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1.
Air Med J ; 40(1): 54-59, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aeromedical transport of coronavirus patients presents risks to clinicians and aircrew. Patient positioning and physical barriers may provide additional protection during flight. This paper describes airflow testing undertaken on fixed wing and rotary wing aeromedical aircraft. METHODS: Airflow testing was undertaken on a stationary Hawker Beechcraft B200C and Leonardo Augusta Westland 139. Airflow was simulated using a Trainer 101 (MSS Professional A/S, Odense Sø, Syddanmark, Denmark) Smoke machine. Different cabin configurations were used along with variations in heating, cooling, and ventilation systems. RESULTS: For the Hawker Beechcraft B200C, smoke generated within the forward section of the cabin was observed to fill the cabin to a fluid boundary located in-line with the forward edge of the cargo door. With the curtain closed, smoke was only observed to enter the cockpit in very small quantities. For the Leonardo AW139, smoke generated within the cabin was observed to expand to fill the cabin evenly before dissipating. With the curtain closed, smoke was observed to enter the cockpit only in small quantities CONCLUSION: The use of physical barriers in fixed wing and rotary wing aeromedical aircraft provides some protection to aircrew. Optimal positioning of the patient is on the aft stretcher on the Beechcraft B200C and on a laterally orientated stretcher on the AW139. The results provide a baseline for further investigation into methods to protect aircrew during the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Movimentos do Ar , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Ventilação/métodos , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Humanos , Ventilação/instrumentação
2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1381-1384, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076588

RESUMO

The central air conditioning ventilation system plays an important role in the air circulation of buildings such as centralized isolation medical observation points and general public buildings. In order to meet the requirements of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control, Beijing Preventive Medicine Association organized Beijing CDC and other professional institutes to write up the group standard entitled "Technical specification for health risk investigation of central air conditioning ventilation system during the COVID-19 epidemic (T/BPMA 0006-2020)" . According to the particularity of central air conditioning ventilation system risk control during the outbreak of similar respiratory infectious diseases, based on current laws and regulations and the principle of scientific, practical, consistency and normative, 8 key points of risk investigations were summarized, which were the location of fresh air outlet, air conditioning mode, air return mode, air system, air distribution, fresh air volume, exhaust and air conditioner components. The contents, process, method, data analysis and conclusion of the investigation implementation were also defined and unified. It could standardize and guide institutions such as disease control and health supervision to carry out relevant risk managements, and provided solutions and technical supports for such major public health emergencies in city operations.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epidemias , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ventilação/instrumentação , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Pequim/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
3.
Med Hypotheses ; 141: 109781, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361528

RESUMO

The world is facing a pandemic of unseen proportions caused by a corona virus named SARS-CoV-2 with unprecedent worldwide measures being taken to tackle its contagion. Person-to-person transmission is accepted but WHO only considers aerosol transmission when procedures or support treatments that produce aerosol are performed. Transmission mechanisms are not fully understood and there is evidence for an airborne route to be considered, as the virus remains viable in aerosols for at least 3 h and that mask usage was the best intervention to prevent infection. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems (HVAC) are used as a primary infection disease control measure. However, if not correctly used, they may contribute to the transmission/spreading of airborne diseases as proposed in the past for SARS. The authors believe that airborne transmission is possible and that HVAC systems when not adequately used may contribute to the transmission of the virus, as suggested by descriptions from Japan, Germany, and the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship. Previous SARS outbreaks reported at Amoy Gardens, Emergency Rooms and Hotels, also suggested an airborne transmission. Further studies are warranted to confirm our hypotheses but the assumption of such way of transmission would cause a major shift in measures recommended to prevent infection such as the disseminated use of masks and structural changes to hospital and other facilities with HVAC systems.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Ambiente Controlado , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ventilação , Aerossóis , Ar Condicionado/efeitos adversos , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Fômites/virologia , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Calefação/instrumentação , Calefação/métodos , Humanos , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Doença dos Legionários/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Engenharia Sanitária/instrumentação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Esgotos/virologia , Ventilação/instrumentação , Ventilação/métodos
5.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(5): 890-895, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960093

RESUMO

The free-living amoebae are currently considered an emerging parasitic infection. The infection by this protozoan can generate serious infection and even cause death. Due to their amphizoic and opportunistic characters of these microorganisms, one should give more attention, not only in swimming pools but also where there are immunologically susceptible patients such as those found in intensive care units and surgical centers. Due to their difficult diagnosis often postmortem, because they are considered to be an emerging parasitic infection and their diagnosis is difficult, often performed post mortem. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of these protozoa in air conditioners by taking samples of dust from both the surgical center and the intensive therapy unit. We analyzed 48 dust samples that were collected from six air conditioners equipment located in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Surgical Center (SC) of a public hospital. We found 10.4% of the samples collected in the SC, and 75% of the samples collected in the ICU presented free-living amoeba cysts by light microscopy analysis. In total, 35.4% (17/48) of the air conditioning samples of the hospital were positive and, by PCR, were identified to belong to the genus Acanthamoeba spp and Balamuthia mandrillaris species. By DNA sequencing analysis, it was possible to classify the Acanthamoeba samples as belonging to the T3 and T4 genotypes. These genotypes are the main cause of keratitis in humans, and Balamuthia may cause amoebic encephalitis, and together are emerging parasitic infections. Our results show the presence of the two most important amoebas Acanthamoeba (T3 and T4 genotypes) and Balamuthia in the SC and the ICU, and these necessary precautions these sites could be propagating cysts of these amoebas and patients during their stay or discharge could present ocular and NSC alterations without perhaps arriving to the diagnosis of free-living amoeba infection.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba/genética , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Poeira/análise , Hospitais Públicos , Microbiologia do Ar , Genótipo , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835482

RESUMO

Classrooms Air Conditioner Filter (CACF) particles represent all of the exposed particles that have migrated to the interior environment. This study was conducted to assess the heavy metals contamination in CACF particles from Jeddah primary schools located in urban, suburban and residential areas; and to evaluate their health risks of children exposure (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic). Heavy metals levels in CACF particles of schools were in the following order: urban schools > suburban schools > residential schools. Fe, Mn and Zn were the dominant species. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) values indicated that the contamination levels was in the following order Cd > Pb > Zn > As > Cu > Ni > Mn > Cr > Co >V > Fe. School CACF particles was moderately contaminated with As and Zn and moderately to heavily contaminated with Pb and Cd. Enrichment factors (EFs) indicated that Zn, Cd, Pb, As and Cu in CACF particles were severe enriched. The hazard quotient (HQs) and hazards index (HI) values for heavy metals were lower than the acceptable level of one. As, Pb, Cr and Mn were exhibited high non-cancer effects for children. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) and total lifetime cancer risk (TLCR), HQs and HI values for the different exposure pathways of heavy metals decreased in the following order: ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk rank order of schools were urban schools > suburban schools > residential schools. The LCR and TLCR of heavy metals was in the following order: Co > Ni >Cr > Cd > As > Pb. The ingestion lifetime cancer risk (LCRing) and TLCR values from exposure to Ni and Cr in urban and suburban schools, Cd in urban schools, and Co in all Jeddah schools only exceed the acceptable range (1 × 10-6-1 × 10-4) Only LCRing and TLCR values from exposure to ∑ carcinogens exceed the acceptable level.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Arsênico/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Filtração/instrumentação , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Arábia Saudita , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765384

RESUMO

Legionnaires' disease, a form of pneumonia which can be fatal, is transmitted via the inhalation of water droplets containing Legionella bacteria. These droplets can be dispersed in the atmosphere several kilometers from their source. The most common such sources are contaminated water within cooling towers and other air-conditioning systems but other sources such as ornamental fountains and spa pools have also caused outbreaks of the disease in the past. There is an obvious need to locate and eliminate any such sources as quickly as possible. Here a maximum likelihood model estimating the source of an outbreak from case location data has been developed and implemented. Unlike previous models, the average dose exposure sub-model is formulated using a atmospheric dispersion model. How the uncertainty in inferred parameters can be estimated is discussed. The model is applied to the 2012 Edinburgh Legionnaires' disease outbreak.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/efeitos adversos , Microbiologia do Ar , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Doença dos Legionários/prevenção & controle , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Atmosfera/análise , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/patogenicidade , Doença dos Legionários/microbiologia , Doença dos Legionários/transmissão , Funções Verossimilhança , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(6): 2533-2548, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054073

RESUMO

Elemental composition of airborne dust samples retained by internal filters of air condition units (ACUs) was determined at 12 locations of Doha city, state of Qatar. Twenty-four elements: Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K, Ti, Zn, P, Sr, Mn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Mo, Li, Co, Sb, As, Cd, Be, were analysed by ICP-OES technique after acid digestion of the samples. The analysed components reflect 20.6% of the total sample mass. Similar or lower concentration values have been found for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Al, and Fe compared to the international context of upper crust concentrations, NIST SRM (urban dust), published local dust information of outdoor, and surface terrestrial deposit (STD) counted for 7.2, 0.7, 91.8, 192.8, 369.7, 68.6, 65.3, 52.1, 824.3, 19,791, 20,508 mg/kg, respectively. The coefficient of correlation (p ≤ 0.05) showed significant association of ACUs dust elemental compositions with the main components of the local earth crust and surface deposits, ranging from the lowest 0.77 (Mg-Fe) to the highest 0.98 (Al-Fe), while Ni and V, typical anthropogenic pollutants, are also strongly correlated (0.86). These strong correlation relationships can be interpreted as the contribution of outdoor particulate to the indoor dust. Dendrogram of metal/Al ratios, based on Euclidean distance calculation and average linkage clustering method, distinguished three typical groups. Studying the enrichment factors of the three groups indicated elevated levels of Zn (131), Pb (49), Cu (32), Cd (8) and Ni (5) found indoors compared to the background composition of STD especially at locations in the industrial zone. The major elemental composition of the samples reflects the typical mineral composition of the local dust, while the trace composition demonstrates the influence of indoor sources. The collected ACU filter dust samples show significant contribution of outdoor mineral particles, non-exhaust traffic emission, industrial sources, as well as the influence of indoor activity such as smoking.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Metais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Catar
9.
J Healthc Eng ; 2019: 6939632, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098009

RESUMO

A person stays indoors for about 85%∼90% time of his lifetime, and the need for a comfortable indoor environment is getting higher; thus, the air-conditioning dependency becomes intense too. Nowadays, residents focus on both the comfortable living environment and indoor air quality. A closed environment will become hazardous because of carbon dioxide released during respiration and toxic organic solvent vapor released from interior decoration. In order to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ), we must allow outer fresh air into the indoor space and release the dirty air out. But while taking in fresh air, the heat and factory/vehicle exhaust are also introduced. Indoor CO2, HCHO, and VOCs and outer dirty gas threaten human health badly. To solve this problem, we bring up an innovative low-power-consuming full-outer-air-intake natural air-conditioning system that completely separates intake and exhaust air, which is a solution for cross-contamination and makes mass/energy exchange by means of air and water. Design airflow exceeds 300∼500 CFM, steam evaporation mass rate reaches 3.13∼3.88 kg/hr, and heat exchange capacity becomes 1,855∼2,300 kcal/hr. The sensible heat effectiveness is 71%∼112%, and EER exceeds 14.05∼17.42 kcal/W·h. In addition, the system under design can be of positive or negative pressure status according to the user's or work's requirement. It creates a comfortable and healthy living environment by supplying clean and fresh outer ambient air with low power consumption.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Ar Condicionado/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Indústria da Construção , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Engenharia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
11.
Am J Infect Control ; 47(7): 737-743, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been little research on the performance of laminar airflow (LAF) and mixing ventilation (MV) systems regarding clean airflow distribution near a surgical patient in operating rooms (ORs). The objective of this study was to examine the performance of LAF and MV systems in ORs at St Olavs Hospital in Norway. METHODS: Experimental measurements were conducted in 2 ORs equipped with LAF and MV systems. RESULTS: Under real operating conditions, airflow distribution from the LAF system was disrupted, and airflow velocity became significantly lower than that of MV above the lying patient. Airflow pattern was observed as distributed vertically downward and horizontally with LAF and MV, respectively. Turbulence intensity of supply airflow from LAF was much lower than that of MV. CONCLUSIONS: The airflow distribution by LAF system in close proximity to a patient is greatly affected by thermal plumes generated above incisions by both patients and surgical facilities. The effect of surgical facilities on airflow distribution by using MV is not significant compared to LAF ventilation. New guidelines are needed for the design of clean airflow distribution systems in the vicinity of surgical patients in ORs.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/métodos , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Ventilação/instrumentação , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente
12.
Indoor Air ; 29(3): 390-402, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624800

RESUMO

Analysis of the dust from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters is a promising long-term sampling method to characterize airborne particle-bound contaminants. This filter forensics (FF) approach provides valuable insights about differences between buildings, but does not allow for an estimation of indoor concentrations. In this investigation, FF is extended to quantitative filter forensics (QFF) by using measurements of the volume of air that passes through the filter and the filter efficiency, to assess the integrated average airborne concentrations of total fungal and bacterial DNA, 36 fungal species, endotoxins, phthalates, and organophosphate esters (OPEs) based on dust extracted from HVAC filters. Filters were collected from 59 homes located in central Texas, USA, after 1 month of deployment in each summer and winter. Results showed considerable differences in the concentrations of airborne particle-bound contaminants in studied homes. The airborne concentrations for most of the analytes are comparable with those reported in the literature. In this sample of homes, the HVAC characterization measurements varied much less between homes than the variation in the filter dust concentration of each analyte, suggesting that even in the absence of HVAC data, FF can provide insight about concentration differences for homes with similar HVAC systems.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Microbiologia do Ar , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Endotoxinas/análise , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Calefação/instrumentação , Habitação , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Estações do Ano , Texas , Ventilação/instrumentação
13.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 74(6): 341-349, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727587

RESUMO

The frequency and importance of Aspergillus infections is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to assess the occupational exposure of forklifts and taxi drivers to Aspergillus spp. Nineteen filters from air conditioning system of taxis, 17 from forklifts and 37 from personal vehicles were assessed. Filters extract were streaked onto MEA, DG18 and in azole-supplemented media. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of selected Aspergillus species-complex was also performed. Forklifts filter samples presented higher median values. Aspergillus section Nigri was the most observed in forklifts filters in MEA (28.2%) and in azole-supplemented media. DNA from Aspergillus sections Fumigati and Versicolores was successfully amplified by qPCR. This study enlightens the added value of using filters from the air conditioning system to assess Aspergillus spp. occupational exposure. Aspergillus azole resistance screening should be included in future occupational exposure assessments.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Veículos Automotores , Exposição Ocupacional , Aspergilose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar/etiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
14.
Perfusion ; 34(1): 9-14, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993322

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association of Mycobacterium chimaera infection in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with the use of heater-cooler units (HCU) has been reported in various literature. We described microbiological monitoring and the extent of microbiological contamination of HCUs utilized in our centre and strategies employed to reduce the high microbial load. METHODS: Since August 2016, we have been following the new Instructions for Use from the manufacturer for the cleaning and disinfection of three units of Stöckert 3T and four units of Stöckert 1T HCU at the National Heart Centre Singapore. Microbiological monitoring began in January 2017 and included acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, total colony and total coliform count. Methods, such as increasing disinfection frequency and making the HCU inactive by keeping it empty in storage, were used to reduce the high colony count. RESULTS: All three units of Stöckert 3T and two units of Stöckert 1T were contaminated with Mycobacterium chimaera. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and total coliform count were consistently <1 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL in every water sample of each HCU. High colony counts were encountered initially in all units. Step-up frequency of disinfection was found to be not as effective as keeping the HCU inactive in bringing the total colony count to an acceptable level. CONCLUSIONS: All monitoring and maintenance measures of HCUs need to be established and maintained to mitigate potential infection risks to patients. Strict adherence to all cleaning and disinfection processes and keeping the HCU inactive maintained the water quality of the HCU at acceptable levels.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/instrumentação , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Calefação/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Infecções por Mycobacterium/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Adulto , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Equipamentos e Provisões , Humanos , Infecções por Mycobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia
15.
J Microbiol ; 57(1): 18-22, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456752

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped, and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain ID1709T, was isolated from an automotive air conditioning system collected in Korea. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain ID1709T had 92.2-94.3% similarities with the type strains of members of the genus Flavisolibacter. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c). The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, aminoglycophospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids, and three unidentified lipids. The DNA G + C content of the strain was 35.6 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic data, strain ID1709T represents a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter, for which the name Flavisolibacter aluminii sp. nov. (= KACC 19451T = KCTC 52778T = NBRC 112870T), is proposed.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia
17.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 15(12): 810-817, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193088

RESUMO

Continuous and intermittent exposure to noise elevates stress, increases blood pressure, and disrupts sleep among patients in hospital intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a behavior-based intervention to reduce noise and to identify determinants of noise in a medical intensive care unit. Staff were trained for 6 weeks to reduce noise during their activities in an effort to keep noise levels below 55 dBA during the day and below 50 dBA at night. One-min noise levels were logged continuously in patient rooms 8 weeks before and after the intervention. Noise levels were compared by room position, occupancy status, and time of day. Noise levels from flagged days (>60 dBA for >10 hr) were correlated with activity logs. The intervention was ineffective, with noise frequently exceeding project goals during the day and night. Noise levels were higher in rooms with the oldest heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system, even when patient rooms were unoccupied. Of the flagged days, the odds of noise over 60 dBA occurring was 5.3 dBA higher when high-flow respiratory support devices were in use compared to times with low-flow devices in use (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 5.0-5.5). General sources, like the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system, contribute to high baseline noise and high-volume (>10 L/min) respiratory-support devices generate additional high noise (>60 dBA) in Intensive Care Unit patient rooms. This work suggests that engineering controls (e.g., ventilation changes or equipment shielding) may be more effective in reducing noise in hospital intensive care units than behavior modification alone.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Ruído/prevenção & controle , Ventiladores Mecânicos/normas , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Calefação/instrumentação , Humanos , Iowa , Quartos de Pacientes/normas , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/educação , Ventilação/instrumentação
18.
Indoor Air ; 28(6): 818-827, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133950

RESUMO

Outdoor traffic-related airborne particles can infiltrate a building and adversely affect the indoor air quality. Limited information is available on the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration of traffic-related particles. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of portable HEPA air cleaners in reducing indoor concentrations of traffic-related and other aerosols, including black carbon (BC), PM2.5 , ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) (a marker of tobacco smoke), and fungal spores. This intervention study consisted of a placebo-controlled cross-over design, in which a HEPA cleaner and a placebo "dummy" were placed in homes for 4-weeks each, with 48-hour air sampling conducted prior to and during the end of each treatment period. The concentrations measured for BC, PM2.5 , UVPM, and fungal spores were significantly reduced following HEPA filtration, but not following the dummy period. The indoor fraction of BC/PM2.5 was significantly reduced due to the HEPA cleaner, indicating that black carbon was particularly impacted by HEPA filtration. This study demonstrates that HEPA air purification can result in a significant reduction of traffic-related and other aerosols in diverse residential settings.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Habitação , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Umidade , Análise de Regressão
19.
Indoor Air ; 28(6): 905-915, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098222

RESUMO

In North America, the majority of homes use forced-air systems for heating and cooling. The proportion of time these systems operate, or runtime, has a significant impact on many building performance parameters. The recent adoption of smart thermostats in many North American homes presents a potential data source for runtime. Smart thermostat data collected from over 7000 homes were compared with nine other investigations and a runtime estimation method based on exterior temperature. The smart thermostat runtimes have a median of 18% across all homes, but show considerable variation between homes, even at constant exterior temperature conditions suggesting that factors besides climate (eg, system sizing, user operation) have a significant impact on runtime. Results from other investigations suggest that smart thermostat runtimes are consistent with other measurement approaches. The practical implications of runtime include the impact on central filtration performance. At low to average runtimes, the filter efficiency matters much less for effectiveness because the system does not run enough for a sufficient air volume to pass through the filter and have a substantial impact on particle concentrations. This work illustrates the importance of measuring runtime for a particular home, and the value of data obtained from smart thermostats.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Automação , Habitação , Coleta de Dados , América do Norte
20.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 39(4): 482-484, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488454

RESUMO

Canadian hospitals were made aware of the risk of Mycobacterium chimaera infection associated with heater-cooler units (HCUs) through alerts issued by the US food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In response, most hospitals conducted retrospective reviews for infections, informed exposed patients, and initiated a requirement for informed consent with HCU use. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:482-484.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Infecção Hospitalar , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Controle de Infecções , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Equipamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/microbiologia , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/etiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/prevenção & controle
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