (17%) or colorectal cancer (4%) performed an incremental [Formula: see text] test on a treadmill. The test was performed before starting (neo-)adjuvant treatment and an exercise intervention. Fulfillment of different cut-points within typical criteria verifying [Formula: see text] was described. The dependent key variables included in the initial bivariate analysis were achievement of a [Formula: see text] plateau, peak values for maximal heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), the patients' rating of perceived exertion on Borg's scale6-20 and peak breathing frequency (fR). A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to establish cut-points for variables associated with the test leader's evaluation. Last, a cross-validation of the cut-points found in the receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on a comparable sample of cancer patients (n = 80). RESULTS: The criteria RERpeak (<0.001), Borg's RPE (<0.001) and fR peak (p = 0.018) were associated with the test leader's evaluation of whether a test was defined as "to exhaustion". The cut-points that best predicted the test leader's evaluation were RER ≥ 1.14, RPE ≥ 18 and fR ≥ 40. Maximal heart rate and [Formula: see text] plateau was not associated with the test leader's evaluation. CONCLUSION: We recommend a focus on RER (in the range between ≥1.1 and ≥1.15) and RPE (≥17 or ≥18) in addition to the test leader's evaluation. Additionally, a fR peak of ≥40 breaths/min may be a cut-point to help the test leader evaluate the degree of exhaustion. However, more research is needed to verify our findings, and to investigate how these criteria will work within a population that are undergoing or finished with cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Terapia por Exercício , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Oxigênio/análise , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1184-1194, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To relate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and hemodynamic responses to exercise to the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We evaluated 2715 Framingham Offspring Study participants followed up (mean, 24.8 years) after their second examination (1979-1983) until the end of their ninth examination (2011-2014). Participants (mean age, 43 years; 1397 women [51.5%]) without prevalent CKD or cardiovascular disease at baseline were included. We examined the associations of CRF and hemodynamic response to exercise with incident CKD using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression with discrete intervals. RESULTS: Compared with low CRF (first tertile), participants with moderate (second tertile) or high (third tertile) CRF had a lower risk of CKD (hazard ratios [95% CIs]: 0.74 [0.61-0.91] and 0.73 [0.59-0.91], respectively). Participants with chronotropic incompetence (hazard ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.06 to 1.79]), higher exercise systolic blood pressure (hazard ratio per SD, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.07 to 1.34]), and impaired heart rate recovery (hazard ratio, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.08 to 2.10]) had a higher risk of CKD compared with those with chronotropic competence, lower exercise systolic blood pressure, and normal heart rate recovery, respectively. These associations remained robust when the exercise variables were mutually adjusted for. The third tertile of a standardized exercise test score comprising the statistically significant variables was associated with a higher risk of CKD compared with the first tertile (hazard ratio, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.45 to 2.36). CONCLUSION: Higher CRF and favorable hemodynamic responses to submaximal exercise in young adulthood may be markers of lower risk of CKD in later life.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco
9.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1997-2004, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497454

RESUMO

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise protocol to improve metabolic health, but direct comparisons with higher-volume moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) under unsupervised settings are limited. This study compared low-volume HIIT and higher-volume MICT interventions on cardiometabolic and psychological responses in overweight/obese middle-aged men. Twenty-four participants (age: 48.1±5.2yr; BMI: 25.8±2.3kg·m-2) were randomly assigned to undertake either HIIT (10 X 1-min bouts of running at 80-90% HRmax separated by 1-min active recovery) or MICT (50-min continuous jogging/brisk walking at 65-70% HRmax) for 3 sessions/week for 8 weeks (2-week supervised + 6-week unsupervised training). Both groups showed similar cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) improvement (HIIT: 32.5±5.6 to 36.0±6.2; MICT: 34.3±6.0 to 38.2±5.1mL kg-1 min-1, p < 0.05) and %fat loss (HIIT: 24.5±3.4 to 23.2±3.5%; MICT: 23.0±4.3 to 21.5±4.1%, p< 0.05) over the 8-week intervention. Compared to baseline, MICT significantly decreased weight and waist circumference. No significant group differences were observed for blood pressure and cardiometabolic blood markers such as lipid profiles, fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin. Both groups showed similar enjoyment levels and high unsupervised adherence rates (>90%). Our findings suggest that low-volume HIIT can elicit a similar improvement of cardiovascular fitness as traditional higher-volume MICT in overweight/obese middle-aged men.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Cooperação do Paciente , Prazer , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura , Perda de Peso
10.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(9): 610-615, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353880

RESUMO

The phase angle is used to evaluate nutritional status and is an indicator of cellular health. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition are strong indicators of health during adolescence. We aimed to evaluate if body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness have an association with phase angle among adolescents. 203 girls and 220 boys (12.8±1.3 years) were evaluated. Peak height velocity, percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, cardiorespiratory fitness, and phase angle measurements were collected. Linear regression adjusted by peak height velocity was used to verify if predictor variables were associated with phase angle among adolescents. Phase angle showed correlation with fat-free mass (girls: r=0.42 and boys: r=0.37); with percent fat mass (girls: r=0.23); and with cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: r=0.19). Linear regression showed that percentage fat mass (in girls) and cardiorespiratory fitness (in boys) had an effect of 11 and 17% in phase angle, respectively, while fat-free mass had an effect of 22 and 26% in phase angle for girls and boys, respectively. Changes in phase angle seem to be more associated with the percentage fat mass in girls, cardiorespiratory fitness in boys, and fat-free mass in both when controlled by peak height velocity.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Pregas Cutâneas
11.
Phys Ther ; 100(8): 1411-1418, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Healthy working-aged adults performed the modified Chester Step Test (mCST) to (1) determine the effect of repetition on test duration, (2) report cardiorespiratory and symptom responses, (3) establish a regression equation to estimate duration, and (4) calculate the minimal detectable change of the test. METHODS: In this observational study conducted in a hospital physical therapy, adult participants aged 25 to 65 years who were healthy performed the mCST twice. This submaximal test required participants to step on and off a 20-cm step at a standardized cadence that increased every 2 minutes. The criteria for test completion were either a heart rate equal to 80% of age-predicted maximum or the onset of intolerable symptoms. The primary measure was time to test completion during the mCST (seconds). Cardiorespiratory and symptom responses were also collected during the mCST. RESULTS: A total of 83 participants (40 men, mean [SD] age = 44 [12] years) completed data collection. There was no systematic effect of test repetition with median test duration of the first test (522 seconds, range = 400-631 seconds) and second test (501 seconds, range = 403-631 seconds). The test elicited moderate symptoms of breathlessness and leg fatigue. In the multivariable model, age, sex, weight, and height were retained as significant predictors of test duration (R2 = 0.48). The minimal detectable change was 119 seconds. CONCLUSIONS: The mCST is a reliable and valid clinically applicable test of aerobic capacity in working-aged adults. Independent pretest predictors can be used to estimate the clinical time required to complete the test. IMPACT: The mCST was stable between test repetitions, suggesting no learning effect. For any given individual, a test duration change of 2 minutes represents change was beyond the natural variability. The mCST has good applicability to clinical settings.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Subida de Escada/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dispneia/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
12.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(5): 700-708, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the intermittent and traditional physical fitness-based teaching units on cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels in high school students during Physical Education sessions. METHODS: One hundred and three high school students (Mage=13.6±0.7) from six classes, balanced by grade, were cluster-randomly assigned into traditional (TG), intermittent (IG), and control (CG) groups. The TG performed a fitness teaching unit twice a week for nine weeks (35-40 minutes of the main part of each session). The IG worked during the first half of the sessions' main part (18-20 minutes) similarly to the TG, and during the second half they worked on technical-tactical aspects of invasion sports. Students' cardiorespiratory fitness was measured at the beginning and at the end of the teaching unit. Physical activity levels were measured objectively through a heart rate monitor and subjectively by a self-reported scale during Physical Education sessions. RESULTS: Both traditional and intermittent teaching units developed students' cardiorespiratory fitness levels (Δ post-pre-intervention: TG, M∆=19.8, SE=9.4; IG, M∆=16.6, SE=7.7); P<0.01). Additionally, both TG (M=86.2, SE=9.9) and IG (M=90.9, SE=7.6) had higher physical activity levels than the CG (M=76.3, SE=13.5) (P<0.05). However, no differences in physical activity levels were found between the IG and TG (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The intermittent teaching unit allowed the simultaneous development of cardiorespiratory fitness and another curricular objective in the same Physical Education sessions.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Estudantes , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Autorrelato
13.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(5): 709-712, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one of the most important indicators of the health-related physical fitness components because it reflects the efficiency of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. To indirectly assess CRF, the original protocol of the 20mSRT was adapted in a new version suitable for children called 20mSRT-PREFIT, providing performances comparable to the standards of the European area. In fact, CRF normative values are missing in the Italian context and therefore they would be meaningful to be assessed. We aimed to determine CRF from 20mSRT-PREFIT in a small sample of Italian pre-school children and to compare the outcomes with the available European references. METHODS: A convenience sample of 5-year-old pre-school children (N.=32, M/F ratio: 19/13) was freely recruited from a kindergarten of the northwest Italy. Children performed the 20mSRT-PREFIT and the number of full shuttles, exhaustion time, and maximum speed were collected to obtain CRF. RESULTS: Predicted VO2max was similar between Italian male and female groups. All other outcomes originating from the 20mSRT-PREFIT were consistent with those included in the available European databases. CONCLUSIONS: According to these preliminary indications, Italian pre-school children may have a CRF level equivalent to that one ascertained in other European countries. Thus, current rakings should be cautiously scrutinized, as they might inappropriately underrate Italian children's performances.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino
14.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(5): 786-793, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A moderate 1-km treadmill walk test (1k-TWT) has been demonstrated to be a valid tool for estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The results obtained by the 1k-TWT predict survival and hospitalization in men and women with CVD. We aimed to examine whether shorter versions of the full 1k-TWT equally assess VO2peak in outpatients with CVD. METHODS: One hundred eighteen outpatients with CVD, aged 70±9 years, referred to an exercise-based secondary prevention program, performed a moderate and perceptually-regulated (11-13/20 on the Borg Scale) 1k-TWT. Age, height, weight, heart rate, time to walk 100-m, 200-m, 300-m, and 400-m, and the full 1000-m, were entered into equations to estimate VO2peak. RESULTS: The minimal distance providing similar VO2peak results of the full 1k-TWT was 200-m: 23.0±5.3 mL/kg/min and 23.0±5.5 mL/kg/min, respectively. The concordance correlation coefficient between the two was 0.97 (95%CI 0.96 to 0.98, P<0.0001). The slope and the intercept of the relationship between the values obtained by the 200-m and the full 1k-TWT were not different from the line of identity. Bland-Altman analysis did not show systematic or proportional error. CONCLUSIONS: A moderate 200-m treadmill-walk is a reliable method for estimating VO2peak in elderly outpatients with CVD. A 200-m walk enables quick and easy cardiorespiratory fitness assessment, with low costs and low burden for health professionals and patients. These findings have practical implications for the transition of patients from clinically-based programs to fitness facilities or self-guided exercise programs.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Idoso , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(6): 808-815, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365286

RESUMO

The growing prevalence and popularity of interval training necessitate additional guidelines in regard to maximal levels of time and intensity. PURPOSE: To correlate salivary hormones and time in varying heart-rate (HR) zones. The hypothesis was that chronic exercise durations >9% of total exercise time in the >90% maximum HR zone would lead to decreased variation in salivary cortisol concentration after exercise in a 2-bout high-intensity protocol compared with less or more time in this zone. METHODS: A total of 35 healthy adults who regularly exercised for an average of 8 hours per week recorded their HR during every training session for 3 weeks. Later, they completed an experimental day composed of two 30-minute high-intensity interval sessions separated by 4 hours of nonactive recovery. The authors collected saliva samples before, immediately following, and 30 minutes after each exercise session to assess changes in cortisol concentrations. RESULTS: There was a correlation between weekly time training at an intensity >90% maximum HR and the variables associated with overtraining. Salivary cortisol concentration fluctuated less in the participants who exercised in this extreme zone for >40 minutes per week (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Based on the current study data, for individuals who regularly exercise, 4% to 9% total training time above 90% maximum HR is the ideal duration to maximize fitness and minimize symptoms related to overreaching.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(3): 274-282, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and interventions that increase fitness reduce risk. Water-walking decreases musculoskeletal impact and risk of falls in older individuals, but it is unclear whether water-walking improves aerobic fitness in the same way as weight-dependent land-walking. This randomized controlled trial involved 3 intervention groups-a no-exercise control group (CG), a land-walking (LW) group, and a water-walking (WW) group-to investigate the comparative impacts of LW and WW to CG on fitness. METHODS: Both exercise groups attended individually tailored, center-based, intensity-matched 3 × weekly sessions for 24 weeks, which progressed to 150 min of exercise per week. This was followed by a 24-week no-intervention period. Maximal graded exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Weeks 0, 24, and 48. RESULTS: Maximal oxygen uptake increased from Week 0 to Week 24 in both exercise groups (0.57 ± 0.62 mL/kg/min, 0.03 ± 0.04 L/min for LW; 0.93 ± 0.75 mL/kg/min, 0.06 ± 0.06 L/min for WW, mean ± SE) compared to the CG (-1.75 ± 0.78 mL/kg/min, -0.16 ± 0.05 L/min) (group × time, p < 0.05). Time to exhaustion increased significantly following LW only (123.4 ± 25.5 s), which was significantly greater (p = 0.001) than the CG (24.3 ± 18.5 s). By Week 48, the training-induced adaptations in the exercise groups returned to near baseline levels. CONCLUSION: Our study supports current physical-activity recommendations that 150 min/week of moderate-intensity exercise produces improvements in fitness in previously sedentary older individuals. Also, LW and WW elicit similar improvements in fitness if conducted at the same relative intensities. Exercise-naïve older individuals can benefit from the lower impact forces and decreased risk of falls associated with WW without compromising improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Água
17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(16): 1829-1835, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research into the association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children is equivocal. However, previous research has always assumed that such an association was linear. This study sought to characterize the dose-response association between physical activity and aerobic fitness and to assess whether this association is linear or curvilinear and varies by sex, age and weight status. METHODS: Physical activity (assess using the Physical Activity Questionnaire), aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle-run), BMI, screen-time and socio-demographic data were collected at ages 12, 14 and 16 years in (n = 1422) volunteers from 9 English schools. Multilevel-regression modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal data. RESULTS: The analysis identified a significant inverted "u-shaped" association between VO2max and PAQ. This relationship remained having controlling for the influences of sex, age and weight status. Daily screen time >4 hours and deprivation were also associated with being less fit (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This longitudinal study suggests that the dose-response relationship between PA and aerobic fitness in children is curvilinear. The health benefits of PA are greater in less active children and that sedentary and less active children should be encouraged to engage in PA rather than more active children to increase existing levels of PA.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Tempo de Tela , Autorrelato
18.
Sports Health ; 12(5): 431-440, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The positive association between physical fitness and bone structure has been widely investigated in children and adolescents, yet no studies have evaluated this influence in young children (ie, preschoolers). HYPOTHESIS: Fit children will present improved bone variables when compared with unfit children, and no sex-based differences will emerge in the sample. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Handgrip strength, standing long jump (SLJ), speed/agility, balance, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were assessed using the Assessing FITness levels in PREschoolers (PREFIT) test battery in 92 children (50 boys; age range, 3-5 years). A peripheral quantitative computed tomography scan was performed at 38% of the length of the nondominant tibia. Cluster analysis from handgrip strength, SLJ, speed/agility, and CRF was developed to identify fitness groups. Bone variables were compared between sexes and between cluster groups. The association between individual physical fitness components and different bone variables was also tested. RESULTS: Three cluster groups emerged: fit (high values on all included physical fitness variables), strong (high strength values and low speed/agility and CRF), and unfit (low strength, speed/agility, and CRF). The fit group presented higher values than the strong and unfit groups for total and cortical bone mineral content, cortical area, and polar strength strain index (all P < 0.05). The fit group also presented a higher cortical thickness when compared with the unfit group (P < 0.05). Handgrip, SLJ, and speed/agility predicted all bone variables except for total and cortical volumetric bone mineral density. No differences were found for bone variables between sexes. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that global fitness in preschoolers is a key determinant for bone structure and strength but not volumetric bone mineral density. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Physical fitness is a determinant for tibial bone mineral content, structure, and strength in very young children. Performing physical fitness tests could provide useful information related to bone health in preschoolers.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/fisiologia
19.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 41(6): 1099-1106, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388667

RESUMO

Based on the wide range of problems to effectively perform cardiopulmonary testing in young children, this study strives to develop a new cardiopulmonary exercise test for children using a mobile testing device worn in a backpack in order to test children during their natural movement habits, namely, running outdoors. A standard cardiopulmonary exercise ramp test on a cycle ergometer was performed by a group of twenty 7-10-year-old children. The results were compared with a self-paced incremental running test performed using a mobile cardiopulmonary exercise measuring device in an outdoor park. The children were able to reach significantly higher values for most of the cardiopulmonary exercise variables during the outdoor test and higher. Whereas a plateau in [Formula: see text] was reached by 25% of the children during the outdoor test, only 75% were able to reach a reasonable VT2, let alone [Formula: see text], during the bicycle test. The heart rate at VT1, the O2-pulse, and the OUES were comparable between both tests. OUES was also positively correlated with [Formula: see text] in both tests. Testing children outdoors using a mobile cardiopulmonary exercise unit represents an alternative to standard exercise testing, but without the added problems of exercise equipment like treadmills or bicycles. It allows for individualized exercise testing with the aim of standardized testing durations instead of standardized testing protocols. The running speeds determined during the outdoor tests may then be used to develop age-adapted testing protocols for treadmill testing.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/instrumentação , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236147

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of a 6-week Nordic Walking (NW) training, at the intensity corresponding to the dominance of lipid metabolism, on the levels of selected physiological indices, the haemodynamic indices of the cardiovascular system and physical fitness in sedentary women older than 55 years of age. In addition, the physiological response of the female body to the walking effort on treadmill with poles (NW) and without poles (W) was compared and the influence of training on this response was determined. A single group study with a pre-test/post-test study design was conducted. Eighteen women performed NW controlled intensity training 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Body composition, resting blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) as well as circulatory and respiratory indices in two graded walking efforts on mechanical treadmill NW and W were measured before and after training period. The intensity of workouts, which considered the dominance of lipid metabolism, was determined individually, based on the dynamics of changes in the level of physiological indices during the graded intensity NW. After the course of training, body mass, fat mass, resting BP and HR decreased significantly (p < 0.05). HR and respiratory exchange ratio recorded during NW and W at 1.75 m.s-1 walking speed decreased, while the oxygen pulse increased (p < 0.05). VO2max increased significantly (p < 0.05). Before and after the training period HR, oxygen uptake per minute, and energy expenditure during NW were significantly higher than in W (p < 0.05). The study showed that 6-week NW training at the intensity corresponding to the dominance of lipid metabolism can provide improvement in body composition, cardiovascular function and physical performance in previously sedentary women. NW compared to the regular walk with the same speed revealed higher energy expenditure.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA