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1.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1148-1158, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data examining the effectiveness of long-term Hatha yoga-based (HY) programs focused on the health-related fitness (H-RF) of asymptomatic, sedentary women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-month HY-based training program on H-RF components in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty sedentary women were randomly assigned into either the HY group (HYG) (N.=42) or the control group (CG) (N.=38). The 6-month HYG program involved a progressive series of Vinyasa Flow poses performed 3 times/week for 60 minutes (40 minutes within the exercise zone of 60-75% HRmax). The CG participants did not undergo any physical training or education. Health-related fitness parameters included measures of pre- and post-training: body composition, muscular strength and maximal voluntary isometric torques of elbow flexors and knee extensors, cardio-respiratory fitness, lower back and hamstring flexibility and a static-dynamic balance. RESULTS: Two-way mixed design ANOVA revealed significant main effects for all the indicators of H-RF. Tukey post-hoc tests confirmed that the HYG demonstrated significant improvements in every variable tested. Examples of the benefits achieved include (all P<.001): an average loss of 1.03 kg and a 4.82% decrease in body fat, 14.6% and 13.1% gains in isometric strength of the knee extensors and elbow flexors respectively, an increase in relative VO2max of 6.1% (33.12±5.30 to 35.14±4.82 mL/kg/min), a 4-cm or 10.4% increase in their MSAR, and an average improved Balance Index of 5.6 mm/s. Reversely, the CG showed non-significant changes in H-RF variables (all P>0.05; percent range from -1.4% to 1.1%). CONCLUSIONS: By participating in a moderate-intensity 6-month HY-based training program, middle-aged women can significantly improve their HR-F status. The application of progressive target heart rate goals facilitated greater than expected improvements in cardio-respiratory fitness and improvements in body composition.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Ioga , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Cotovelo/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Torque
2.
Phys Ther ; 100(10): 1825-1851, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are reported to have lower levels of strength and anaerobic capacity. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify field-based tests for strength and anaerobic capacity used in studies comparing children with DCD and children who were typically developing (TD), (2) examine the methodological quality of studies reporting psychometric properties and rate the psychometric properties of the examined test, and (3) summarize available evidence by combining the methodological quality of the studies and the quality of the psychometric properties of the test. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in July 2019 in 4 electronic databases. For purpose 1, primary studies were included with no exclusion of study design in which children aged 4 to 18 years with DCD were compared with children who were TD on strength and/or anaerobic capacity measures. For purpose 2, primary studies were included with no exclusion of study design in which a psychometric property was investigated. The Consensus-Based Standards for Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the 34 studies and rate the psychometric properties of the tests used. RESULTS: Hand-held dynamometer, bent knee push-up, vertical jump, standing long-jump, functional strength measurement, fitness test, and test battery can be recommended for TD, and the shuttle run item of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition and 10 m × 5 m sprints (straight and slalom) can be recommended for DCD. CONCLUSION: Information regarding psychometric properties of field-based tests for strength and anaerobic capacity in children with DCD is lacking. IMPACT: Information about the psychometric properties of field-based tests for strength and anaerobic capacity in children with DCD is lacking. More information is available on TD children, but it is also not complete; information regarding validity and responsiveness, especially, is missing. When using measures in children with DCD, it is important to keep in mind this lack of evidence for the validity and reliability of the outcomes for this target group.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/reabilitação , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física
3.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 40(9): 433-437, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790488

RESUMO

The essential scope of the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is focused on developing effective treatments and vaccines for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is also a critical need to develop interventions to prevent the complications of COVID-19, which occur with an alarming frequency in older adults. Since severe pathologic effects of infection occur with increasing age, COVID-19 falls under the geroscience concept that all diseases in older adults have a common and major underlying cause of declining function and resilience. Geroscience posits that manipulation of aging will simultaneously delay the appearance or severity of major diseases because they share the same risk factor: aging and the multiple processes involved in aging. Drug combinations that target multiple aging processes and the cytokine networks associated with them would not necessarily limit SARS-CoV-2 infection rates but would prevent severe pathologic consequences of the disease in older adults by maintaining a more youthful-like resilience to infection-related complications. A drug cocktail aimed at controlling cytokine actions would complement current clinical treatments and vaccine effectiveness for COVID-19 and serve as a prototype for future age-related infectious disease pandemics wherein the elderly population is especially vulnerable.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Pandemias , Aptidão Física/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790710

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to establish maturation-, age-, and sex-specific anthropometric and physical fitness percentile reference values of young elite athletes from various sports. Anthropometric (i.e., standing and sitting body height, body mass, body mass index) and physical fitness (i.e., countermovement jump, drop jump, change-of-direction speed [i.e., T-test], trunk muscle endurance [i.e., ventral Bourban test], dynamic lower limbs balance [i.e., Y-balance test], hand grip strength) of 703 male and female elite young athletes aged 8-18 years were collected to aggregate reference values according to maturation, age, and sex. Findings indicate that body height and mass were significantly higher (p<0.001; 0.95≤d≤1.74) in more compared to less mature young athletes as well as with increasing chronological age (p<0.05; 0.66≤d≤3.13). Furthermore, male young athletes were significantly taller and heavier compared to their female counterparts (p<0.001; 0.34≤d≤0.50). In terms of physical fitness, post-pubertal athletes showed better countermovement jump, drop jump, change-of-direction, and handgrip strength performances (p<0.001; 1.57≤d≤8.72) compared to pubertal athletes. Further, countermovement jump, drop jump, change-of-direction, and handgrip strength performances increased with increasing chronological age (p<0.05; 0.29≤d≤4.13). In addition, male athletes outperformed their female counterpart in the countermovement jump, drop jump, change-of-direction, and handgrip strength (p<0.05; 0.17≤d≤0.76). Significant age by sex interactions indicate that sex-specific differences were even more pronounced with increasing age. Conclusively, body height, body mass, and physical fitness increased with increasing maturational status and chronological age. Sex-specific differences appear to be larger as youth grow older. Practitioners can use the percentile values as approximate benchmarks for talent identification and development.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813745

RESUMO

Built environments have been cited as important facilitators of activity and research using geographic information systems (GIS) has emerged as a novel approach in exploring environmental determinants. The Active Children Through Individual Vouchers Evaluation Project used GIS to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of how teenager's (aged 13-14) environments impacted on their amount of activity and influences fitness. The ACTIVE Project recruited 270 participants aged 13-14 (year 9) from 7 secondary schools in south Wales, UK. Demographic data and objective measures of accelerometery and fitness were collected from each participant between September and December 2016. Objective data was mapped in a GIS alongside datasets relating to activity provision, active travel routes, public transport stops, main roads and natural resources. This study shows that fitness and physical activity are not correlated. Teenagers who had higher levels of activity also had higher levels of sedentary time/inactivity. Teenagers showed higher amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity if their homes were closer to public transport. However, they were also more active if their schools were further away from public transport and natural resources. Teenagers were fitter if schools were closer to natural resources. Sedentary behaviour, fitness and activity do not cluster in the same teenagers. Policymakers/planning committees need to consider this when designing teenage friendly environments. Access to public transport, active travel, green space and activities that teenagers want, and need could make a significant difference to teenage health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , País de Gales
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article aimed to systematically review the contribution of physical education (PE) classes to improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in children and adolescents; and to define potentially relevant factors for promoting CRF in PE classes. METHODS: Studies were identified from searches in ERIC, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases. Primary source articles, relating PE classes and CRF, published up to July 2019 in peer-reviewed journals were eligible for inclusion. Specific inclusion criteria were: (a) having cross-sectional or longitudinal and observational or interventional study designs; (b) targeting school-aged children or adolescents; (c) measuring CRF, heart rate or CRF test results as an outcome; (d) having statistical analyses of the CRF, heart rate or CRF test results outcomes reported; (e) focusing on PE classes or PE interventions that did not extended time or frequency of the classes; and (f) published in English, French, Portuguese, or Spanish. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 10 studies have found a neutral effect of PE classes in students' CRF, eight studies found that PE indeed contributed to the improvement of CRF and six studies revealed mixed findings, when PE classes where controlled for others variables (e.g. body mass index, intensity). Higher intensity PE classes consistently demonstrated contributions to improving students' CRF. CONCLUSION: Review findings suggest that PE classes can contribute to the improvement of students' CRF. Intensity, age and weight status were identified as potentially relevant factors for promoting CRF in PE classes. To improve CRF, higher intensity classes should be provided.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento/tendências , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia
7.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1564-1566, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816547

RESUMO

Objectives. To evaluate the statewide implementation of childhood fitness assessment and reporting in Georgia.Methods. We collected survey data from 1683 (919 valid responses from a random-digit-dialed survey and 764 valid responses from a Qualtrics panel) parents of public school students in Georgia in 2018.Results. Most parents reported that their child participated in fitness assessments at school, yet only 31% reported receiving results. If a child was identified as needing improvement, parents were significantly more likely to change the diet and exercise of both the child and the family.Conclusions. A state-level mandatory fitness assessment for children may be successful in state-level surveillance of fitness levels; parental awareness of the policy, receipt of the fitness assessment information, and action on receiving the screening information require more efforts in implementation.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Programas Obrigatórios , Pais/psicologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Georgia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Obrigatórios/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Obrigatórios/organização & administração , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2093-2097, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696600

RESUMO

AIMS: A reduction of habitual physical activity due to prolonged COVID-19 quarantine can have serious consequences for patients with cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure. This study aimed to explore the effect of COVID-19 nationwide quarantine on accelerometer-assessed physical activity of heart failure patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the daily number of steps in 26 heart failure patients during a 6-week period that included 3 weeks immediately preceding the onset of the quarantine and the first 3 weeks of the quarantine. The daily number of steps was assessed using a wrist-worn accelerometer worn by the patients as part of an ongoing randomized controlled trial. Multilevel modelling was used to explore the effect of the quarantine on the daily step count adjusted for weather conditions. As compared with the 3 weeks before the onset of the quarantine, the step count was significantly lower during each of the first 3 weeks of the quarantine (P < 0.05). When the daily step count was averaged across the 3 weeks before and during the quarantine, the decrease amounted to 1134 (SE 189) steps per day (P < 0.001), which translated to a 16.2% decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the nationwide quarantine due to COVID-19 had a detrimental effect on the level of habitual physical activity in heart failure patients, leading to an abrupt decrease of daily step count that lasted for at least the 3-week study period. Staying active and maintaining sufficient levels of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic are essential despite the unfavourable circumstances of quarantine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/reabilitação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Teste de Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Phys Ther ; 100(10): 1852-1861, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the common occurrence of lower levels of physical activity and physical fitness in youth with spina bifida (SB) who use a wheelchair, there are very few tests available to measure and assess these levels. The purpose of this study was to determine reliability and the physiologic response of the 6-minute push test (6MPT) in youth with SB who self-propel a wheelchair. METHODS: In this reliability and observational study, a sample of 53 youth with SB (5-19 years old; mean age = 13 years 7 months; 32 boys and 21 girls) who used a wheelchair performed 2 exercise tests: the 6MPT and shuttle ride test. Heart rate, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, and oxygen consumption were measured using a calibrated mobile gas analysis system and a heart rate monitor. For reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), SE of measurement, smallest detectable change for total covered distance, minute work, and heart rate were calculated. Physiologic response during the 6MPT was expressed as percentage of maximal values achieved during the shuttle ride test. RESULTS: The ICCs for total distance and minute work were excellent (0.95 and 0.97, respectively), and the ICC for heart rate was good (0.81). The physiologic response during the 6MPT was 85% to 89% of maximal values, except for minute ventilation (70.6%). CONCLUSIONS: For most youth with SB who use a wheelchair for mobility or sports participation, the 6MPT is a reliable, functional performance test on a vigorous level of exercise. IMPACT: This is the first study to investigate physiologic response during the 6MPT in youth (with SB) who are wheelchair using. Clinicians can use the 6MPT to evaluate functional performance and help design effective exercise programs for youth with SB who are wheelchair using.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Disrafismo Espinal/reabilitação , Cadeiras de Rodas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Disrafismo Espinal/fisiopatologia
10.
Sports Health ; 12(5): 441-448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) are crucial for bone health. However, children participating in competitive sports with high PA are at a greater risk of fracture from trauma or overuse. Given the importance of bone development during adolescence, associations between commonly used physical fitness tests with distal third radius (R-SoS) and midshaft tibia (T-SoS) speed of sound by quantitative ultrasound were assessed in adolescent athletes and nonathletes. HYPOTHESIS: The relationship between physical fitness tests and R-SoS and T-SoS will differ depending on sex and athletic status. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Physical fitness of 285 boys (156 athletes) and 311 girls (74 athletes) aged 10 to 18 years was assessed through strength, speed, agility, and cardiorespiratory tests. Linear regression was used to assess the associations of physical fitness tests with R-SoS and T-SoS. RESULTS: For boys, favorable associations were observed between physical fitness tests with R-SoS in athletes and T-SoS in both athletes and nonathletes (P < 0.05). For nonathlete girls, favorable associations were found for handgrip (R-SoS and T-SoS, both P < 0.05), whereas the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run, vertical jump, speed at 20 m and 40 m were only favorably associated with T-SoS. For athlete girls, the association between handgrip (P = 0.03), vertical jump, and 4 × 10 m shuttle run (P < 0.05) with T-SoS was significantly related to a bone outcome. CONCLUSION: The handgrip test and vertical jump were associated with T-SoS in boys and girls independent of sport status. These results suggest that physical fitness is associated with bone health in adolescents, particularly boys, and that the relationship between physical fitness and bone may differ depending on sex and athletic status. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Physical fitness tests are simple, easy-to-use tools for monitoring bone health and should be used by sport and health professsionals to promote healthy sport participation and prevent bone injuries.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Rádio (Anatomia)/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Tíbia/fisiologia , Adolescente , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Sexuais , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1012, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical science students represent valuable labour resources for better future medicine and medical technology. However, little attention was given to the health and well-being of these early career medical science professionals. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of lifestyle components on cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery measured after moderate exercise in this population. METHODS: Volunteers without documented medical condition were recruited randomly and continuously from the first-year medical science students during 2011-2014 at the University of Surrey, UK. Demographics and lifestyle components (the levels of smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, weekend outdoor activity and screen-time, daily sleep period, and self-assessment of fitness) were gathered through pre-exercise questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) and heart rate recovery were determined using Åstrand-Rhyming submaximal cycle ergometry test. Data were analysed using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: Among 614 volunteers, 124 had completed both lifestyle questionnaire and the fitness test and were included for this study. Within 124 participants (20.6 ± 4 years), 46.8% were male and 53.2% were female, 11.3% were overweight and 8.9% were underweight, 8.9% were current smokers and 33.1% consumed alcohol beyond the UK recommendation. There were 34.7% of participants admitted to have < 3 h/week of moderate physical activity assessed according to UK Government National Physical Activity Guidelines and physically not fit (feeling tiredness). Fitness test showed that VO2max distribution was inversely associated with heart rate recovery at 3 min and both values were significantly correlated with the levels of exercise, self-assessed fitness and BMI. Participants who had < 3 h/week exercise, or felt not fit or were overweight had significantly lower VO2max and heart rate recovery than their peers. CONCLUSION: One in three new medical science students were physically inactive along with compromised cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery, which put them at risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Promoting healthy lifestyle at the beginning of career is crucial in keeping medical science professionals healthy.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(7): 1049-1055, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The enjoyment represents children as crucial factor to maintain positive engagement in physical activity. Unfortunately, enjoyment decreases with age and undergoes the physical perceived competence that, in turn, is affected by the anthropometric characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enjoyment during physical education lessons, even though the anthropometric characteristics affects the performance and in consequence the self-perceived physical competence. METHODS: A total of 1999 children (girls =998; boys=1001) were interviewed with Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) and International Fitness Scale (IFIS) questionnaires. The scores were matched with BMI to evaluate the relationships with anthropometric characteristics. No parametric analysis of variance was used to define the categorical differences within the score of the two questionnaires according to BMI and age. RESULTS: The PACES questionnaire revealed a general score of 50.96 with the highest mean value for the item n.1 ("I enjoy it"). This questionnaire confirmed a significant decrease with age (cut-off eight years) while no differences were found within sex and BMI categories. The IFIS showed a decrease from 8 to 11 years (male and female) and significant differences were found within BMI categories. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that attention should be paid to improve enjoyment during physical education lessons since the age of eight years in order to improve the positive perceptions of physical competence and then the reinforcement for enjoyment that in turn improve the positive attitude for physical activity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rugby union match demands are complex, requiring the development of multiple physical qualities concurrently. Quantifying the physical qualities of age grade rugby union players is vital for practitioners to support athlete preparation and long-term development. AIM: This systematic review aimed to identify the methods used to quantify the physical qualities of male age grade (≤ Under-20) rugby union players, present the normative values for physical qualities, and compare physical qualities between age grades and positions. METHODS: Electronic databases were systematically reviewed from the earliest record to November 2019 using key words relating to sex, age, sport and physical testing. RESULTS: Forty-two studies evaluated the physical qualities of age grade rugby union players. Seventy-five tests were used to quantify body composition, muscular strength, muscular power, linear speed, change of direction ability, aerobic capacity and anaerobic endurance. Thirty-one studies met the eligibility criteria to present the physical qualities. Physical qualities differentiate between age groups below Under-16, while differences in older age groups (Under-16 to Under-20) are not clear. Positional differences are present with forwards possessing greater height, body mass, body fat percentage and strength while backs are faster and have greater aerobic capacities. CONCLUSIONS: A wide variety of tests are used to assess physical qualities limiting between study comparisons. Although differences in older age grades are unclear, older age groups (Under-19-20) generally performed better in physical tests. Positional differences are associated with match demands where forwards are exposed to less running but a greater number of collisions. Practitioners can use the results from this review to evaluate the physical qualities of age grade rugby union players to enhance training prescription, goal setting and player development. Future research should consider the use of national standardised testing batteries due to the inconsistency in testing methods and small samples limiting the reporting of positional differences.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci ; 38(16): 1913-1923, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567491

RESUMO

We estimated international/national temporal trends in sit-ups performance for children and adolescents, and examined relationships between national trends in sit-ups performance and national trends in health-related/sociodemographic indicators. Data were obtained by systematically searching studies reporting on temporal trends in sit-ups performance for apparently healthy 9-17 year-olds, and by examining nationally representative fitness datasets. Trends at the country-sex-age level were estimated by sample-weighted regression models relating the testing year to mean sit-ups performance. International/national trends were estimated by a post-stratified population-weighting procedure. Pearson's correlations quantified relationships between national trends in sit-ups performance and national trends in health-related/sociodemographic indicators. A total of 9,939,289 children and adolescents from 31 countries/special administrative regions between 1964 and 2017 collectively showed a large improvement of 38.4% (95% CI: 36.8 to 40.0) or 7.1% per decade (95% CI: 6.8 to 7.4). Large international improvements were experienced by all age and sex groups, with the rate of improvement slowing from 1964 to 2000, stabilizing near zero until 2010, before declining. Trends differed between countries, with national trends in vigorous physical activity a strong, positive correlate of national trends in sit-ups performance. More sit-ups data are needed from low- and middle-income countries to better monitor trends in muscular fitness. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42013003657.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Sports Sci ; 38(19): 2264-2272, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583727

RESUMO

Meta-analytic evidence supports that exercise has benefits for short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). However, only three studies with children have tested the differential effects of exercise on STM and LTM. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an aerobic fitness test on STM and LTM and to consider the moderating effects of grade level. Children (7-13 years of age) were randomly assigned to either perform an aerobic fitness test before (exercise prior) or after (exercise post) performing the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to assess memory. Memory was tested again after approximately 24 hours. There were significant differences in memory performance as a function of grade with 4th and 6th graders consistently outperforming 2nd graders. For learning, Day 1 Retention, 24-hr recall, and Day 2 Retention, the exercise prior group performed better than the exercise post group. It is concluded that an aerobic fitness test performed prior to a declarative memory test benefits LTM as compared to when the aerobic fitness test is performed after the memory test.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Aptidão Física/fisiologia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20597, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502032

RESUMO

The current absence of a disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer disease highlights the necessity for the benefits of nonpharmacological approaches. We aimed to investigate the effect of exercise in older patients with Alzheimer dementia.This is an observational, prospective cohort study in medical center. Eighty older patients with Alzheimer dementia, including 54 with mild dementia and 26 with moderate dementia, were followed up over 2 years. Patients were divided into exercise and no-exercise groups according to their weekly exercise habit. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), clinical dementia rating (CDR), and senior fitness test were checked initially. We defined death and unexpected hospitalization as the outcomes.Age, sex, education years, and MMSE showed no significant differences between the groups (P > .05) in all patients. All the patients of the exercise group had significantly better left upper body strength, higher aerobic endurance, and left and right balance maintenance time than those of the no-exercise group (P < .05). There were no changes in hospitalization and mortality between the exercise and non-exercise groups during the 2-year follow-ups in all participants. However, in the mild and moderate dementia subgroups, age, sex, education years, and MMSE showed no significant differences between the groups (P > .05). The exercise group had significantly better lower body strength, left upper body strength, aerobic endurance, right upper body flexibility, lower body flexibility, balance maintenance, and agility than the no-exercise group in patients with mild dementia (P < .05). Moreover, the exercise group had significantly lesser unexpected hospitalization than the no-exercise group in the patients with mild dementia (P = .037).Despite the similarity in the status of dementia, exercise habit was found to be associated with a better senior fitness test score status. Hence, exercise can decrease unexpected hospitalization in patients with mild dementia but not those with total dementia.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(7): 1608-1616, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthmatic patients may benefit from exercise training, although the effects of a combined aerobic and resistance training program are still poorly investigated in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of a combined exercise training (resistance and aerobic) program on aerobic fitness, lung function, asthma control and quality of life in a group of mild-moderate asthmatic children with exercise symptoms. METHODS: This was a 12-week randomized controlled trial including children and adolescents diagnosed with mild-moderate asthma and presenting exercise-induced symptoms. The intervention group (IG) performed the exercise training (resistance and aerobic) 3 days/week, for 60 minutes. The control group (CG) followed routine clinical orientations. The main outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lung function, quality of life, asthma control, and functional tests after 3 months of the intervention. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (IG = 25 and CG = 28) with a mean age of 11.5 ± 2.6 years were included. No significant differences were found between groups regarding lung function, asthma control, quality of life, and functional tests. Ventilatory equivalent for oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold (P = .025; η p 2 = 0.083), peak oxygen consumption (P = .008; η p 2 = 0.116) and test duration (P = .014; η p 2 = 0.1) presented greater improvements in the IG. In addition, improvements were observed in leg press (P < .001; η p 2 = 0.36), hamstring curl (P = .001; η p 2 = 0.217), high row (P = .003; η p 2 = .167), low row (P = .009; η p 2 = 0.128) and quadriceps leg extension (P = .015; η p 2 = 0.108) in the IG. CONCLUSION: Combined exercise training (resistance and aerobic) improved cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in children and adolescents with controlled asthma and exercise symptoms.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Adolescente , Asma/fisiopatologia , Criança , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Testes de Função Respiratória
18.
Neurology ; 94(21): e2245-e2257, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise is associated with improvements in cognition and cerebrovascular regulation, we enrolled 206 healthy low-active middle-aged and older adults (mean ± SD age 65.9 ± 6.4 years) in a supervised 6-month aerobic exercise intervention and assessed them before and after the intervention. METHODS: The study is a quasi-experimental single group pre/postintervention study. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess cognition before and after the intervention. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to measure cerebral blood flow velocity. Cerebrovascular regulation was assessed at rest, during euoxic hypercapnia, and in response to submaximal exercise. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between changes in cognition and changes in cerebrovascular function. RESULTS: The intervention was associated with improvements in some cognitive domains, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cerebrovascular regulation. Changes in executive functions were negatively associated with changes in cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRi) during submaximal exercise (ß = -0.205, p = 0.013), while fluency improvements were positively associated with changes in CVRi during hypercapnia (ß = 0.106, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The 6-month aerobic exercise intervention was associated with improvements in some cognitive domains and cerebrovascular regulation. Secondary analyses showed a novel association between changes in cognition and changes in cerebrovascular regulation during euoxic hypercapnia and in response to submaximal exercise.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
19.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(6): 637-642, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358851

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to develop a machine learning prediction model for successful aging (SA) based on physical fitness tests. METHODS: A total of 3657 community-dwelling adults aged ≥60 years from Nanchang city were recruited in this study. A 3-year follow-up test was carried out for all the participants to determine whether they turn to non-SA. Developed questionnaires and physical fitness tests were used to obtain overall health condition, balance, agility, speed, reactions and gait. Four machine learning models (logistic regression, deep learning, random forest and gradient boosting decision tree) were applied to develop the prediction models, the analyzed sample was 890. RESULTS: The baseline prevalence of successful aging was 26.99%, The average annual incidence rate of SA to non-SA was 11.04%. There were significant differences between the SA and non-SA groups for all physical fitness tests at baseline. The accuracy and area under the curve of all four machine learning models was >85%, the positive predictive value and sensitivity was >75%, and the specificity was >86% on the average. The deep learning model outperformed the other model, with area under the curve 90.00%, accuracy 89.3%, positive predictive value 85.8% and specificity 93.1%, respectively. Compared with other models, the logistic regression model performed best in sensitivity. Age, arm curl, 30-s sit-to-stand and reaction time were important predictors in all models. CONCLUSION: The deep learning model is ideal in the prediction of SA maintenance, and the corresponding physical fitness interventions are essential to ensuring SA. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; ••: ••-••.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Seguimentos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(3): 411-416, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371632

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surgery poses major threats to functional independence. Prehabilitation is a preoperative conditioning intervention that aims to prevent or attenuate surgery-related functional decline and its consequences. The present review is to summarize most recent evidence on the effectiveness of prehabilitation on key topics in cancer care, such as perioperative functional capacity, surgical and oncologic outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies predominantly focus on functional outcomes, demonstrating a positive effect of prehabilitation on perioperative physical fitness. SUMMARY: Prehabilitation prevents functional decline associated with major cancer surgery. Evidence is still needed to support its effectiveness in relation to postoperative complication, length of hospital stay, tumor progression, response to medical treatment, and survival. Ongoing and future research is essential to prompt the role of perioperative medicine in cancer care.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Período Pré-Operatório , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
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