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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206722

RESUMO

While talent development and the contributing factors to success are hardly discussed among the experts in the field, the aim of the study was to investigate annual variation in competition performance (AVCP), number of races per year, and age, as potential success factors for international swimming competitions. Data from 40'277 long-course races, performed by all individual female starters (n = 253) at the 2018 European Swimming Championships (2018EC) for all 10 years prior to these championships, were analyzed. Relationships between 2018EC ranking and potential success factors, i.e., AVCP, number of races per year, and age, were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis. While AVCP was not related to ranking, higher ranked swimmers at the 2018EC swam more races during each of the ten years prior to the championships (P < 0.001). Additionally, older athletes were more successful (r = -0.42, P < 0.001). The regression model explained highly significant proportions (P < 0.001) and 43%, 34%, 35%, 49% of total variance in the 2018EC ranking for 50m, 100m, 200m, and 400m races, respectively. As number of races per year (ß = -0.29 --0.40) had a significant effect on ranking of 50-400m races, and age (ß = -0.40 --0.61) showed a significant effect on ranking over all race distances, number of races per year and age may serve as success factors for international swimming competitions. The larger number of races swum by higher ranked female swimmers may have aided long-term athlete development regarding technical, physiological, and mental skill acquisitions. As older athletes were more successful, female swimmers under the age of peak performance, who did not reach semi-finals or finals, may increase their chances of success in following championships with increased experience.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Logro , Adulto , Aptidão/fisiologia , Atletas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(3): 133-139, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194490

RESUMO

Emotional intelligence has been shown to be a relevant resource associated with better personal and social adaptation. In older adults, it has been associated with constructs such as life satisfaction and resilience, which are of interest in the field of gerontology because of their impact during the aging process. The objective of this study is to test an intervention based on emotional intelligence in order to find out whether the levels of these abilities improve, and whether the intervention has an effect on resilience and life satisfaction. The sample was composed of 125 healthy older adults (treatment, n = 57 and control, n = 68). The variables studied were homogeneous between groups. These variables were evaluated using the TMMS-24, SWLS, and BRCS self-report tests. The results showed significant effects of the intervention on the treatment group. Attention levels decreased significantly, whereas clarity and repair increased. In addition, the average scores on resilience and life satisfaction increased. An emotional intelligence-based intervention improves skills of older adults in its three dimensions. In addition, after the intervention, there is an increase in life satisfaction and resilience. Emotional intelligence skills are considered to generate positive, cognitive and behavioral outcomes for adaptation during aging. Thus interventions of this type could contribute to the quality of life of older adults, a topic of great relevance today due to increased longevity


Se ha demostrado que la inteligencia emocional es un recurso relevante asociado a una mejor adaptación personal y social. En adultos mayores se ha asociado con constructos tales como la satisfacción vital y la resiliencia, que son de interés en el campo de la gerontología debido a su impacto durante el proceso de envejecimiento. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar una intervención basada en inteligencia emocional para determinar si los niveles de estas habilidades mejoran y si la intervención tiene efecto sobre la resiliencia y la satisfacción vital. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 125 adultos mayores sanos (tratamiento, n = 57 y control, n = 68). No existían diferencias entre los grupos al iniciar la intervención en las variables estudiadas. Estas variables se evaluaron mediante las pruebas de autoinforme TMMS-24, SWLS y BRCS. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo de la intervención en el grupo tratamiento. El nivel de atención disminuyó significativamente, mientras que la claridad y la reparación aumentaron. Además, aumentó la puntuación media en resiliencia y satisfacción vital del grupo tratamiento. La intervención basada en inteligencia emocional mejora las habilidades de los adultos mayores en sus tres dimensiones. Además, después de la intervención, aumenta la puntuación en satisfacción vital y resiliencia. Se considera que las habilidades de inteligencia emocional generan resultados cognitivos y conductuales positivos para la adaptación durante el envejecimiento. Así, esta intervención puede contribuir a la calidad de vida en adultos mayores, siendo este un tema de gran importancia debido al aumento en la longevidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aptidão/fisiologia , Inteligência Emocional , Satisfação Pessoal , Resiliência Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(22): 2525-2531, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723029

RESUMO

Growth and maturation affect long term physical performance, making the appraisal of athletic ability difficult. We sought to longitudinally track youth soccer players to assess the developmental trajectory of athletic performance over a 6-year period in an English Premier League academy. Age-specific z-scores were calculated for sprint and jump performance from a sample of male youth soccer players (n = 140). A case study approach was used to analyse the longitudinal curves of the six players with the longest tenure. The trajectories of the sprint times of players 1 and 3 were characterised by a marked difference in respective performance levels up until peak height velocity (PHV) when player 1 achieved a substantial increase in sprint speed and player 3 experienced a large decrease. Player 5 was consistently a better performer than player 2 until PHV when the sprint and jump performance of the former markedly decreased and he was overtaken by the latter. Fluctuations in players' physical performance can occur quickly and in drastic fashion. Coaches must be aware that suppressed, or inflated, performance could be temporary and selection and deselection decisions should not be made based on information gathered over a short time period.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Aptidão/fisiologia , Estatura , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Força Muscular
4.
Percept Mot Skills ; 127(5): 939-959, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484068

RESUMO

While marksmanship is a critical skill for military personnel, some service members experience difficulty in attaining and maintaining marksmanship qualifications. Temporal training may improve marksmanship performance, since rhythm and timing are critical for coordinated movement. In this study, we examined the effect of neurocognitive temporal training (NTT) on military personnel's marksmanship performance. We randomly assigned 41 active duty U.S. Army service members with prior marksmanship training into an NTT group that received 12 NTT training sessions (N = 18) and a Control group (N = 23) that received no NTT training. We measured marksmanship at baseline (pretest) and following either NTT (posttest) or, for the Control group, a comparable time period. We quantified marksmanship during 2 tasks of firing 5 self-paced shots at stationary 175 m and 300 m targets (Task 1) and firing at 50 moving and stationary targets of varying distances (Task 2). We recorded three measures of accuracy and three measures of precision (including Total Path Length, a unique measure quantifying shot-to-shot variability) for the first task, and we recorded one accuracy measure for the second task. To determine group differences for pretest versus posttest, we used multivariate analysis of variances for Task 1 and a mixed-model analysis of variance for Task 2. Results revealed significantly reduced variability and improved precision when firing at the 175 m target for the NTT group compared with the Control group (p < .05), but there were no significant group differences on other measures. While these results suggest the utility of neurocognitive timing and rhythm training for marksmanship precision, additional research is needed and should include varied training regimens, comparisons of expert versus novice shooters, additional outcome measures, and a larger participant sample.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Armas de Fogo , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Prática Psicológica , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3817, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123206

RESUMO

This experiment employed an individual differences approach to test the hypothesis that learning modern programming languages resembles second "natural" language learning in adulthood. Behavioral and neural (resting-state EEG) indices of language aptitude were used along with numeracy and fluid cognitive measures (e.g., fluid reasoning, working memory, inhibitory control) as predictors. Rate of learning, programming accuracy, and post-test declarative knowledge were used as outcome measures in 36 individuals who participated in ten 45-minute Python training sessions. The resulting models explained 50-72% of the variance in learning outcomes, with language aptitude measures explaining significant variance in each outcome even when the other factors competed for variance. Across outcome variables, fluid reasoning and working-memory capacity explained 34% of the variance, followed by language aptitude (17%), resting-state EEG power in beta and low-gamma bands (10%), and numeracy (2%). These results provide a novel framework for understanding programming aptitude, suggesting that the importance of numeracy may be overestimated in modern programming education environments.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Individualidade , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Linguagens de Programação , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 204: 103007, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000064

RESUMO

Research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has largely relied on self-reported action video game experience and extended video game training. Only a few studies have focused on participants' actual gaming skills. However, whether superior players and average players have different executive control is still not fully demonstrated. This study had top-ranking League of Legends players (global top 0.17%; N = 35) and average-ranking League of Legends players (N = 35) perform two cognitive tasks that aimed to measure three aspects of executive functioning: cognitive flexibility, interference control, and impulsive control. We controlled self-reported gaming experience, so that top-ranking players and average-ranking players had similar years of play and hours of play per week. We found that compared to a group of average players, top players showed smaller task-switching costs and smaller response-congruency effects in a Stroop-switching test. In a continuous performance test, top players indicated higher hit rates and lower false alarm rates as compared to average players. These findings suggest that top players have better cognitive flexibility and more accurate control of interference in the context of task-switching. Moreover, top players exhibit better impulsive control. The present study provides evidence that players' gaming skills rather than gaming experience are related to cognitive abilities, which may explain why previous studies on self-reported gaming experience and those assessing supervised training and cognitive performance have shown inconsistent results.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Teste de Stroop , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aptidão/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(3): 465-482, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965485

RESUMO

There is an emerging consensus that spatial thinking plays a fundamental role in how people conceive, express, and perform mathematics. However, the underlying nature of this relationship remains elusive. Questions remain as to how, why, and under what conditions spatial skills and mathematics are linked. This review paper addresses this gap. Through a review and synthesis of research in psychology, neuroscience, and education, we examine plausible mechanistic accounts for the oft-reported close, and potentially causal, relations between spatial and mathematical thought. More specifically, this review targets candidate mechanisms that link spatial visualization skills and basic numerical competencies. The four explanatory accounts we describe and critique include the: (1) Spatial representation of numbers account, (2) shared neural processing account, (3) spatial modelling account, and (4) working memory account. We propose that these mechanisms do not operate in isolation from one another, but in concert with one another to give rise to spatial-numerical associations. Moving from the theoretical to the practical, we end our review by considering the extent to which spatial visualization abilities are malleable and transferrable to numerical reasoning. Ultimately, this paper aims to provide a more coherent and mechanistic account of spatial-numerical relations in the hope that this information may (1) afford new insights into the uniquely human ability to learn, perform, and invent abstract mathematics, and (2) on a more practical level, prove useful in the assessment and design of effective mathematics curricula and intervention moving forward.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Humanos
9.
Brain Dev ; 42(3): 248-255, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with Williams syndrome (WS) show a marked interest in music, a characteristic often explored in clinical settings. However, the actual musical abilities of patients with WS remain debatable due to some of the relevant data being derived from experimental tasks that require a verbal response, despite the known language impairments in WS. The present study aimed to examine musical ability in children with WS using a newly invented pitch discrimination task with minimal involvement of language and clarify its relationship with language skill. METHODS: Eleven children with WS participated in the study. We used a novel pitch discrimination task that required minimal language use. Two piano tones were presented sequentially, and children were asked to give a non-verbal response as to whether the second tone was higher than, lower than, or the same as the first tone. RESULTS: Pitch discrimination performance in children with WS was lower than the level predicted for their chronological age (CA), even in the non-verbal task. Pitch discrimination ability and verbal mental age (VMA) were shown to be dissociated, such that children with WS with a lower skill level for language showed an unexpectedly higher level of pitch discrimination ability and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated reduced musical ability with respect to CA in children with WS. The dissociation between musical ability and language skills may indicate unique developmental relationships that differ from those in normal children. These findings provide new evidence to support the importance of assessing actual musical ability in WS prior to implementing interventional music therapy.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Idioma , Música , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Síndrome de Williams/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 111: 229-245, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968216

RESUMO

Cognitive ability and educational success predict positive outcomes across the lifespan, from higher earnings to better health and longevity. The shared positive outcomes associated with cognitive ability and education are emblematic of the strong interconnections between them. Part of the observed associations between cognitive ability and education, as well as their links with wealth, morbidity and mortality, are rooted in genetic variation. The current review evaluates the contribution of decades of behavioural genetic research to our knowledge and understanding of the biological and environmental basis of the association between cognitive ability and education. The evidence reviewed points to a strong genetic basis in their association, observed from middle childhood to old age, which is amplified by environmental experiences. In addition, the strong stability and heritability of educational success are not driven entirely by cognitive ability. This highlights the contribution of other educationally relevant noncognitive characteristics. Considering both cognitive and noncognitive skills as well as their biological and environmental underpinnings will be fundamental in moving towards a comprehensive, evidence-based model of education.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Aptidão/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genética Comportamental , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Individualidade , Inteligência/fisiologia , Humanos
11.
Dev Psychol ; 56(2): 364-384, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886691

RESUMO

Differentiation of intelligence refers to changes in the structure of intelligence that depend on individuals' level of general cognitive ability (ability differentiation hypothesis) or age (developmental differentiation hypothesis). The present article aimed to investigate ability differentiation, developmental differentiation, and their interaction with nonlinear factor analytic models in 2 studies. Study 1 was comprised of a nationally representative sample of 7,127 U.S. students (49.4% female; Mage = 14.51, SD = 1.42, range = 12.08-17.00) who completed the computerized adaptive version of the Armed Service Vocational Aptitude Battery. Study 2 analyzed the norming sample of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Test with 1,506 German students (44% female; Mage = 14.54, SD = 1.35, range = 10.00-18.42). Results of Study 1 supported the ability differentiation hypothesis but not the developmental differentiation hypothesis. Rather, the findings pointed to age-dedifferentiation (i.e., higher correlations between different abilities with increasing age). There was evidence for an interaction between age and ability differentiation, with greater ability differentiation found for older adolescents. Study 2 provided little evidence for ability differentiation but largely replicated the findings for age dedifferentiation and the interaction between age and ability differentiation. The present results provide insight into the complex dynamics underlying the development of intelligence structure during adolescence. Implications for the assessment of intelligence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Aptidão/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Estados Unidos
12.
Neuroimage ; 204: 116235, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586675

RESUMO

Children lay the foundation for later academic achievement by acquiring core mathematical abilities in the first school years. Neural reorganization processes associated with individual differences in early mathematical learning, however, are still poorly understood. To fill this research gap, we followed a sample of 5-6-year-old children longitudinally to the end of second grade in school (age 7-8 years) combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with comprehensive behavioral assessments. We report significant links between the rate of neuroplastic change of cortical surface anatomy, and children's early mathematical skills. In particular, most of the behavioral variance (about 73%) of children's visuospatial abilities was explained by the change in cortical thickness in the right superior parietal cortex. Moreover, half of the behavioral variance (about 55%) of children's arithmetic abilities was explained by the change in cortical folding in the right intraparietal sulcus. Additional associations for arithmetic abilities were found for cortical thickness change of the right temporal lobe, and the left middle occipital gyrus. Visuospatial abilities were related to right precentral and supramarginal thickness, as well as right medial frontal gyrus folding plasticity. These effects were independent of other individual differences in IQ, literacy and maternal education. Our findings highlight the critical role of cortical plasticity during the acquisition of fundamental mathematical abilities.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
13.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(76): 579-598, dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187233

RESUMO

El aprendizaje de las habilidades gimnásticas carece de investigaciones suficientes que se centren en estrategias que puedan contribuir a un desarrollo de estas habilidades de forma colaborativa. Este estudio analiza las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de Bachillerato y del profesorado de educación física sobre la implementación de una estrategia colaborativa para el aprendizaje gimnástico en el contexto educativo. Se ha utilizado una metodología cualitativa que ha permitido analizar y categorizar las reflexiones de los participantes. Los resultados muestran que los estudiantes y el profesorado de educación física perciben mejoras en las competencias gimnásticas, en su relación con el grupo, en su capacidad de toma de decisiones y en su grado de satisfacción con la implementación de la estrategia colaborativa


The learning of gymnastic skills lacks sufficient research that focuses on strategies that can contribute to the development of these skills in a collaborative way. This study analyses the perceptions of Secondary Education students and their physical education teachers on the implementation of a collaborative strategy for learning of gymnastic in the educational context. A qualitative methodology has been used to analyse and categorize the reflections of the participants. The results show that the students and the physical education teachers perceive improvements in the gymnastic competences, in their relation with the group, in their capacity of decision-making and in their degree of satisfaction with the implementation of the collaborative strategy


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Ginástica/fisiologia , Aptidão/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento , Logro , Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisões , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Aprendizagem
14.
Psychol Bull ; 145(12): 1154-1175, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670549

RESUMO

Although specialized, adaptive behavioral traits are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, at least in humans, there are considerable debates on whether the mind is primarily characterized by various special-purpose, domain-specific mechanisms or by a few general-purpose, domain-general mechanisms. Drawing from research on artificial language learning, associative learning, serial learning, executive control, and formal linguistics, I argue that neither domain-specificity nor domain-generality provide satisfactory descriptions when considering how cognitive mechanisms are implemented. I suggest that some cognitive mechanisms are domain-bound-they are available in multiple domains (and thus not domain-specific), but not in other domains (and thus not domain-general). Hence, these computations can be performed in many domains but not in others, can be recruited simultaneously by multiple domains, and, across domains, individual abilities with a given computation are relatively uncorrelated. Domain-bound mechanisms have a straightforward evolutionary interpretation: Analogously to the evolution of molecular and morphological structures, cognitive mechanisms can become duplicated over evolution, with independent copies in different domains. This and previous evidence for the importance of duplications for our cognitive abilities call for a revision of the concept domain-generality, suggesting that, in many cases, mechanisms traditionally seen as domain-general might really reflect a collection of local copies of specialized mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Idioma , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223152, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using a nationally representative longitudinal cohort, we examine how cognitive aptitude in early adolescence is associated with heterogeneous pathways of marijuana use from age sixteen through young adulthood. We also examine whether this relationship can be explained by the role of cognitive aptitude in the social organization of peer group deviance. METHODS: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we identified 5 latent trajectories of frequency of marijuana use between ages 16 and 26: abstainers, dabblers, early heavy quitters, consistent users, and persistent heavy users. Multinomial regression assessed the relationship of cognitive aptitude in early adolescence with these latent trajectories, including the role of peer group substance use in this relationship. RESULTS: A one decile increase in cognitive aptitude in early adolescence is associated with greater relative risk of the dabbler trajectory (RR = 1.048; p < .001) and consistent user trajectory (RR = 1.126; p < .001), but lower relative risk of the early heavy quitter trajectory (RR = 0.917; p < .05) in comparison with the abstainer trajectory. There was no effect for the persistent heavy user trajectory. The inclusion of peer group substance use-either via illegal drugs or smoking-had no effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents who rate higher in cognitive aptitude during early adolescence may be more likely to enter into consistent but not extreme trajectories of marijuana use as they age into young adulthood. Cognition may not influence patterns of marijuana use over time via the organization of peer groups.


Assuntos
Cannabis/toxicidade , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aptidão/fisiologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574108

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that sport experts are different from novices in functions and structures of the cerebellar sub-regions and the functional connectivity (FC) associated with the cerebellum, suggesting the role of the cerebellum on motor skill learning (MSL). However, the manipulation of individuals with different motor skills fails to exclude the effects of innate talents. In addition, individuals with higher motor skills often start with the MSL in their young ages. It is still unclear whether the effects regarding the cerebellum would be shown at one's adult age. The present study was to directly alter individuals' motor skills to investigate whether MSL (taking learning to play badminton as an example) in adulthood influences resting-state activity in the cerebellum. To this end, young adults without ball training experience were recruited as participants and were assigned randomly into the experimental group and the control group. Participants in the experimental group were asked to attend a badminton training course for 12 weeks, while the control group did not regularly attend any ball sports during this period. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was recorded before and after the training. Results showed that compared to the control group, the experimental group had smaller amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in right cerebellar hemispheric VI and left VIII after training. For the experimental group, right hemispheric VIII had a stronger FC with left hemispheric IV-V, cerebellar vermal IX, left middle cingulate gyrus and right hippocampus after training. Taken together, these findings suggested that MSL, at least learning to play badminton in adulthood, reduces resting-state activity in different sub-regions in the cerebellum but increases FC between sub-regions of the cerebellum as well as between sub-regions of the cerebellum and cerebral cortices (e.g., middle cingulate cortex and hippocampus).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Esportes com Raquete/fisiologia , Adulto , Aptidão/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450269

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Graduate Record Exam (GRE) is a general examination predictive of success in US based graduate programs. Used to assess written, mathematical and critical thinking (CT) skills of students, the GRE is utilized for admission to approximately 85% of US Physical Therapist Education (PTE) programs. The purpose of this research is to assess if CT skills measured by the GRE match CT skills deemed, by an expert panel, as most important to assess prior to PTE. METHODS: Using a modified E-Delphi approach, a three-phase survey was distributed over 8-weeks to a panel consisting of licensed US physical therapists- experienced in the realm of critical thinking and/or PTE program directors. The CT skills isolated by the expert panel, based on Facione's The Delphi Report were compared to the CT skills assessed by the GRE. RESULTS: The CT skills supported by The Delphi Report and chosen by the expert panel to assess prior to acceptance into US PTE programs included clarifying meaning, categorization and analyzing arguments. Only clarifying meaning matched the CT skills from the GRE. CONCLUSION: The GRE is a test for general admission to graduate programs, lacking context related to healthcare or physical therapy. The current study fails to support the GRE as an assessment tool of CT for applicants for admission to PTE. Development of a context-based admission test where CT skills identified in this study is a key in the admissions process to predict which students will complete US PTE programs and pass licensure exam.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fisioterapeutas/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Aptidão/fisiologia , Técnica Delfos , Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fisioterapeutas/educação , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Sports Sci ; 37(22): 2522-2529, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409199

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting sports involvement in a school-based adolescent population. The cross-sectional cohort study assessed anthropometry, physical capacities and motor competence in 501 boys (aged 10-16 y), from junior (10-12 y) and senior (13-16 y) cohorts. Sports participation data was collected from junior participants. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed moderate maturity, anthropometry, physical capacity and motor competence differences between sports in the senior cohort (F = 2.616, p < 0.001, η2 = .08), but not in the junior cohort. Furthermore, differences in physical fitness were revealed between playing levels (F = 2.616, p < 0.001, η2 = .08), with a discriminant analysis correctly classifying 73% of participants using aerobic fitness and vertical jump measures. Representative level participants engaged in more structured training and commenced organised competition at a later age (F = 4.332, p < 0.001, η2 = .21). This study's findings are twofold: 1) physical and motor competence profiles differ more between sports with increasing age, and 2) participants at a higher level of competition report delayed engagement in their main sport. As a result, schools may be the ideal environment in which to provide children and adolescents with the opportunity to sample different sports.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Aptidão/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Austrália , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102903, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470173

RESUMO

Dyslexia is often characterized by disordered word recognition and spelling, though dysfunction on various non-linguistic tasks suggests a more pervasive deficit may underlie reading and spelling abilities. The serial-order learning impairment in dyslexia (SOLID) hypothesis proposes that sequence learning impairments fundamentally disrupt cognitive abilities, including linguistic processes, among individuals with dyslexia; yet only some studies report sequence learning deficits in people with dyslexia relative to controls. Evidence may be mixed because traditional sequence learning tasks often require strong motor demands, working memory processes and/or executive functions, wherein people with dyslexia can show impairments. Thus, observed sequence learning deficits in dyslexia may only appear to the extent that comorbid motor-based processes, memory capacity, or executive processes are involved. The present study measured sequence learning in college-aged students with and without dyslexia using a single task that evaluates sequencing and non-sequencing components but without strong motor, executive, or memory demands. During sequencing, each additional link in a sequence of stimuli leading to a reward is trained step-by-step, until a complete sequence is acquired. People with dyslexia made significantly more sequencing errors than controls, despite equivalent performance on non-sequencing components. Mediation analyses further revealed that sequence learning accounted for a large portion of the variance between dyslexia status and linguistic abilities, particularly pseudo-word reading. These findings extend the SOLID hypothesis by showing difficulties in the ability to acquire sequences that may play an underlying role in literacy acquisition.


Assuntos
Aptidão/fisiologia , Dislexia/psicologia , Linguística/tendências , Leitura , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Adulto , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 89-100, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183639

RESUMO

La Práctica (Clínica) Basada en la Evidencia se define como la integración de la mejor investigación disponible con la pericia clínica y las características, preferencias y cultura del paciente. Del mismo modo, la variable terapeuta empieza a mostrar su influencia decisi-va en el resultado de los tratamientos psicológicos. En este trabajo se pone el énfasis en la figura del terapeuta en el contexto del pro-grama de formación PIR de especialistas en Psicología Clínica de nuestro Sistema Nacional de Salud. Se revisan los constructos pericia, efectos del terapeuta y se presenta la Práctica Deliberada como un sistema de entrenamiento que puede ayudar a mejorar los resultados de los clínicos y sus tratamientos. Se realizan recomendaciones concretas para mejorar el modelo de supervisión durante la residencia PIR y se discuten algunas de las implicaciones y limitaciones del estado actual de la cuestión


Evidence-based (clinical) practice is the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture and preferences. Similarly, the therapist factor is beginning to show its decisive influence on the outcome of psychological treatments. This paper emphasizes the therapist factor in the context of the PIR training program of Clinical Psychology specialists within our National Health System. Expertise and therapist effects are reviewed and deliberate practice is presented as a training system that can help clinical psychologists to improve their outcomes and treatments. Specific recommendations are made to improve the supervision model during PIR training and the implications and limitations of the topic are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Clínica/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Aptidão/fisiologia , Competência Clínica , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicologia Clínica/instrumentação , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde
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