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1.
Nat Metab ; 3(1): 33-42, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462515

RESUMO

Mitochondrial diseases (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from mutations in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA genes encoding mitochondrial proteins1,2. MDs cause pathologies with severe tissue damage and ultimately death3,4. There are no cures for MDs and current treatments are only palliative5-7. Here we show that tetracyclines improve fitness of cultured MD cells and ameliorate disease in a mouse model of Leigh syndrome. To identify small molecules that prevent cellular damage and death under nutrient stress conditions, we conduct a chemical high-throughput screen with cells carrying human MD mutations and discover a series of antibiotics that maintain survival of various MD cells. We subsequently show that a sub-library of tetracycline analogues, including doxycycline, rescues cell death and inflammatory signatures in mutant cells through partial and selective inhibition of mitochondrial translation, resulting in an ATF4-independent mitohormetic response. Doxycycline treatment strongly promotes fitness and survival of Ndufs4-/- mice, a preclinical Leigh syndrome mouse model8. A proteomic analysis of brain tissue reveals that doxycycline treatment largely prevents neuronal death and the accumulation of neuroimmune and inflammatory proteins in Ndufs4-/- mice, indicating a potential causal role for these proteins in the brain pathology. Our findings suggest that tetracyclines deserve further evaluation as potential drugs for the treatment of MDs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Mitocondriais/tratamento farmacológico , Tetraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Doença de Leigh/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Leigh/patologia , Expectativa de Vida , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Doenças Mitocondriais/mortalidade , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Aptidão Física , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466291

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in knowing the relationship between biological maturation and sport performance-related variables of young athletes. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between biological maturation, physical fitness, and kinanthropometric variables of athletes during their growing period, according to their sex. The systematic review and meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement and the search protocol was registered in PROSPERO, code: CRD42020208397. A search through the PubMed, Web of Sciences, and EBSCO databases was performed. A total of 423 studies were screened and 13 were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was completed by using the mean and standard deviation of each variable according to each maturation status (early, on time, or late). Differences depending on maturation were found on physical fitness, with better results in the advanced maturational groups in the male population (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.17-2.31; p < 0.001-0.05). Differences depending on maturation were found for kinanthropometric variables in males (SMD = 0.37-2.31; p < 0.001-0.002) and height and body mass in females (SMD = 0.96-1.19; p < 0.001). In conclusion, the early maturation group showed higher values in kinanthropometric variables and better results in physical fitness, highlighting the importance of the maturational process in the talent selection programs. Despite that, more research is needed to clarify the relationship of maturation with the other variables on female populations and the changes in the muscle and bone variables during the maturation processes of both sexes.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Atletas , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Antropometria , Aptidão , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24171, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429801

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common knee injuries that leads to many consequences such as early osteoarthritis and knee joint instability.To explore the association of the types of ACL tear (complete and partial) and side of injury (dominant vs nondominate) with types of playing surfaces, sports, shoes, and mechanism of injuries as well as to determine whether higher levels of fatigue and physical fitness are risk factors for complete ACL tear.This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire to collect information from young male adults with a confirmed ACL injury who were attending rehabilitation programs. The outcomes of interest were patterns of ACL injury, levels of fatigue before the injury on a 0 to 10 scale, and levels of physical fitness (hours per week). Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to assess the differences between groups, while the odds ratios were calculated to evaluate risk factors for complete ACL tear.One hundred thirteen young male adults with a confirmed ACL injury were enrolled. Most of the reported ACL injuries in this study were complete tear (80.5%) and occurred more frequently in the dominant leg (74.6%) due to noncontact mechanism (63.6%). More ACL injuries happened while playing soccer (97.2%) on artificial turf (53.3%). The level of fatigue before ACL injury was significantly higher in partial ACL tear injuries compared to complete ACL tear injuries (P = .014). For every 1-point increase in the level of fatigue on a 0-10 scale, there was a 25% reduction in complete ACL injury risk (P = .023).The pattern of ACL types of tear and side of injury varies in different playing surfaces and mechanisms of injuries. Higher levels of fatigue seem to be associated with a partial tear of the ACL and reduction of a complete ACL tear risk factor.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/complicações , Fadiga/etiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Futebol/lesões , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362223

RESUMO

The aim of the present clinical trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular versus classical strength-resistance training as part of a cardiac rehabilitation programme in patients following acute coronary syndrome. The study is designed as a double-blinded, randomised, and controlled clinical trial. Thirty participants suffering from acute coronary syndrome who meet our inclusion criteria will be recruited by a private tertiary hospital. The intervention group will follow 20 sessions of a cardiac rehabilitation programme divided into two parts: aerobic training and neuromuscular strength-resistance training. The control group will complete the same aerobic training as well as a classical strength-resistance training workout programme. The primary outcome of the study will be the mean difference in change from baseline in the Incremental Shuttle Walking Test. The secondary outcomes will be the cardiorespiratory fitness of the patients (assessed by means of the Chester Step Test), lower-limb performance (assessed with the 30-Second Chair Stand Test and Single-Leg Squat Test), lower-limb strength (hip flexor handheld dynamometry), sexual dysfunction assessment (Sex Health Inventory for Men) and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). This work will provide evidence for the effectiveness of a neuromuscular versus a classic strength-training programme in terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-limb performance capacities and quality of life, in cardiac patients. The data obtained could lead to more effective and functional workouts which, in turn, may enhance the speed at which these patients can return to their everyday activities of life and improve the efficiency of their movement patterns and heart responses. Furthermore, patients may find neuromuscular workout routines more motivating and engaging, thus encouraging them to adopt healthier lifestyle patterns.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/reabilitação , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371346

RESUMO

This study compared the physical fitness level and weight status of children and adolescents in China and Japan. Children and adolescents aged 7-18 years were recruited (China: n = 5660; Japan: n = 5660). Physical fitness was assessed using seven core items-grip strength, 30-s sit-ups, standing long jump, sit-and-reach, 20-s repeated straddling, 20-m shuttle run test, and 50-m dash. A physical fitness index (PFI) was calculated by adding all items' Z-scores. We conducted comparisons of PFI and its distribution, each physical fitness item, and weight status for individuals from China and Japan across all ages. The PFI was lower in China than in Japan for all age groups, with an especially large difference at age 18 years for boys (a difference of 9.05) and girls (a difference of 9.10) (p < 0.001). The same result was seen for the seven items. The PFI distribution for children and adolescents was more disperse among those in Japan than among those in China. Obesity prevalence was 2.84 times higher in China than in Japan. An inverted U-shaped relationship was observed between physical fitness and nutritional status. Children and adolescents showed markedly lower physical fitness and higher obesity prevalence in China than in Japan.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322511

RESUMO

For the assessment of the health-related physical fitness (PF) of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), tools designed for people without disabilities have generally been used. Also, the results of these assessments have routinely been compared with the scores obtained by people without ID. The objectives of the present study are to present the rationale for the design of an assessment battery for PF, the so-called SAMU DIS-FIT battery, and to present the results obtained by the participants classified according to age, sex, and level of PF (physical fitness). The selection criteria for the tests that would make up the battery were: (i) utility, (ii) psychometric properties, (iii) easiness and diversity, (iv) simplicity of execution, (v) familiarity and motivation, and (vi) economy of resources. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the PF of 261 individuals with ID. To interpret the results obtained by the participants, each of the quantitative variables of PF was categorized into three levels: lower-fit, mid-fit, and higher-fit. The findings of this study serve as a first step in establishing PF baseline values for individuals with ID.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência , Teste de Esforço , Deficiência Intelectual , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Psicometria , Valores de Referência
9.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(6): 709-722, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328098

RESUMO

Recreational team sports offer an alternative form of exercise to inactive individuals across the lifespan and sexes. Soccer is the most investigated recreational team sport reporting a wide range of health benefits, including cardiovascular (CV) health. The quest for novel paradigms to promote exercise in the general population, recently extended its interest to other team sports besides soccer. The available research supports the importance of recreational team handball, floorball, basketball, touch rugby, futsal and volleyball as training paradigms to improve CV fitness and other health-related variables in inactive individuals across ages and sexes. In most cases, recreational team sports programs assume the form of small-sided games, eliciting mean heart rates of 72-85% of the individual maximal. The majority of the training interventions were carried out for 12weeks with a reported mean attendance of 2 times 40-60min per week. Maximal oxygen uptake improvements were different in magnitude across the recreational team sports, with recreational team handball providing significant and clinically relevant increases (>3.5ml·kg-1·min-1). Game format, training exposure and pre-intervention health and fitness status are issues that need further investigation with the aim to optimize recreational team sports exercise programs implementation. Furthermore, the nature and effects of grassroots team sports should be further studied in order to provide as many as possible effective training tools for former practitioners and for the general population that has none or little experience of sport. Given the potential positive impact of recreational team sports practice on world population's health, large-scale randomized controlled trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Aptidão Física , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375469

RESUMO

The high prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence has major public health consequences, since it is associated with various chronic diseases in the short- and long-term. The goal of our study was to examine the possible association between obesity and overweight and cardiorespiratory and muscle performance during a 4-year follow up period in adolescents. The body mass index (BMI) and physical performance of adolescents (360 girls and 348 boys) between 14-18 years of age was measured twice a year, and the possible correlation between overweight and obesity and cardiorespiratory and muscle performances were investigated. Our results revealed that cardiorespiratory performance increased significantly in boys during the 4 years (p < 0.001), but the aerobic performance of girls only showed seasonal fluctuation. Muscle performance significantly increased both in boys and girls (p < 0.001). Inverse association between obesity and cardiorespiratory and muscle performance was proved. Overweight was also inversely correlated with cardiorespiratory performance, but it demonstrated no correlation with muscle strength. Avoiding increased BMI and decreased physical fitness is essential for adolescents' health to prevent short- and long-term adverse effects.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375668

RESUMO

The presence of multimorbidity in middle-aged and older adults, which reduces their physical activity and quality of life, is a global health challenge. Exercise is one of the most important health behaviors that individuals can engage in. Previous studies have revealed that aerobic exercise training is beneficial for healthy middle-aged and older adults and those with various chronic diseases, but few studies have designed individualized aerobic exercise training for individuals with multimorbidity. Although individuals with multimorbidity are considerably less adherent to physical activity interventions, telephone-based motivational interviewing may help in strengthening motivation and promoting behavioral change for increasing physical activity and health-related physical fitness. This study aimed to examine whether a 12-week individualized aerobic exercise training in a rehabilitation center combined with telephone-based motivational interviewing is effective in promoting physical activity and health-related physical fitness among middle-aged and older adults with multimorbidity. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Forty-three participants (aged > 40) were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group, comparison group, or control group. The participants' physical activity and health-related physical fitness were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. The results indicated that after individualized aerobic exercise training combined with telephone-based motivational interviewing, the participants reported increased total physical activity (Fin = 481.3, p = 0.011), vigorous-intensity physical activity (Fin= 298.9, p = 0.007), dominant and nondominant hand grip (kg) (Fin = 1.96, p = 0.019; Fin = 2.19, p = 0.027, respectively), FEV1/FVC (Fin = 0.045, p = 0.043), VO2 max (ml/kg/min) (Fin = 5.30, p = 0.001), VO2 max predicted (%) (Fin = 21.6, p = 0.001), work (watts) (Fin = 22.5, p = 0.001), and anaerobic threshold (L/min) (Fin = 0.165, p = 0.011). Twelve weeks of individualized aerobic exercise training in the rehabilitation center combined with telephone-based motivational interviewing can increase the total physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness of middle-aged and older adults with multimorbidity.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Multimorbidade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Força da Mão , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity or overweight is associated with many health risk factors and preventable mortality. Even people with normal weight and without history of obesity or overweight should avoid weight gain to reduce health risks factors. In this regard Latin aerobic dances involved in Zumba® practice make this modality motivating for people. Apart from weight loss and VO2peak benefits, Zumba practice is also interesting by the increase in adherence which can also avoid weight regain. The aim was to systematically review the scientific literature about the effects of any randomized intervention of Zumba® practice on total fat mass (%) and maximum oxygen consumption (VO2peak), besides establishing directions for the clinical practice. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Two systematic searches were conducted in two electronic databases following the PRISMA guidelines. The eligibility criteria were (a) outcomes: body mass or VO2peak data including mean and standard deviation (SD) before and after Zumba® intervention, (b) study design: randomized controlled trial (RCT) and (c) language: English. GRADE guidelines were used to assess the quality of evidence. A meta-analysis was performed to determine mean differences. Nine and four studies were selected for fat mass percentage and VO2peak in the systematic review, respectively. However, only eight studies for fat mass percentage and three for VO2peak could be included in the meta-analysis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The overall standardized mean difference for fat mass was -0.25 with a 95% CI from -0.67 to 0.16 with a p-value of 0.69, with large heterogeneity. On the other hand, the overall effect size for VO2peak was 0.53 (95% CI from 0.04 to 1.02 with a p-value of 0.03) with large heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evidence, we cannot conclude that Zumba® is effective at reducing body mass but it may improve VO2peak. However, the limited number of studies that met the inclusion criteria makes it too early to reach a definite conclusion, so more research is needed.


Assuntos
Dança/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Aptidão Física , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Obesidade , Sobrepeso
14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161666

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to substantiate methodology of using multidirectional fitness tools to improve level of somatic health, and as a result, physical and mental efficiency of students. The study sampling included 186 students (106 girls, 80 boys). Two groups were formed: control group (n=85: 47 girls, 38 boys) and experimental group (n=101: 59 girls, 42 boys) in the content of educational program were included experimental method. The study demonstrated that Pilates stabilizes and topes up muscles of entire body, improves coordination abilities, improves physique, favors reducing back pain, improves cardio-respiratory system and reduces psycho-emotional tension. The step aerobics positively effect on cardio-respiratory system and entire musculoskeletal system, as well as has a on physical performance. The somatic health of students in experimental group after experiment improved from "below average" to "average". In control group, before and after the experiment, level of somatic health made to "below average". After experiment, physical performance indicators in experimental group improved. The indices of students of control group remained at the same level. In experimental group, all indices of mental performance increased and began to have regular character.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Estudantes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
JAMA ; 324(18): 1855-1868, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170239

RESUMO

Importance: The benefits of vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, and exercise in disease prevention remain unclear. Objective: To test whether vitamin D, omega-3s, and a strength-training exercise program, alone or in combination, improved 6 health outcomes among older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 × 2 factorial randomized clinical trial among 2157 adults aged 70 years or older who had no major health events in the 5 years prior to enrollment and had sufficient mobility and good cognitive status. Patients were recruited between December 2012 and November 2014, and final follow-up was in November 2017. Interventions: Participants were randomized to 3 years of intervention in 1 of the following 8 groups: 2000 IU/d of vitamin D3, 1 g/d of omega-3s, and a strength-training exercise program (n = 264); vitamin D3 and omega-3s (n = 265); vitamin D3 and exercise (n = 275); vitamin D3 alone (n = 272); omega-3s and exercise (n = 275); omega-3s alone (n = 269); exercise alone (n = 267); or placebo (n = 270). Main Outcomes and Measures: The 6 primary outcomes were change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and incidence rates (IRs) of nonvertebral fractures and infections over 3 years. Based on multiple comparisons of 6 primary end points, 99% confidence intervals are presented and P < .01 was required for statistical significance. Results: Among 2157 randomized participants (mean age, 74.9 years; 61.7% women), 1900 (88%) completed the study. Median follow-up was 2.99 years. Overall, there were no statistically significant benefits of any intervention individually or in combination for the 6 end points at 3 years. For instance, the differences in mean change in systolic BP with vitamin D vs no vitamin D and with omega-3s vs no omega-3s were both -0.8 (99% CI, -2.1 to 0.5) mm Hg, with P < .13 and P < .11, respectively; the difference in mean change in diastolic BP with omega-3s vs no omega-3s was -0.5 (99% CI, -1.2 to 0.2) mm Hg; P = .06); and the difference in mean change in IR of infections with omega-3s vs no omega-3s was -0.13 (99% CI, -0.23 to -0.03), with an IR ratio of 0.89 (99% CI, 0.78-1.01; P = .02). No effects were found on the outcomes of SPPB, MoCA, and incidence of nonvertebral fractures). A total of 25 deaths were reported, with similar numbers in all treatment groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults without major comorbidities aged 70 years or older, treatment with vitamin D3, omega-3s, or a strength-training exercise program did not result in statistically significant differences in improvement in systolic or diastolic blood pressure, nonvertebral fractures, physical performance, infection rates, or cognitive function. These findings do not support the effectiveness of these 3 interventions for these clinical outcomes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01745263.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Nível de Saúde , Treinamento de Resistência , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Imunidade , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine if adding aerobic exercise to standard medical care (EX+SC) prior to bariatric surgery improves metabolic health in relation to surgical outcomes. METHODS: Fourteen bariatric patients (age: 42.3±2.5y, BMI: 45.1±2.5 kg/m2) met inclusion criteria and were match-paired to pre-operative SC (n = 7) or EX+SC (n = 7; walking 30min/d, 5d/wk, 65-85% HRpeak) for 30d. A 120min mixed meal tolerance test was performed pre- and post-intervention (~2d prior to surgery) to assess insulin sensitivity (Matsuda Index) and metabolic flexibility (indirect calorimetry). Aerobic fitness (VO2peak), body composition (BodPod), and adipokines (adiponectin, leptin) were also measured. Omental adipose tissue was collected during surgery to quantify gene expression of adiponectin and leptin, and operating time and length of hospital stay were recorded. ANOVA and Cohen's d effect size (ES) was used to test group differences. RESULTS: SC tended to increase percent body fat (P = 0.06) after the intervention compared to EX+SC. Although SC and EX+SC tended to raise insulin sensitivity (P = 0.11), EX+SC enhanced metabolic flexibility (P = 0.01, ES = 1.55), reduced total adiponectin (P = 0.01, ES = 1.54) with no change in HMW adiponectin and decreased the length of hospital stay (P = 0.05) compared to SC. Albeit not statistically significant, EX+SC increased VO2peak 2.9% compared to a 5.9% decrease with SC (P = 0.24, ES = 0.91). This increased fitness correlated to shorter operating time (r = -0.57, P = 0.03) and length of stay (r = -0.58, P = 0.03). Less omental total adiponectin (r = 0.52, P = 0.09) and leptin (r = 0.58, P = 0.05) expression correlated with shorter operating time, and low leptin expression was linked to shorter length of stay (r = 0.70, P = 0.01), and low leptin expression was linked to shorter length of stay (r = 0.70, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Adding pre-operative aerobic exercise to standard care may improve surgical outcomes through a fitness and adipose tissue derived mechanism.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/terapia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Aptidão Física , Projetos Piloto , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Período Pré-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E409-E411, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009895

RESUMO

SUMMARY: There is currently no consensus on the appropriate sports and occupational restrictions for military service members with a joint replacement. Data from the United States show that 14% of military patients complete an operational deployment after the index surgery. No published data are available on arthroplasty in the militaries of other North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries. Research is needed to determine the appropriate medical employment limitations for Canadian Armed Forces members with a knee or hip replacement. Service members wanting to continue military service should be carefully screened to ensure that their duties do not compromise the longevity of the implant and that the risk of mission-threatening complications is minimal.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Medicina Militar/normas , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Falha de Prótese , Canadá , Consenso , Teste de Esforço/normas , Humanos , Medicina Militar/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
19.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(11): 1140-1150, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant diseases lead to a decline in physical performance in a large number of patients. This includes a reduction of the musculoskeletal system, restrictions in cardiovascular fitness and psychogenically influenced syndromes such as fatigue and asthenia. It is not yet clear to what extent physical training can counteract these limitations or undesirable side effects and how this training needs to be designed in the individual situation. AIM OF THIS ARTICLE: The aim of this article is to find out whether physical training can be performed in cancer patients, how this training should be designed and which physical disorders can be influenced favorably. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this review, the currently available work on this topic was evaluated and classified with regard to its feasibility and effects in cancer patients. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Physical training can be performed without complications in most patients even under treatment for the underlying malignant disease. It has a positive effect on physical performance, cardiovascular function, the perception of one's own cancer and overall well-being. Ideally, physical training for cancer patients should include a mixture of strength and endurance training. It should be carried out regularly and its intensity should be slowly increased. The type of physical activity should be adapted to the individual needs of the patient, take into account the particularities of the malignant disease and exclude any risk to the patient. CONCLUSION: In summary, a physical training program to accompany cancer therapy should be offered to virtually all patients with malignant disease.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Aptidão Física , Esportes , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sistema Cardiovascular , Humanos , Oncologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida
20.
BMJ ; 371: m3485, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of five years of supervised exercise training compared with recommendations for physical activity on mortality in older adults (70-77 years). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General population of older adults in Trondheim, Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 1567 of 6966 individuals born between 1936 and 1942. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to two sessions weekly of high intensity interval training at about 90% of peak heart rate (HIIT, n=400), moderate intensity continuous training at about 70% of peak heart rate (MICT, n=387), or to follow the national guidelines for physical activity (n=780; control group); all for five years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. An exploratory hypothesis was that HIIT lowers mortality more than MICT. RESULTS: Mean age of the 1567 participants (790 women) was 72.8 (SD 2.1) years. Overall, 87.5% of participants reported to have overall good health, with 80% reporting medium or high physical activity levels at baseline. All cause mortality did not differ between the control group and combined MICT and HIIT group. When MICT and HIIT were analysed separately, with the control group as reference (observed mortality of 4.7%), an absolute risk reduction of 1.7 percentage points was observed after HIIT (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 1.20) and an absolute increased risk of 1.2 percentage points after MICT (1.24, 0.73 to 2.10). When HIIT was compared with MICT as reference group an absolute risk reduction of 2.9 percentage points was observed (0.51, 0.25 to 1.02) for all cause mortality. Control participants chose to perform more of their physical activity as HIIT than the physical activity undertaken by participants in the MICT group. This meant that the controls achieved an exercise dose at an intensity between the MICT and HIIT groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that combined MICT and HIIT has no effect on all cause mortality compared with recommended physical activity levels. However, we observed a lower all cause mortality trend after HIIT compared with controls and MICT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01666340.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Causas de Morte , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Aptidão Física , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
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