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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 38-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613185

RESUMO

To help inform strategies aimed at increasing muscular fitness levels, we examined factors associated with childhood muscular fitness (strength and power) that preceded the recently observed secular decline. Data were available from a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8469). Muscular fitness measures included strength (right and left grip, shoulder extension and flexion, and leg strength) and power (standing long jump distance). Anthropometric (adiposity, fat-free mass), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), flexibility, speed capability, physical activity (individual and parental), dietary quality and intake (fruit, vegetable, protein) and sociodemographic (area-level socioeconomic status (SES), school type) data were available. Statistical analyses included sex-stratified linear regression. Of all examined factors, measures of adiposity, fat-free mass, CRF, flexibility and speed capability were associated with muscular fitness at levels that met Cohen's threshold for important effects (r-squared = 0.02 to 0.28). These findings highlight the multifactorial relationship between muscular fitness and its determinants. Collectively, these factors were powerful in explaining muscular strength (females: r-squared = 0.32; males: r-squared = 0.41) and muscular power (females: r-squared = 0.36; males: r-squared = 0.42). These findings highlight modifiable and environmental factors that could be targeted to increase childhood muscular fitness.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Classe Social
2.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 80-87, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions is increasing, and although current guidelines for physical activity attempt to combat this, many fail to achieve the recommended targets. The present study sought to investigate whether regular tennis participation is more effective at enhancing MSK function than meeting the current international physical activity guidelines. HYPOTHESIS: Tennis players will display significantly enhanced MSK function when compared with age-matched healthy active nonplayers. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Ninety participants (age range, 18-65 years) took part in this study; there were 43 tennis players (18 men, 25 women) and 47 nonplayers (26 men, 21 women). MSK function was assessed by cluster analysis of 3 factors: (1) electromyographic fatigability of prime movers during handgrip, knee extension, and knee flexion; (2) isometric strength in the aforementioned movements; and (3) body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximal oxygen uptake was also assessed to characterize cardiorespiratory fitness. RESULTS: Tennis players displayed significantly greater upper body MSK function than nonplayers when cluster scores of body fat percentage, handgrip strength, and flexor carpi radialis fatigue were compared by analysis of covariance, using age as a covariate (tennis players, 0.33 ± 1.93 vs nonplayers, -0.26 ± 1.66; P < 0.05). Similarly, tennis players also demonstrated greater lower extremity function in a cluster of body fat percentage, knee extension strength, and rectus femoris fatigue (tennis players, 0.17 ± 1.76 vs nonplayers, -0.16 ± 1.70; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present study offers support for improved MSK functionality in tennis players when compared with age-matched healthy active nonplayers. This may be due to the hybrid high-intensity interval training nature of tennis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The findings suggest tennis is an excellent activity mode to promote MSK health and should therefore be more frequently recommended as a viable alternative to existing physical activity guidelines.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tênis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 70-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631780

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate deprivation and sex differences in selected health-relatedfitness measures in 9-12-year-old children. Data were captured on 3,407 children (49.3% boys; aged 10.5 ± 0.6 years). Cardiorespiratory fitness(20 m multistage shuttle run test; 20 m MSRT), muscular strength (handgrip strength) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD) scores were used to make quintile groups. A two-way Analysis of Variance examined differences in BMI z-score by sex and WIMD quintiles. Two-wayAnalysis of Covariances investigated the effect of sex and WIMD quintiles on grip strength and shuttles achieved in 20 m MSRT, adjusting for BMI z-score and maturation, repectively. Independent of sex, children in the middle quintile had a significantly higher mean BMI z-score (p = 0.029) than their least deprived counterparts. There was a significant increase in grip strength (p = 0.005) and20 m MSRT (boys p < 0.001; girls p = 0.028) between most and least deprived quintiles. Significant differences in 20 m MSRT score were more apparent with decreases in deprivation in boys.Overall, inequalities exist in health-related fitness by sex and deprivation. These results can be used to inform focused services to improve current and future health.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Classe Social , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido
4.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 611-619, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184788

RESUMO

Antecedentes: El ejercicio intervalado de alta intensidad (HIIT) ha sido utilizado ampliamente para combatir los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en población adolescente y adulta, existiendo un vacío de su aplicabilidad en población infantil. Objetivos: Determinar los efectos de un HIIT sobre distintos parámetros antropométricos y cardiovasculares de niños con sobrepeso y obesidad de entre 7 y 9 años de edad. Material y métodos: Cuatro grupos fueron formados: 1) grupo control con sobrepeso (GCS, n = 30, IMC = 21,60 ± 3,72 kg/m2); 2) grupo control con obesidad (GCO, n = 34, IMC = 23,92 ± 3,11 kg/m2); 3) grupo intervención con sobrepeso (GIS, n = 69, IMC = 20,01 ± 1,88 kg/m2), y 4) grupo intervención con obesidad (GIO, n = 141, IMC=24,12 ± 2,66 kg/m2). El IMC, grasa corporal (GC), circunferencia de cintura, razón cintura-estatura, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, y capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (CRF), fueron evaluadas pre- y postintervención. Resultados: Existieron diferencias significativas en las variables IMC (p < 0,001), GC (p < 0,001) y CRF (p < 0,001) en la comparación entre grupos (control vs. intervención) en pre- y postintervención (GCS vs. GIS y GCO vs. GIO). El GIS (IMC; pre = 20,01 ± 1,88 vs. post = 19,00 ± 2,02, p < 0,001) y el GIO (IMC; pre = 24,12 ± 2,66 vs. post = 23,23 ± 3,23, p < 0,001) disminuyeron su IMC. De igual forma, en el GIS (GC; pre = 21,84 ± 4,97 vs. post = 19,55±4,81%, p < 0,001) y en el GIO (GC; pre = 30,26 ± 11,49 vs. post =26,81 ± 6,80%, p < 0,001) la GC disminuyó. Ambos grupos intervenidos mejoraron su CRF (p < 0,001). Existió una disminución significativa de escolares con obesidad (pre = 66,4% vs. post = 49,6%) (p < 0,001). Conclusión: La intervención realizada en el contexto escolar mejora los parámetros antropométricos y cardiovasculares de los escolares, permitiendo además disminuir la proporción de escolares con obesidad


Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been widely used to fight cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and adults, but no data are available on its applicability in children. Objectives: To assess the effects of HIIT on different anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters of overweight and obese children aged 7-9 years. Material and methods: Four groups were formed: 1) an overweight control group (OWCG, n = 30, BMI = 21.60 ± 3.72 kg/m2); 2) an obesity control group (OCG, n = 34, BMI = 23.92 ± 3.11 kg/m2); 3) an overweight intervention group (OWIG, n = 69, BMI = 20.01 ± 1.88 kg/m2), and 4) an obesity intervention group (OIG, n = 141, BMI = 24.12 ± 2.66 kg/m2). BMI, body fat (BF), waist circumference, height-waist ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were assessed before and after intervention. Results: There were significant differences in BMI (P < .001), BF (P < .001), and CRF (P < .001) between the groups (control vs. intervention) before and after intervention (OWCG vs. OWIG and OCG vs. OIG). BMI decreased in the OWIG (BMI, 20.01 ± 1.88 at baseline vs. 19.00 ± 2.02 after HIIT, P < .001) and OIG (BMI, 24.12 ± 2.66 at baseline vs. 23.23 ± 3.23 after HIIT, P < .001) groups. Similarly, BF decreased in the OWIG (BF, 21.84 ± 4.97 at baseline vs. 19.55 ± 4.81% after HIIT, P < .001) and OIG (BF, 30.26 ± 11.49 at baseline vs. 26.81 ± 6.80% after HIIT, P < .001) groups. CRF improved in both intervention groups (P < .001). There was a significant decrease in the prevalence rate of schoolchildren with obesity (from 66.4% to 49.6%) (P < .001). Conclusion: The intervention conducted in the school setting improved the anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters of schoolchildren, and also allowed for reducing the proportion of schoolchildren with obesity


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Antropometria , Sobrepeso/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Variância
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2230-2240, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and grip strength (GS) with incident heart failure (HF), a clinical syndrome that results in substantial social and economic burden, using UK Biobank data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 502,628 participants recruited into the UK Biobank between April 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, a total of 374,493 were included in our GS analysis and 57,053 were included in CRF analysis. Associations between CRF and GS and incident HF were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models, with adjustment for known measured confounders. RESULTS: During a mean of 4.1 (range, 2.4-7.1) years, 631 HF events occurred in those with GS data, and 66 HF events occurred in those with CRF data. Higher CRF was associated with 18% lower risk for HF (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88) per 1-metabolic equivalent increment increase and GS was associated with 19% lower incidence of HF risk (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) per 5-kg increment increase. When CRF and GS were standardized, the HR for CRF was 0.50 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.38-0.65), and for GS was 0.65 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.58-0.72). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that objective measurements of physical function (GS and CRF) are strongly and independently associated with lower HF incidence. Future studies targeting improving CRF and muscle strength should include HF as an outcome to assess whether these results are causal.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17625, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of people living with the side effects of breast cancer treatment (eg, loss of muscular mass and muscular strength, upper-limb mobility and disability, lymphedema, cardiac toxicity, and reduced quality of life) is increasing yearly. These consequences can be improved through exercise, specially combining resistance and aerobic training. Previous exercise trials have not been consistent in applying training principles and standardized reporting, and this partly explains the variability in obtained results. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a 12-week supervised resistance exercise program combined with home-based aerobic exercise, compared with home-based aerobic exercise only, on muscular strength and several aspects of health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors. To maximize transparency, replicability, and clinical applicability, the intervention is described following the consensus on exercise reporting template. METHODS: This study is a parallel-group randomized controlled trial in which 60 female breast cancer survivors, who have completed central treatments of the disease in the last 5 years, will be randomly assigned to either an experimental group that will perform a total of 24 progressive resistance training sessions for 12 weeks (ie, 2 weeks of individual training and 10 weeks of micro-group training) and will be requested to undertake 10,000 steps/d, or a control group that will be requested to undertake 10,000 steps/d, only. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline and at week 12. Primary outcome measure is peak isometric muscular strength of the lower- and upper-body, assessed with several exercises through an electromechanical dynamometer. Secondary outcomes include cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-joint mobility and disability, health-related quality of life, cancer-related fatigue, depression, life satisfaction, and presence of lymphedema. DISCUSSION: This study aims to investigate the extent to which a 12-week supervised and progressive resistance exercise program, in addition to home-based aerobic physical activity, might improve muscular strength and health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors. The comprehensive description of the intervention will likely contribute to enhancing exercise prescription in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN14601208.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego
7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5551-5557, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Digestive system cancers are the leading cause of cancer mortality and have poor survival particularly in men. The study aimed to assess the association between pre-diagnosis cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cancer mortality in a pilot sample of men who developed digestive system cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pre-diagnosis CRF (treadmill exercise test) was assessed in 342 men (68.9±21.8 years) who developed digestive system cancers during 6.7±5 years from baseline evaluation. Cox multivariable hazard models were analyzed for total cancer mortality. RESULTS: During 7.2±5 years follow-up from baseline, 120 participants died from cancer. Compared to low CRF, moderate and high CRF levels were associated with 57% [0.43, 95%CI=0.24-0.74] and 73% [0.27, 95%CI=0.12-0.59] reduced risks for cancer mortality, respectively (p trend=0.002). Survival time from baseline was longer among those with moderate [13.5 (range=12.1-14.9) years] and high [16.1 (range=14.0-18.2) years] compared to low CRF [7.9 (range=5.7-10.1) years]. CONCLUSION: Higher pre-diagnosis CRF is independently associated with lower risk of cancer mortality and longer survival in men who later developed digestive system cancers.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8402, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482976

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary fitness assessment is a valuable resource to obtain quantitative indicators of an individual's physical performance. The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX), considered the gold standard test for this evaluation, is costly and difficult to be accessed by the general population. In order to make this evaluation more accessible, and to better reflect the performance of daily life activities, alternative tests were proposed. Morbidly obese patients present limitations that impair physical performance assessment and could benefit from a test of shorter duration, provided it is validated. This observational study aimed to validate the two-minute step test (2MST) as a tool to evaluate functional capacity (FC) in obese with comorbidities and morbidly obese patients, compared the 2MST with CPX as a measure of physical performance, and developed a predictive equation to estimate peak oxygen uptake (VO2) in the 2MST. The CPX and the 2MST were performed and metabolic and ventilatory parameters were recorded in 31 obese individuals (BMI>35 kg/m2). Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the peak VO2 best predictors. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess the agreement between the two methods. Peak VO2 measured by CPX and 2MST showed a strong correlation (r=0.70, P<0.001) and there was a moderate correlation between peak VO2 of the 2MST and the number of up-and-down step cycles (UDS) (r=0.55; P=0.01). The reference equation obtained was: VO2 (mL·kg-1·min-1) = 13.341 + 0.138 × total UDS - (0.183 × BMI), with an estimated standard error of 1.3 mL·kg-1·min-1. The 2MST is a viable, practical, and easily accessible test for FC. UDS and BMI can predict peak VO2 satisfactorily.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(9): 1876-1883, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Continuous and interval are the two types of aerobic exercise training commonly used for health promotion. We sought to determine which aerobic exercise training program results in larger health improvements in metabolic syndrome (MetS) individuals. METHODS: One hundred twenty-one MetS patients (age, 57 ± 8 yr; weight, 92 ± 15 kg; and MetS factors, 3.8 ± 0.8 components) with low initial cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) (V˙O2peak, 24.0 ± 5.5 mL·kg·min) were randomized to undergo one of the following 16-wk exercise program: (a) 4 × 4-min high-intensity interval training at 90% of HRMAX (4HIIT group; n = 32), (b) 50-min moderate-intensity continuous training at 70% of HRMAX (MICT group; n = 35), (c) 10 × 1-min HIIT at 100% of HRMAX (1HIIT group; n = 32), or (d) no exercise control group (CONT; n = 22). We measured the evolution of all five MetS components (i.e., MetS Z Score) and CRF (assessed by V˙O2peak) before and after intervention. RESULTS: MetS Z score decreased 41% after 4HIIT (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.06; P < 0.01) and 52% in MICT (95% CI, 0.24-0.06; P < 0.01), whereas it did not change in 1HIIT (decreased 24%; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.03; P = 0.21) and CONT (increased 20%; 95% CI, -0.19 to 0.04; P = 0.22). However, the three exercise groups improved similarly their V˙O2peak (4HIIT, 11%; 95% CI, 0.14-0.33; MICT, 12%; 95% CI, 0.18-0.36; and 1HIIT, 14%; 95% CI, 0.21-0.40 L·min; all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in sedentary individuals with MetS and low initial CRF level any aerobic training program of 16 wk with a frequency of three times per week is sufficient stimulus to raise CRF. However, the more intense but shorter 1HIIT training program is not effective on improving MetS Z score, and thus we caution its recommendation for health promotion purposes in this population.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Idoso , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário
10.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2660-2666, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448693

RESUMO

This study identified clusters of adolescents who share similar cardiorespiratory fitness levels and analysed the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, inhibition, and math fluency in each of the clusters. The subjects were 490 high-school students aged 10-16 years. The mean age was 13.82 years (SD = 1.12). Latent class analysis identified three clusters with high, medium, and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. The high-fitness cluster achieved higher scores in inhibition and math fluency than the low-fitness cluster. Path analysis revealed that the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on inhibition was non-existent in the three clusters. The effect of inhibition on math fluency was positive and significant in all three cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a direct, positive, and significant effect on math fluency only in the high-fitness cluster. Therefore, a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness is a significant determining factor in the explanation of math fluency. These results indicate that inhibition does not mediate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and math fluency. However, the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness affect math fluency, which has important implications for the educational environment and the teaching/learning process.


Assuntos
Logro , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Matemática , Adolescente , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia
11.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(9): 782-787, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426893

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Critical mission tasks for Martian exploration have been identified and include specific duties that astronauts will have to perform despite any adverse effects of chronic microgravity. Specifically, astronauts may have to perform an emergency capsule egress upon return to Earth, which places specific demands on compromised cardiovascular and neuromuscular systems. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to determine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and simulated capsule egress time.METHODS: There were 15 subjects who volunteered for this study. Vo2peak and peak power output (PPO) were determined on cycle and rowing ergometers. Critical power (CP) was determined by a 3-min all-out rowing test. Subjects then performed an emergency capsule egress on a mock-up of NASA's Orion space capsule. Peak metabolic data were compared between the cycling and rowing tests. Pearson's correlation was used to identify relationships between egress time and Vo2peak, PPO, and CP.RESULTS: Vo2peak, Vco2peak, and minute ventilation were not different between cycling and rowing tests. Cycling elicited a greater PPO than the rowing test. Egress time was negatively correlated to rowing PPO (r = -0.60), but not cycling or rowing Vo2peak, cycling PPO, or CP.CONCLUSIONS: Rowing PPO/kg correlates with egress time. Although individuals with higher PPO/kg were able to finish the task in less time, individuals with low fitness levels (Vo2peak ≤ 20 ml · kg-1 · min-1) could complete the egress within 2 mins. These results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness should not limit emergency egress and that this can be assessed using rowing exercise.Alexander AM, Sutterfield SL, Kriss KN, Hammer SM, Didier KD, Cauldwell JT, Dzewaltowski AC, Barstow TJ, Ade CJ. Prediction of emergency capsule egress performance. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(9):782-787.


Assuntos
Astronautas , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Emergências , Voo Espacial/instrumentação , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marte , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(9): 2095-2103, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Regular aerobic exercise can improve HRR, yet little is known regarding the dose necessary to promote increases. The aim was to assess the impact of different doses of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise on HRR in individuals with overweight/obesity. METHODS: Data from 137 sedentary adults with overweight/obesity from E-MECHANIC were analyzed. Participants were randomized to either a moderate-dose exercise group (8 kcal/kg body weight/week; KKW), a high-dose exercise group (20 KKW), or a non-exercise control group. HRR was defined as the difference between peak heart rate (HR) during a graded exercise test and the HR after exactly 1 min of active recovery at 1.5 mph and level grade. RESULTS: Change in HRR did not differ significantly by exercise group; therefore, the data from both exercise groups were combined. The combined exercise group showed an improvement in HRR of 2.7 bpm (95% CI 0.1, 5.4; p = 0.04) compared to the control group. Those participants who lost more weight during the intervention (non-compensators) increased HRR by 6.2 bpm (95% CI 2.8, 9.5; p < 0.01) compared to those who lost less weight (compensators). Multiple linear regression models indicated that improvements in HRR are independently associated with increases in VO2peak (ß = 0.4; 95% CI 0.1, 0.7; p = 0.04) but also influenced by concomitant weight loss (ß = 0.6; 95% CI 0.2, 1.1; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Exercise-induced improvements in 1-min HRR are likely due to increases in cardiorespiratory fitness as well as concomitant weight loss.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331009

RESUMO

Both observational and interventional studies suggest an important role for physical activity and higher fitness in mitigating the metabolic syndrome. Each component of the metabolic syndrome is, to a certain extent, favorably influenced by interventions that include physical activity. Given that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components (particularly obesity and insulin resistance) has increased significantly in recent decades, guidelines from various professional organizations have called for greater efforts to reduce the incidence of this condition and its components. While physical activity interventions that lead to improved fitness cannot be expected to normalize insulin resistance, lipid disorders, or obesity, the combined effect of increasing activity on these risk markers, an improvement in fitness, or both, has been shown to have a major impact on health outcomes related to the metabolic syndrome. Exercise therapy is a cost-effective intervention to both prevent and mitigate the impact of the metabolic syndrome, but it remains underutilized. In the current article, an overview of the effects of physical activity and higher fitness on the metabolic syndrome is provided, along with a discussion of the mechanisms underlying the benefits of being more fit or more physically active in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284468

RESUMO

Cardiorespiratory endurance refers to the ability of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to working muscles during continuous physical activity, which is an important indicator of physical health. Cardiorespiratory endurance is typically measured in the laboratory by maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) which is not a practical method for real-life use. Given the relative difficulty in measuring oxygen consumption directly, we can estimate cardiorespiratory endurance on the basis of heart beat. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy system based on the human heart rate to provide an effective cardiorespiratory endurance training program and the evaluation of cardiorespiratory endurance levels. Trainers can respond correctly with the help of a smart fitness app to obtain the desired training results and prevent undesirable events such as under-training or over-training. The fuzzy algorithm, which is built for the Android mobile phone operating system receives the resting heart rate (RHR) of the participants via Bluetooth before exercise to determine the suitable training speed mode of a treadmill for the individual. The computer-based fuzzy program takes RHR and heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise as inputs to calculate the cardiorespiratory endurance level. The experimental results show that after 8 weeks of exercise training, the RHR decreased by an average of 11%, the HRR increased by 51.5%, and the cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation level was also improved. The proposed system can be combined with other methods for fitness instructors to design a training program that is more suitable for individuals.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Resistência Física , Algoritmos , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284668

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Exercise can help ease withdrawal symptoms of smokers. However, there is little information about the physiological responses, such as cardiorespiratory and lactate (La) responses, during exercise from light to moderate intensity combined with transdermal nicotine patches (TNPs) in smokers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TNPs on the cardiorespiratory and La responses during exercise at light to moderate intensity. Materials and Methods: Fourteen young men (8 non-smokers, 6 current smokers) aged 20 to 26 years participated in this study. They performed an incremental graded submaximal exercise test using an electromagnetic cycle ergometer set from 30 to 210 W with (TNP condition) or without a TNP (control condition) in a random order. The TNP was applied to the left arm 8-10 h prior to starting the exercise to achieve the peak level of blood nicotine concentration. Heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (VE), and blood La at rest and during exercise were measured and analyzed. Results: The HR at rest was significantly higher in the TNP condition than in the control condition (TNP; 74.7 ± 13.8 bpm, control; 65.3 ± 10.8 bpm, p < 0.001). There was no interaction (condition × exercise intensity) between any of the variables, and VO2, VE, RPE, and La during exercise were not significantly different between the conditions. However, HR during exercise was 6.7 bpm higher on average in the TNP condition. Conclusions: The HR during exercise was greater at light to moderate intensity with a TNP. Our study results will guide clinicians or health professionals when prescribing exercise programs combined with TNPs for healthy young smokers.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Ácido Láctico/análise , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Nicotina/farmacologia , Nicotina/uso terapêutico , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/farmacologia , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico
18.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(7): 1413-1419, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Menopause is accompanied by body composition changes that include a decrease in lean mass and aerobic fitness and an increase in fat mass. Sprint interval training (SIT) may be able to reverse these changes. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of an 8-wk SIT program on body composition and aerobic fitness of overweight postmenopausal women. METHODS: Forty postmenopausal women were randomized into SIT (n = 20) or control (n = 20) groups. The SIT group completed three SIT sessions a week for 8 wk with each session consisting of 20 min of alternating 8-s sprints and 12-s of light pedaling. Total mass, regional lean mass, and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) was predicted using a submaximal test. RESULTS: Total lean mass was significantly increased from pretest (48.1 ± 5.81 kg) to posttest (48.8 ± 5.96 kg) and fat mass was significantly reduced (pre, 29.5 ± 7.29 kg; post, 29.1 ± 7.61 kg) for the SIT group. Lean mass was mostly increased in the trunk (pre, 24.4 ± 2.79 kg; post, 24.8 ± 2.93 kg) and legs (pre, 15.6 ± 2.31 kg; post, 15.9 ± 2.34 kg). V˙O2max was significantly increased from pretest (21.7 ± 4.89 mL⋅kg⋅min) to posttest (24.4 ± 5.96 mL⋅kg⋅min) for the SIT group only. CONCLUSIONS: The SIT intervention increased total lean mass, decreased fat mass, and increased aerobic fitness of postmenopausal women after only 8 h of actual exercise over 8 wk.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio
19.
Br J Sports Med ; 53(14): 879-885, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the relationship between cycling (particularly commuter cycling) and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including body composition, blood lipids and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study differed from our recent (Part 1) systematic review in that risk factors for CVD were analysed as continuous variables rather than being present or absent. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We searched four databases (Web of Science, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Scopus). All quantitative studies, published until August 2017, were included when a general population was investigated, cycling was assessed either in total or as a transportation mode, and CVD risk factors were reported. METHODS: We analysed body composition, physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood lipids and blood pressure (BP). Skinfold, waist circumference and body mass index were analysed and prioritised in that order when more than one measure were available. PA included measures of counts per minutes, moderate-to-vigorous PA or minutes per week. CRF included results of maximal tests with or without expired air or submaximal test. For blood lipids and BP, separate analyses were run for low-density and high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, systolic BP and diastolic BP. Studies were excluded when reporting dichotomous outcomes or when cycling and walking were combined. Heterogeneity was investigated using I2. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included; the majority reported commuter cycling. In total, we included 5775 cyclists and 39 273 non-cyclists. Cyclists had more favourable risk factor levels in body composition -0.08 (95% CI -0.13 to -0.04), PA 0.13 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.20), CRF 0.28 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.35) and blood lipids compared with non-cyclists. There was no sex difference in risk reduction. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATION: Cycling mitigated the risk factor profile for CVD. A strength of this systematic review is that all the risk factors were analysed as continuous variables. These data provide evidence for practitioners, stakeholders, policy-makers and city planners to accommodate and promote cycling. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016052421.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 109, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) patients who undergo surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy have limitations on physical activity which will lead to a decreased quality of life and poor physical fitness level. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined exercise intervention based on internet and social media software (CEIBISMS) on postoperative breast cancer patients by evaluating their quality of life, muscle strength and cardiorespiratory capacity. METHODS: This study was a randomized control trial with an intervention period of 12 weeks. Sixty participants (30 in each group, 42-60 years old, female) were recruited through an outpatient department. Procedure of exercise in the intervention group included: via phone step-recording app, ask the individuals to complete the target number of steps within a specified period of exercise, four times per week; face-to-face remote video instruction of individuals on muscle training, three times per week; via social media apps daily push common knowledge of physical exercise BC rehabilitation. The control group received traditional treatment and rehabilitation according to daily specifications of the hospital. The primary outcome was quality of life and the secondary outcomes were muscle strength and cardiorespiratory capacity. RESULTS: Experiments using a Short Form 36 showed that the CEIBISMS yielded significantly better results than traditional methods, in vitality (p = 0.009), mental health (p = 0.001) and reported health transition (p = 0.048) by week 12. The CEIBISMS resulted in significant improvement in the stand-up and sit-down chair test (p < 0.0001), arm lifting test (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: The CEIBISMS offered rehabilitative effects in quality of life (QOL) and muscle strength of postoperative patients with breast cancer (BC) in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-IPR-17012368 . Trial registered on 14 August, 2017.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Mídias Sociais/instrumentação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Smartphone
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