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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930688, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Influenza-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (IANE) can be lethal and disabling and have a sudden onset and deteriorate rapidly but lacks early diagnostic indicators. We aimed to examine the early clinical diagnostic indicators in children with IANE. MATERIAL AND METHODS Acute influenza patients were grouped according to their clinical manifestations: flu alone (FA), flu with febrile seizure (FS), influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE), and IANE. The clinical features, biomarkers, neuroelectrophysiological results, and neuroimaging examination results were compared. RESULTS A total of 31 patients were included (FA (n=4), FS (n=8), IAE (n=14), and IANE (n=5)). The IANE group, whose mean age was 3.7 years, was more likely to show rapid-onset seizure, acute disturbance of consciousness (ADOC), Babinski's sign, and death/sequela. More patients in the IANE group required tracheal intubation mechanical ventilation and received intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and glucocorticoids. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the IANE group were significantly higher than in the FS and IAE groups. The aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) antibody and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were notably higher in IANE patients in the acute stage compared with FS and IAE patients. All patients in the IANE group had positive neuroimaging findings. CONCLUSIONS Early clinical warning factors for IANE include rapid-onset seizures in patients under 4 years of age, ADOC, and pathological signs. Increased AQP-4 antibodies and MDA levels in CSF might contribute to early diagnosis. Early magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences, or thrombelastography to identify deep vein thrombosis, might indicate clinical deterioration.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/sangue , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/sangue , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/sangue , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/sangue , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neuroimagem/métodos , Convulsões/sangue , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/metabolismo
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 227, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Root hypoxia has detrimental effects on physiological processes and growth in most plants. The effects of hypoxia can be partly alleviated by ethylene. However, the tolerance mechanisms contributing to the ethylene-mediated hypoxia tolerance in plants remain poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study, we examined the effects of root hypoxia and exogenous ethylene treatments on leaf gas exchange, root hydraulic conductance, and the expression levels of several aquaporins of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein group (PIP) in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings. Ethylene enhanced net photosynthetic rates, transpiration rates, and root hydraulic conductance in hypoxic plants. Of the two subgroups of PIPs (PIP1 and PIP2), the protein abundance of PIP2s and the transcript abundance of PIP2;4 and PIP2;5 were higher in ethylene-treated trembling aspen roots compared with non-treated roots under hypoxia. The increases in the expression levels of these aquaporins could potentially facilitate root water transport. The enhanced root water transport by ethylene was likely responsible for the increase in leaf gas exchange of the hypoxic plants. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous ethylene enhanced root water transport and the expression levels of PIP2;4 and PIP2;5 in hypoxic roots of trembling aspen. The results suggest that ethylene facilitates the aquaporin-mediated water transport in plants exposed to root hypoxia.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Etilenos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Populus/genética
3.
Physiol Plant ; 172(2): 1089-1105, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826759

RESUMO

Drought stress alters gene expression and causes cellular damage in crop plants. Drought inhibits photosynthesis by reducing the content and the activity of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle, ultimately decreasing the crop yield. The role of aquaporins (AQP) in improving the growth and adaptation of crop plants under drought stress is of importance. AQP form channels and control water transport in and out of the cells and are associated with drought tolerance mechanisms. The current review addresses: (1) the evolution of AQPs in plants, (2) the classification of plant AQPs, (3) the role of AQPs in drought alleviation in crop plants, and (4) the phytohormone crosstalk with AQPs in crops exposed to drought stress.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Secas , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672712

RESUMO

Drought and salinity can result in cell dehydration and water unbalance in plants, which seriously diminish plant growth and development. Cellular water homeostasis maintained by aquaporin is one of the important strategies for plants to cope with these two stresses. In this study, a stress-induced aquaporin, ZxPIP1;3, belonging to the PIP1 subgroup, was identified from the succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum. The subcellular localization showed that ZxPIP1;3-GFP was located in the plasma membrane. The overexpression of ZxPIP1;3 in Arabidopsis prompted plant growth under favorable condition. In addition, it also conferred salt and drought tolerance with better water status as well as less ion toxicity and membrane injury, which led to more efficient photosynthesis and improved growth vigor via inducing stress-related responsive genes. This study reveals the molecular mechanisms of xerophytes' stress tolerance and provides a valuable candidate that could be used in genetic engineering to improve crop growth and stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Aquaporinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Zygophyllum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zygophyllum/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Osmótica , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Zygophyllum/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2218: 11-28, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606219

RESUMO

Aquaporins are membrane proteins present in all organisms that selectively transport water and small, uncharged solutes across biological membranes along an osmotic gradient. Recent gene editing technologies in zebrafish (Danio rerio) have started to uncover the physiological functions of the aquaporins in teleosts, but these approaches require methods to establish the effects of specific mutations on channel function. The oocytes of the South African frog Xenopus laevis are widely used for the expression of bacterial, plant, and animal aquaporins, and this heterologous system has contributed to numerous discoveries in aquaporin biology. This chapter focuses on techniques used for oocyte preparation and aquaporin expression and gives an overview of specific methods to determine water and solute permeability of the channels and their intracellular trafficking in oocytes.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Osmose/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578967

RESUMO

This study evaluated the anti-ascites effect of total diterpenoids extracted from Euphorbiae Ebracteolatae Radix (TDEE) on malignant ascitic mice and elucidated its underlying mechanism. TDEE was extracted by dichloromethane and subjected to column chromatography. The purity of six diterpenoids isolated from TDEE was determined to be 77.18% by HPLC. TDEE (3 and 0.6 g raw herbs/kg, p.o.) reduced ascites and increased urine output. Meanwhile, analysis of tumor cell viability, cycle and apoptosis indicated that TDEE had no antitumor activity. In addition, the expression levels of aquaporins (AQPs) and the membrane translocation levels of protein kinase C (PKC) α and PKCß in kidney and cells were measured. TDEE reduced the levels of AQP1-4, and inhibited PKCß expression in membrane fraction. Four main diterpenoids, except compound 2, reduced AQP1 level in human kidney-2 cells. Compounds 4 and 5 inhibited AQP2-4 expression in murine inner medullary collecting duct cells. The diterpenoid-induced inhibition of AQP1-4 expression was blocked by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; agonist of PKC). The diterpenoids from TDEE are the main anti-ascites components. The anti-ascites effect of diterpenoids may be associated with alterations in AQPs in the kidneys to promote diuresis. The inhibition of AQP1-4 expression by TDEE is related to the inhibition of PKCß activation.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Ascite/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Euphorbia/química , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Quinase C/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose , Aquaporinas/genética , Ascite/metabolismo , Ascite/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 320(5): C771-C777, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625928

RESUMO

Aquaporin (AQP) water channels facilitate passive transport of water across cellular membranes following an osmotic gradient. AQPs are expressed in a multitude of epithelia, endothelia, and other cell types where they play important roles in physiology, especially in the regulation of body water homeostasis, skin hydration, and fat metabolism. AQP dysregulation is associated with many pathophysiological conditions, including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, chronic kidney disease, and congestive heart failure. Moreover, AQPs have emerged as major players in a multitude of cancers where high expression correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis. Besides water transport, AQPs have been shown to be involved in cellular signaling, cell migration, cell proliferation, and regulation of junctional proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion; all cellular processes which are dysregulated in cancer. This review focuses on AQPs as regulators of junctional proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporinas/química , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Conformação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(2): 1718-1728, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468711

RESUMO

Among parent cyclodextrins (CDs), alpha-CD (a-CD) has been utilized in a number of nutraceutical products, and approved as a dietary fiber to affect glycemic response and reduce dietary fat absorption. To extend our current knowledge on the biology of this natural carbohydrate, here we investigated its potential effects on cellular water uptake and aging. Two independent in vivo biological test systems were used, a single cell Xenopus oocyte with expressed human aquaporin for cell hydration studies and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for testing life span in the treated animals. a-CD was found to enhance water uptake through aquaporins of oocytes. Furthermore, the compound promoted longevity in C. elegans. Together, these results raise a rational for assaying a-CD as a potent drug candidate in treating various age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/metabolismo , alfa-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans , Humanos , Xenopus
9.
Physiol Plant ; 172(2): 1030-1044, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421148

RESUMO

Water is a vital resource for plants to grow, thrive, and complete their life cycle. In recent years, drastic changes in the climate, especially drought frequency and severity, have increased, which reduces agricultural productivity worldwide. Aquaporins are membrane channels belonging to the major intrinsic protein superfamily, which play an essential role in cellular water and osmotic homeostasis of plants under both control and water deficit conditions. A genome-wide search reveals the vast availability of aquaporin isoforms, phylogenetic relationships, different families, conserved residues, chromosomal locations, and gene structure of aquaporins. Furthermore, aquaporins gating and subcellular trafficking are commonly controlled by phosphorylation, cytosolic pH, divalent cations, reactive oxygen species, and stoichiometry. Researchers have identified their involvement in regulating hydraulic conductance, root system architecture, modulation of abiotic stress-related genes, seed viability and germination, phloem loading, xylem water exit, photosynthetic parameters, and post-drought recovery. Remarkable effects following the change in aquaporin activity and/or gene expression have been observed on root water transport properties, nutrient acquisition, physiology, transpiration, stomatal aperture, gas exchange, and water use efficiency. The present review highlights the role of different aquaporin homologs under water-deficit stress condition in model and crop plants. Moreover, the opportunity and challenges encountered to explore aquaporins for engineering drought-tolerant crop plants are also discussed here.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Secas , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotossíntese , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124910, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453583

RESUMO

Uptake of hazardous metal(loid)s adversely affects plants and imposes a threat to the entire food chain. Here, the role of aquaporins (AQPs) providing tolerance against hazardous metal(loid)s in plants is discussed to provide a perspective on the present understanding, knowledge gaps, and opportunities. Plants adopt complex molecular and physiological mechanisms for better tolerance, adaptability, and survival under metal(loid)s stress. Water conservation in plants is one such primary strategies regulated by AQPs, a family of channel-forming proteins facilitating the transport of water and many other solutes. The strategy is more evident with reports suggesting differential expression of AQPs adopted by plants to cope with the heavy metal stress. In this regard, numerous studies showing enhanced tolerance against hazardous elements in plants due to AQPs activity are discussed. Consequently, present understanding of various aspects of AQPs, such as tertiary-structure, transport activity, solute-specificity, differential expression, gating mechanism, and subcellular localization, are reviewed. Similarly, various tools and techniques are discussed in detail aiming at efficient utilization of resources and knowledge to combat metal(loid)s stress. The scope of AQP transgenesis focusing on heavy metal stresses is also highlighted. The information provided here will be helpful to design efficient strategies for the development of metal(loid)s stress-tolerant crops.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Metais Pesados , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321760

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a chronic, inflammatory, hormone-dependent disease characterized by histological lesions produced by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Despite the fact that an estimated 176 million women are affected worldwide by this gynecological disorder, risk factors that cause endometriosis have not been properly defined and current treatments are not efficient. Although the interaction between diet and human health has been the focus of many studies, little information about the correlation of foods and their bioactive derivates with endometriosis is available. In this framework, Brassica crops have emerged as potential candidates for ameliorating the chronic inflammatory condition of endometriosis, due to their abundant content of health-promoting compounds such as glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Several inflammation-related signaling pathways have been included among the known targets of isothiocyanates, but those involving aquaporin water channels have an important role in endometriosis. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight the promising effects of the phytochemicals present in Brassica spp. as major candidates for inclusion in a dietary approach aiming to improve the inflammatory condition of women affected with endometriosis. This review points out the potential roles of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates from Brassicas as anti-inflammatory compounds, which might contribute to a reduction in endometriosis symptoms. In view of these promising results, further investigation of the effect of glucosinolates on chronic inflammatory diseases, either as diet coadjuvants or as therapeutic molecules, should be performed. In addition, we highlight the involvement of aquaporins in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. In brief, glucosinolates and the modulation of cellular water by aquaporins could shed light on new approaches to improve the quality of life for women with endometriosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Brassica/química , Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Endometriose/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322217

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQPs) are universal membrane integrated water channel proteins that selectively and reversibly facilitate the movement of water, gases, metalloids, and other small neutral solutes across cellular membranes in living organisms. Compared with other organisms, plants have the largest number of AQP members with diverse characteristics, subcellular localizations and substrate permeabilities. AQPs play important roles in plant water relations, cell turgor pressure maintenance, the hydraulic regulation of roots and leaves, and in leaf transpiration, root water uptake, and plant responses to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. They are also required for plant growth and development. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the expression and roles of diverse AQPs in the growth and development of various vegetative and reproductive organs in plants. The functions of AQPs in the intracellular translocation of hydrogen peroxide are also discussed.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Germinação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322729

RESUMO

(1) Background: We characterized a novel animal model with obesity-induced constipation because constipation is rarely known in genetically engineered mice (GEM); (2) Methods: The changes in the constipation parameters and mechanisms were analyzed in CRISPR-Cas9-mediated leptin (Lep) knockout (KO) mice from eight to 24 weeks; (3) Results: Significant constipation phenotypes were observed in the Lep KO mice since 16 weeks old. These mice showed a significant decrease in the gastrointestinal motility, mucosal layer thickness and ability for mucin secretion as well as the abnormal ultrastructure of Lieberkühn crypts in the transverse colon. The density or function of the enteric neurons, intestinal Cajal cells (ICC), smooth muscle cells, and the concentration of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones for the GI motility were remarkably changed in Lep KO mice. The downstream signaling pathway of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) were activated in Lep KO mice, while the expression of adipogenesis-regulating genes were alternatively reduced in the transverse colon of the same mice; (4) Conclusions: These results provide the first strong evidence that Lep KO mice can represent constipation successfully through dysregulation of the GI motility mediated by myenteric neurons, ICC, and smooth muscle cells in the transverse colon during an abnormal function of the lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/metabolismo , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Leptina/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Aquaporina 3/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Colo/citologia , Colo/patologia , Colo/ultraestrutura , Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/genética , Constipação Intestinal/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/genética , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mucinas/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
14.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322145

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane water channel proteins that control osmotically-driven water transport across cell membranes. Recent studies have focused on the assessment of fluid flux regulation in relation to the biological processes that maintain mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) physiology. In particular, AQPs seem to regulate MSC proliferation through rapid regulation of the cell volume. Furthermore, several reports have shown that AQPs play a crucial role in modulating MSC attachment to the extracellular matrix, their spread, and migration. Shedding light on how AQPs are able to regulate MSC physiological functions can increase our knowledge of their biological behaviours and improve their application in regenerative and reparative medicine.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/química , Transporte Biológico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Movimento Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 542-547, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185072

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of membrane intrinsic proteins in medical helminthes that specifically mediate the transmembrane transport of water or other solute molecules. Previous studies have demonstrated that AQPs play a critical role in promoting the transmembrane transport of water, osmoregulation, uptake of nutrients, release of toxic metabolic products and transport of antiparasitic drugs, which may serve as promising vaccine candidates and drug targets for parasitic diseases. This review describes the structural characteristics of AQPs in medical helminthes, and discusses the feasibility of these AQPs as antihelminth vaccine candidates and drug targets, so as to provide insights into the development of novel vaccines and drugs against parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintos/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pesquisa/tendências , Água/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0233481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001997

RESUMO

Pearl millet is a key cereal for food security in arid and semi-arid regions but its yield is increasingly threatened by water stress. Physiological mechanisms relating to conservation of soil water or increased water use efficiency can alleviate that stress. Aquaporins (AQP) are water channels that mediate root water transport, thereby influencing plant hydraulics, transpiration and soil water conservation. However, AQP remain largely uncharacterized in pearl millet. Here, we studied AQP function in root water transport in two pearl millet lines contrasting for water use efficiency (WUE). We observed that these lines also contrasted for root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) and AQP contribution to Lpr. The line with lower WUE showed significantly higher AQP contribution to Lpr. To investigate AQP isoforms contributing to Lpr, we developed genomic approaches to first identify the entire AQP family in pearl millet and secondly, characterize the plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) gene expression profile. We identified and annotated 33 AQP genes in pearl millet, among which ten encoded PIP isoforms. PgPIP1-3 and PgPIP1-4 were significantly more expressed in the line showing lower WUE, higher Lpr and higher AQP contribution to Lpr. Overall, our study suggests that the PIP1 AQP family are the main regulators of Lpr in pearl millet and may possibly be associated with mechanisms associated to whole plant water use. This study paves the way for further investigations on AQP functions in pearl millet hydraulics and adaptation to environmental stresses.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Pennisetum , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Pennisetum/genética , Pennisetum/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma , Água/metabolismo
17.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110201, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017909

RESUMO

COVID-19 initially an epidemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has turned out to be a life- threatening global pandemic with increased morbidity and mortality. The presence of cytokine storm has been linked with the pathogenesis of severe lung injury as evinced in COVID-19. Aquaporins (AQPs) are molecular water channels, facilitating water transport across the cell membrane in response to osmotic gradients. Impairment in alveolar fluid clearance due to altered functional expression of respiratory AQPs highlight their pathophysiological significance in pulmonary edema associated respiratory illness. Therefore, we hypothesize that targeted modulation of AQPs in lungs in the intervening period of time, could diminish the dreadful effects of inflammation- induced comorbidity in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Transporte Biológico , Comorbidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos , Pandemias
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236724, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956406

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQP) are a family of plasma membrane proteins responsible for water transport through cell membranes. They are differentially expressed in different parts of the alimentary canal of insects where they regulate water transport. These proteins have been studied in detail in some insects, but few data are available for aquaporins of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. We used quantitative PCR to study the expression of six putative aquaporin genes in forager honey bees. We found differential expression of all putative AQP genes in crop, midgut, ileum, rectum and Malpighian tubules. We found the entomoglyceroporin Am_Eglp 1 expressed at extremely high levels in the midgut. We performed a functional characterization of Am_Eglp 1 using heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocyte followed by water uptake assays. Our results confirmed that the Am_Eglp 1 gene encodes a functional water transporter. This study shows that all putative honey bee aquaporin genes have complex expression patterns in the digestive and excretory organs of honey bee workers. Our results suggest that Am_Eglp 1 is the principal water transporter in the midgut of A. mellifera workers.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Abelhas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporinas/genética , Abelhas/genética , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Oócitos , Xenopus laevis
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237789, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810188

RESUMO

Aquaporins are water-permeable membrane-channel proteins found in biological cell membranes that selectively exclude ions and large molecules and have high water permeability, which makes them promising candidates for water desalination systems. To effectively apply the properties of aquaporins in the desalination process, many studies have been conducted on aquaporin-lipid membrane systems using phospholipids, which are the main component of cell membranes. Many parametric studies have evaluated the permeability of such systems with various aquaporin types and lipid compositions. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations for four cases with different protein-lipid molar ratios (1:50, 1:75, 1:100, and 1:150) between aquaporin Z and the phospholipids, and we propose a possibility of the existence of optimal protein-lipid molar ratio to maximize water permeability. Elucidating these simulation results from a structural viewpoint suggests that there is a relationship between the permeability and changes in the hydrophobic thickness of the lipid membrane adjacent to the aquaporin as a structural parameter. The results of this study can help optimize the design of an aquaporin-lipid membrane by considering its molar ratio at an early stage of development.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Água/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Modelos Químicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pressão Osmótica , Fosfolipídeos/química , Salinidade , Água/química
20.
Gene ; 761: 145043, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777530

RESUMO

Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) constitute a significant class of the aquaporins. The TIPs control water trade among cytosolic and vacuolar compartments and can also transport glycerol, ammonia, urea, hydrogen peroxide, metals/metalloids, and so forth. Additionally, TIPs are engaged with different abiotic stress responses and developmental processes like leaf expansion, root elongation and seed germination. In this study, ten TIP genes in the rice genome were identified from Oryza sativa ssp indica. Among these, representative groups of TIP genes were cloned and sequenced whilst some TIP sequences showed stop codons in the coding region. The secondary structure analysis represented six conserved transmembrane helices along with the inter-helical regions having conserved motifs. The representative three-dimensional tetrameric design of protein sequence of TIP1;1 displayed key features like NPA motifs, aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filters, and Froger's residues. The vacuolar localization, transmembrane topological properties, and conserved motif analysis of the cloned genes altogether supported their identity as TIPs. An unrooted phylogenetic tree delineated the relatedness of TIPs from Oryza with different species and bunched them into five clades. The promoter analysis uncovered key regulons associated with administering abiotic stress responses. Gene expression studies showed thatTIPsare differentially regulated under salt and drought stress at various time points in shoots and roots of rice. Also, the pattern of expression was found to be significantly variable in five different rice tissues. The heat-map based tissue and stress- specific expression analysis supported the experimental findings. In conclusion, the identification and transcript-level expression studies of TIPs significantly contribute towards the comprehension of their utilitarian significance in the abiotic stress response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vacúolos/genética , Água/metabolismo
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