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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 38-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613185

RESUMO

To help inform strategies aimed at increasing muscular fitness levels, we examined factors associated with childhood muscular fitness (strength and power) that preceded the recently observed secular decline. Data were available from a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8469). Muscular fitness measures included strength (right and left grip, shoulder extension and flexion, and leg strength) and power (standing long jump distance). Anthropometric (adiposity, fat-free mass), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), flexibility, speed capability, physical activity (individual and parental), dietary quality and intake (fruit, vegetable, protein) and sociodemographic (area-level socioeconomic status (SES), school type) data were available. Statistical analyses included sex-stratified linear regression. Of all examined factors, measures of adiposity, fat-free mass, CRF, flexibility and speed capability were associated with muscular fitness at levels that met Cohen's threshold for important effects (r-squared = 0.02 to 0.28). These findings highlight the multifactorial relationship between muscular fitness and its determinants. Collectively, these factors were powerful in explaining muscular strength (females: r-squared = 0.32; males: r-squared = 0.41) and muscular power (females: r-squared = 0.36; males: r-squared = 0.42). These findings highlight modifiable and environmental factors that could be targeted to increase childhood muscular fitness.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Classe Social
2.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 70, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787069

RESUMO

AIMS: This study focused on the newest evidence of the relationship between forest environmental exposure and human health and assessed the health efficacy of forest bathing on the human body as well as the methodological quality of a single study, aiming to provide scientific guidance for interdisciplinary integration of forestry and medicine. METHOD: Through PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, 210 papers from January 1, 2015, to April 1, 2019, were retrieved, and the final 28 papers meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the study. RESULT: The methodological quality of papers included in the study was assessed quantitatively with the Downs and Black checklist. The methodological quality of papers using randomized controlled trials is significantly higher than that of papers using non-randomized controlled trials (p < 0.05). Papers included in the study were analyzed qualitatively. The results demonstrated that forest bathing activities might have the following merits: remarkably improving cardiovascular function, hemodynamic indexes, neuroendocrine indexes, metabolic indexes, immunity and inflammatory indexes, antioxidant indexes, and electrophysiological indexes; significantly enhancing people's emotional state, attitude, and feelings towards things, physical and psychological recovery, and adaptive behaviors; and obvious alleviation of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: Forest bathing activities may significantly improve people's physical and psychological health. In the future, medical empirical studies of forest bathing should reinforce basic studies and interdisciplinary exchange to enhance the methodological quality of papers while decreasing the risk of bias, thereby raising the grade of paper evidence.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Exposição Ambiental , Florestas , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Terapia Recreacional
3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2230-2240, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and grip strength (GS) with incident heart failure (HF), a clinical syndrome that results in substantial social and economic burden, using UK Biobank data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of the 502,628 participants recruited into the UK Biobank between April 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, a total of 374,493 were included in our GS analysis and 57,053 were included in CRF analysis. Associations between CRF and GS and incident HF were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models, with adjustment for known measured confounders. RESULTS: During a mean of 4.1 (range, 2.4-7.1) years, 631 HF events occurred in those with GS data, and 66 HF events occurred in those with CRF data. Higher CRF was associated with 18% lower risk for HF (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88) per 1-metabolic equivalent increment increase and GS was associated with 19% lower incidence of HF risk (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) per 5-kg increment increase. When CRF and GS were standardized, the HR for CRF was 0.50 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.38-0.65), and for GS was 0.65 per 1-SD increment (95% CI, 0.58-0.72). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that objective measurements of physical function (GS and CRF) are strongly and independently associated with lower HF incidence. Future studies targeting improving CRF and muscle strength should include HF as an outcome to assess whether these results are causal.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20181264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778458

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of ten-week multicomponent training with different exercise frequencies on body composition (BC) and physical fitness (PF) in overweight and obese young children. METHODS: 40 children, aged 12-15 (14.77±1.49), were randomly selected and assigned to experimental groups to train three times/week (EG1) or two times/week (EG2) for 10 weeks and a CG group (no training program). RESULTS: It was shown that experimental groups (EG1 and EG2) improved similarly aerobic capacity (3.8% and 3.5%, respectively), muscular strength (29.7% and 25.2%), flexibility (6.1% and 9.9%), body mass index (5.0% and 4.6%), and body fat (6.4% and 5.6%) from pre- to post-training. CG group showed no significant improvements on BC and PF variables. CONCLUSION: Short-term multicomponent training seems to be effective on PF improvements, independently of the exercise frequency, in overweight and obese young children. However, it seems to be more effective to perform a multicomponent exercise training three times/week to improve muscular strength, body mass index, and decrease body fat percentage. This knowledge should be considered by professionals in physical education or youth sport in order to adapt practical tasks depending on the training purposes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Rev Prat ; 69(4): 438-443, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626503

RESUMO

The prescription of physical activity for patients living with a long-term condition has been enshrined in legislation since 2016. The French National Cancer Institute published a literature review on the expected effects of physical activity in patients living with cancer. The benefits are prevention or correction of physical deconditioning, a preservation and/or a normalization of body composition, a reduction of cancerrelated fatigue, an overall quality-of-life improvement, the improvement of treatments tolerance and their medium and long-term effects, an increased life expectancy and a lower risk of cancer recurrence. These effects can be observed for a mixed physical activity program -cardio respiratory fitness and muscular strength-, with moderate to vigorous intensity activity, 30 minutes a day at least 5 days a week. The benefits are all the more important as physical activity starts early. Health professionals have an important part to play in helping patients engage in physical activity, with a regular even moderate practice which is always beneficial as compared with sedentary behaviors.


Assuntos
Exercício , Neoplasias , Exercício/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário
6.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(9): 1513-1525, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610639

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is a performance factor that is characterized by its ability to be assessed using closed tests. Among the existing tests today, there are no data on which are the most optimal ones for the sport for which they are applied. Tests of a generic nature are widely used regardless of the sample of players or the sport to which is being referred as they allow to compare the performance among athletes. In spite of this, it is necessary to identify and develop specific tests of physical fitness for each sport. Thus, the main purpose of this review on physical fitness in basketball players was to identify and group the different tests described in the literature up until November 2018. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was conducted in the different data base to systematically ascertain the most commonly used tests for assessing physical fitness in basketball players. A total of 40 articles were selected, after passing the selection and exclusion criteria. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Finally, they were classified according to the tests assessed in each document. The capacities more frequently studied in literature are jump (N.=21) aerobic capacity (N.=17) and anaerobic capacity (N.=16). On the contrary, the least common evaluated capacities are speed and agility (N.=14). CONCLUSIONS: The results and discussion showed that few specific tests are used to assess this quality in athletes. The analyzed bibliography reveals the lack of design and use of specific tests to highlight the qualities involved in the targeted sport.


Assuntos
Basquetebol/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
BMJ ; 366: l5101, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of aerobic exercise on activities of daily living in the subacute phase after stroke. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised controlled, endpoint blinded trial. SETTING: Seven inpatient rehabilitation sites in Germany (2013-17). PARTICIPANTS: 200 adults with subacute stroke (days 5-45 after stroke) with a median National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS, range 0-42 points, higher values indicating more severe strokes) score of 8 (interquartile range 5-12) were randomly assigned (1:1) to aerobic physical fitness training (n=105) or relaxation sessions (n=95, control group) in addition to standard care. INTERVENTION: Participants received either aerobic, bodyweight supported, treadmill based physical fitness training or relaxation sessions, each for 25 minutes, five times weekly for four weeks, in addition to standard rehabilitation therapy. Investigators and endpoint assessors were masked to treatment assignment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were change in maximal walking speed (m/s) in the 10 m walking test and change in Barthel index scores (range 0-100 points, higher scores indicating less disability) three months after stroke compared with baseline. Safety outcomes were recurrent cardiovascular events, including stroke, hospital readmissions, and death within three months after stroke. Efficacy was tested with analysis of covariance for each primary outcome in the full analysis set. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing values. RESULTS: Compared with relaxation, aerobic physical fitness training did not result in a significantly higher mean change in maximal walking speed (adjusted treatment effect 0.1 m/s (95% confidence interval 0.0 to 0.2 m/s), P=0.23) or mean change in Barthel index score (0 (-5 to 5), P=0.99) at three months after stroke. A higher rate of serious adverse events was observed in the aerobic group compared with relaxation group (incidence rate ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 3.36). CONCLUSIONS: Among moderately to severely affected adults with subacute stroke, aerobic bodyweight supported, treadmill based physical fitness training was not superior to relaxation sessions for maximal walking speed and Barthel index score but did suggest higher rates of adverse events. These results do not appear to support the use of aerobic bodyweight supported fitness training in people with subacute stroke to improve activities of daily living or maximal walking speed and should be considered in future guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01953549.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Avaliação da Deficiência , Teste de Esforço , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Terapia de Relaxamento , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada/fisiologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3719, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481654

RESUMO

In most human societies, there are taboos and laws banning mating between first- and second-degree relatives, but actual prevalence and effects on health and fitness are poorly quantified. Here, we leverage a large observational study of ~450,000 participants of European ancestry from the UK Biobank (UKB) to quantify extreme inbreeding (EI) and its consequences. We use genotyped SNPs to detect large runs of homozygosity (ROH) and call EI when >10% of an individual's genome comprise ROHs. We estimate a prevalence of EI of ~0.03%, i.e., ~1/3652. EI cases have phenotypic means between 0.3 and 0.7 standard deviation below the population mean for 7 traits, including stature and cognitive ability, consistent with inbreeding depression estimated from individuals with low levels of inbreeding. Our study provides DNA-based quantification of the prevalence of EI in a European ancestry sample from the UK and measures its effects on health and fitness traits.


Assuntos
Consanguinidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Nível de Saúde , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Família , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reino Unido
9.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 774-778, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476784

RESUMO

We compared results of Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance of young athletes of two different age categories after correcting body mass (BM) variations by allometric scales. Thirty young judokas (14.2±3.6 years) belonging to two age categories underwent an SJFT: under 15 (U15) years old (12.1±2.4 years; 46.5±15.6 kg; 152.4±11.2 cm) and under 21 years old (U21) (18.2±0.8 years; 77.1±23.5 kg; 174.2±8.9 cm). Allometric exponents of -0.33 and 0.67 were used to correct the influence of BM variations on SJFT performance results. After correction using the -0.33 exponent, U21 showed a higher number of throws (TNT) than U15 (85.5±9.9 and 68.8±12.0, p<0.05, respectively), although the SJFT index had been similar between these groups (67.3±10.1 and 61.7±8.1, p>0.05, respectively). In contrast, TNT normalized by the 0.67 exponent was higher in U15 than U21 (1.55±0.29 and 1.17 ± 0.25, p<0.05, respectively). Likewise, the SJFT index was higher in U15 than in U21 when using the same exponent (1.55±0.29 and 1.17±0.25, p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the -0.33 exponent may be useful to remove the influence of BM variations, thus discriminating SJFT performance results in U15 and U21 judokas. Moreover, the 0.67 exponent may overestimate SJFT indices in low-age judokas.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(12): 2415-2426, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of interval walking training (IWT) on the estimated peak aerobic capacity (eV˙O2peak) and lifestyle-related disease (LSD) score while focusing on exercise intensity and volume in middle-aged and older people. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Men and women (N=679; mean age, 65±7 SD years) completed 5-month IWT. Participants were instructed to repeat 5 or more sets of fast and slow walking for 3 minutes each at 70% or more and 40% eV˙O2peak for walking, respectively, per day for 4 or more d/wk. This study was conducted from April 1, 2005, through February 29, 2008. RESULTS: Interval walking training increased eV˙O2peak by 14% and decreased LSD score by 17% on average (P<.001). During 5-month IWT, fast and slow walking times were 88±65 SD and 100±86 min/wk, respectively, but varied among participants. We divided participants into approximately 10 bins for 6 minutes each of fast and slow walking times per week up to 60 min/wk, and above this time, approximately 8 bins for 30 or 60 minutes each of fast and slow walking up to the maximal time. We found that both eV˙O2peak and LSD score improved as fast walking time per week increased up to 50 min/wk (R2=0.94; P<.001 for eV˙O2peak; R2=0.51; P=.03 for LSDS) but plateaued above this time. In contrast, improvement in neither eV˙O2peak nor LSDS was positively correlated with slow or total walking time per week. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that fast walking time per week was the major determinant of improvements in eV˙O2peak (P<.001) and LSD score (P=.001). CONCLUSION: High-intensity walking time during IWT is a key factor to increase eV˙O2peak and decrease LSD score in middle-aged and older people.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caminhada/fisiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398910

RESUMO

The need to achieve short-term competitive outcomes in sports may influence the emergence of talent selection strategies, which could bias individuals' opportunities. The present study aimed to further explore the relative age effect (RAE), a phenomenon that strongly influences youth sport development. The RAE refers to a disproportionately high percentage in sport teams of athletes born early in the selection year. Our primary focus was to explore whether the RAE is supported by behavioral evidence in favor of better fitness-and especially cognitive-attentional functioning-of early as compared to late-born players. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 young athletes (u10, n = 52; 9.8 ± 0.3 years old, and u12, n = 53; 11.8 ± 0.2 years old) attending two youth elite soccer academies. Attentional functioning, anthropometrics, physical fitness, and game intelligence were compared across two Age Groups (u10 vs. u12) and four Birth Quarters (BQ1-BQ4). The RAE was statistically significant (p < 0.001), showing that about 50% of participants were born in the first quarter and 75% were born in the first half of the year. More importantly, U12 players outperformed u10 players in measures that were related to sustained attention (with faster and less variable responses; p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively), and in all anthropometric measures (p < 0.001), physical-fitness capacities (p < 0.05). Crucially, neither the attentional measures, game intelligence, anthropometrics, nor physical fitness were affected by BQ (all ps > 0.1 and BF10 between 0.08 and 0.6, showing strong evidence for the null hypothesis). The present findings suggest that the early selection process that occurs during scouting in youth soccer academies offsets the age-related differences that could be anticipated in cognitive skills, anthropometrics, and physical abilities, due to growth and maturation. These birth asymmetries could lead teams to disregard later maturation athletes and athletes born later in the year inducing a larger dropout of those players with the consequent reduction in the talent pool.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Futebol , Fatores Etários , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Jogos Recreativos , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
13.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 74, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The analysis of associations between accelerometer-derived physical activity (PA) intensities and cardiometabolic health is a major challenge due to multicollinearity between the explanatory variables. This challenge has facilitated the application of different analytic approaches within the field. The aim of the present study was to compare association patterns of PA intensities with cardiometabolic health in children obtained from multiple linear regression, compositional data analysis, and multivariate pattern analysis. METHODS: A sample of 841 children (age 10.2 ± 0.3 years; BMI 18.0 ± 3.0; 50% boys) provided valid accelerometry and cardiometabolic health data. Accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) data were characterized into traditional (four PA intensity variables) and more detailed categories (23 PA intensity variables covering the intensity spectrum; 0-99 to ≥10,000 counts per minute). Several indices of cardiometabolic health were used to create a composite cardiometabolic health score. Multiple linear regression and multivariate pattern analyses were used to analyze both raw and compositional data. RESULTS: Besides a consistent negative (favorable) association between vigorous PA and the cardiometabolic health measure using the traditional description of PA data, associations between PA intensities and cardiometabolic health differed substantially depending on the analytic approaches used. Multiple linear regression lead to instable and spurious associations, while compositional data analysis showed distorted association patterns. Multivariate pattern analysis appeared to handle the raw PA data correctly, leading to more plausible interpretations of the associations between PA intensities and cardiometabolic health. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should consider multivariate pattern analysis without any transformation of PA data when examining relationships between PA intensity patterns and health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in Clinicaltrials.gov 7th of April 2014 with identification number NCT02132494 .


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
14.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(9): 813-818, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Body composition (BC) measurements are used to determine qualification for enlistment and to ensure active members are meeting standards. Although there is extensive research on BC in active-duty military, very few have examined ROTC cadets. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify differences in BC between freshman/sophomore [underclass (UND)] and junior/senior [upperclass (UPP)] ROTC cadets by using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS).METHODS: UND (N = 21) and UPP (N = 15) Air Force ROTC cadets volunteered for this study. BIS was used to measure fat mass percentage (FM%), fat free mass percentage (FFM%), total body water percentage (TBW%), extracellular fluid percentage (ECF%), and intracellular fluid percentage (ICF%). Separate one-way ANOVAs were run between UND and UPP for all dependent variables with a Bonferroni correction factor. Additionally, a Pearson correlation between abdominal circumference (AC) and FM% was conducted.RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the UND and UPP groups' BMI. However, significant differences were observed for ECF%, ICF%, TBW%, FFM%, and FM% in which the UPP had a higher TBW%, ICF%, FFM%, and a lower ECF% and FM% compared to the UND.CONCLUSIONS: This study observed significant differences in BC across class ranks in ROTC cadets. Findings from this study suggest that due to an increased exposure to ROTC training, UPP cadets have a more ideal body composition (FFM% and FM%) when compared to UND cadets.Johnson QR, Mackey CS, Muddle TD, Smith DB, DeFreitas JM. Body composition comparison of upper- and underclass Reserve Officers Training Corps cadets. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(9):813-818.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial/normas , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Militares , Exame Físico/métodos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434251

RESUMO

In today's research environment, children's diet, physical activity, and other lifestyle factors are commonly studied in the context of health, independent of their effect on cognition and learning. Moreover, there is little overlap between the two literatures, although it is reasonable to expect that the lifestyle factors explored in the health-focused research are intertwined with cognition and learning processes. This thematic review provides an overview of knowledge connecting the selected lifestyle factors of diet, physical activity, and sleep hygiene to children's cognition and learning. Research from studies of diet and nutrition, physical activity and fitness, sleep, and broader influences of cultural and socioeconomic factors related to health and learning, were summarized to offer examples of research that integrate lifestyle factors and cognition with learning. The literature review demonstrates that the associations and causal relationships between these factors are vastly understudied. As a result, current knowledge on predictors of optimal cognition and learning is incomplete, and likely lacks understanding of many critical facts and relationships, their interactions, and the nature of their relationships, such as there being mediating or confounding factors that could provide important knowledge to increase the efficacy of learning-focused interventions. This review provides information focused on studies in children. Although basic research in cells or animal studies are available and indicate a number of possible physiological pathways, inclusion of those data would distract from the fact that there is a significant gap in knowledge on lifestyle factors and optimal learning in children. In a climate where childcare and school feeding policies are continuously discussed, this thematic review aims to provide an impulse for discussion and a call for more holistic approaches to support child development.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Dieta , Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(9): 1852-1864, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451292

RESUMO

Physical inactivity and psychosocial stress are prevalent in residents of the United States. The purpose of this article is to review the interaction between these 2 conditions and examine the effects of exercise on stress and cardiovascular (CV) health. A query of scientific references between 1974 to 2018 was performed using the PubMed search engine accessing the MEDLINE database using the search terms psychosocial stress, CV disease (CVD), physical activity, exercise, cardiac rehabilitation, and team sports. Psychosocial stress is a strong independent risk factor for adverse CV events. Conversely, people who experience CV events subsequently have drastically elevated rates of new-onset mental health disorders, including depression and anxiety. Psychosocial stress and CVD often trigger self-reinforcing feedback loops that can worsen mental health and cardiac prognosis. Exercise predictably improves CV health and prognosis and also is effective at lowering levels of psychosocial stress. Group exercise in particular seems to provide social support while at the same time boosting fitness levels and, thus, may be the single most important intervention for patients with concomitant CVD and emotional stress. Collaborative physical activity, such as group exercise, team sports, interactive physical play, and cardiac rehabilitation programs, have the potential to improve mental health and CV prognosis.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Exercício/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Cardiotoxicidade/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino
17.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(11): 696-703, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445504

RESUMO

There is a well-conceived notion that rate of recovery from strenuous exercise gets slower with age. However, it is unclear whether older adults who exercise habitually demonstrate slower rates of recovery. We determined whether older adults who are physically active demonstrate slower rates of recovery from unaccustomed strenuous exercise compared with younger peers. Healthy young sedentary (n=10, 28±2 years), young endurance-trained (n=15, 27±2 years), and older endurance-trained (n=14, 58±2 years) men and women were studied. Participants performed 45 min of downhill running at 65% of their maximal oxygen consumption. Visual analog pain scores of muscle groups increased at 24, 48, and 72 h in all three groups (p<0.05), and changes in the muscular pain scale of the legs was smaller in the older trained group than in the young trained group. Maximum isometric strengths at 90° decreased in all groups at 24 h, but the recovery rates were not different at 72 h among the groups. Plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration increased at 24 h following downhill running and returned to baseline at 48 h in both the young and older trained groups. The present findings are not consistent with the prevailing notion that older trained adults have a slower rate of recovery from strenuous exercise.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mioglobina/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Corrida/lesões
18.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 38(1): 11, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toe grip-related training requires individuals to actively exercise muscles that are not frequently used; therefore, it may improve not only toe grip strength but also cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of toe grip-related training on predictors of physical performance and cognitive function in nursing home residents. METHODS: A total of 35 nursing home residents (35 left and 35 right feet; mean age, 82.1 ± 7.9 years) were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: a training group and a control group. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess the cognitive function of the participants, and the Fall Risk Index (FRI) was used to evaluate the risk of falls. Toe grip-related physical function was also assessed. Baseline endpoints were evaluated and the effects of toe grip-related training were examined following a 12-week training intervention. RESULTS: The training group showed significant improvements in MMSE score, FRI score, toe grip strength, and the toe skill (TS) test; however, the control group did not show these changes. The training group showed significant increases in Δ MMSE, Δ toe grip strength, and Δ TS (right foot) than the control group. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that Δ toe grip strength is an independent factor of Δ MMSE. CONCLUSIONS: Toe grip training improves not only toe grip strength itself, but also cognitive function. Furthermore, change in toe grip strength was an independent factor of change in MMSE in those populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN, UMIN000027437 . Registered on 26 May 2017.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Dedos do Pé/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Aptidão Física/fisiologia
19.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(9): 2352-2360, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343551

RESUMO

Vigh-Larsen, JF, Beck, JH, Daasbjerg, A, Knudsen, CB, Kvorning, T, Overgaard, K, Andersen, TB, and Mohr, M. Fitness characteristics of elite and subelite male ice hockey players: A cross-sectional study. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2352-2360, 2019-The purpose was to evaluate fitness profiles in elite (age 23.5 ± 4.4 years) and subelite (age 19.4 ± 3.1 years) male ice hockey players. Twenty teams from the best (n = 164) and second-best (n = 132) Danish ice hockey division were assessed in-season using a field-test battery consisting of off-ice measurements of countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and body composition, as well as performance tests on the ice. These included the submaximal and maximal Yo-Yo intermittent recovery ice hockey tests, level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1-IHSUB and Yo-Yo IR1-IHMAX), the 5-10-5 pro-agility test, and a straight-line sprint test. Elite players were heavier (85.7 ± 8.1 vs. 80.8 ± 10.0 kg, p ≤ 0.05) and had a higher skeletal muscle mass (41.9 ± 3.9 vs. 38.8 ± 4.7 kg, p ≤ 0.05) than subelite players. Moreover, elite players elicited a superior CMJ (50.1 ± 6.1 vs. 44.9 ± 5.4 cm, p ≤ 0.05), agility (4.76 ± 0.17 vs. 4.96 ± 0.22 seconds, p ≤ 0.05), and sprint (4.49 ± 0.16 vs. 4.71 ± 0.19 seconds, p ≤ 0.05) performance. Finally, elite players outperformed subelite players in Yo-Yo IR1-IHSUB (79.7 ± 6.8 vs. 88.0 ± 5.4% HRmax, p ≤ 0.05) and Yo-Yo IR1-IHMAX tests (2,434 ± 414 vs. 1,850 ± 499 m, p ≤ 0.05). Top elite teams performed. 1.1 and 7% better than bottom elite teams on the agility and CMJ test (p ≤ 0.05), whereas differences approached significance for sprint (p = 0.08) and Yo-Yo IR1-IHMAX (p = 0.08) performance in favor of top-tier teams. No differences were observed between forwards and defensemen. In conclusion, elite-level ice hockey requires a high level of fitness in terms of muscle mass and explosive strength, as well as a well-developed high-intensity intermittent exercise capacity. In addition, these demands seem to apply for both forwards and defensemen.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331009

RESUMO

Both observational and interventional studies suggest an important role for physical activity and higher fitness in mitigating the metabolic syndrome. Each component of the metabolic syndrome is, to a certain extent, favorably influenced by interventions that include physical activity. Given that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components (particularly obesity and insulin resistance) has increased significantly in recent decades, guidelines from various professional organizations have called for greater efforts to reduce the incidence of this condition and its components. While physical activity interventions that lead to improved fitness cannot be expected to normalize insulin resistance, lipid disorders, or obesity, the combined effect of increasing activity on these risk markers, an improvement in fitness, or both, has been shown to have a major impact on health outcomes related to the metabolic syndrome. Exercise therapy is a cost-effective intervention to both prevent and mitigate the impact of the metabolic syndrome, but it remains underutilized. In the current article, an overview of the effects of physical activity and higher fitness on the metabolic syndrome is provided, along with a discussion of the mechanisms underlying the benefits of being more fit or more physically active in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
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