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1.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 19, 2021. 5 p.
Não convencional em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150950

RESUMO

Proporcionar condiciones térmicas y sistemas de ventilación adecuados que eviten la dispersión de patógenos es fundamental para proteger la salud de los pacientes, de los profesionales médicos y de enfermería, y del resto del personal, así como para el funcionamiento general de los equipos sensibles. Esta segunda versión presenta recomendaciones generales para evitar la transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 a través de sistemas de calefacción, ventilación y aire acondicionado en establecimientos de salud.


Providing adequate thermal conditions and ventilation systems that prevent the dispersion of pathogens, is fundamental to protect the health of patients, caregivers and staff, and to the overall operation of sensitive equipment. This technical note presents general recommendations to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in ​health care facilities.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Controle da Qualidade do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ar Condicionado/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filtros de Ar/normas , Betacoronavirus , Hospitais/normas
2.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 17(10): 447-456, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960737

RESUMO

Bioaerosols are known to be an important transmission pathway for SARS-CoV-2. We report a framework for estimating the risk of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 via aerosols in laboratory and office settings, based on an exponential dose-response model and analysis of air flow and purification in typical heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. High-circulation HVAC systems with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration dramatically reduce exposure to the virus in indoor settings, and surgical masks or N95 respirators further reduce exposure. As an example of our risk assessment model, we consider the precautions needed for a typical experimental physical science group to maintain a low risk of transmission over six months of operation. We recommend that, for environments where fewer than five individuals significantly overlap, work spaces should remain vacant for between one (high-circulation HVAC with HEPA filtration) to six (low-circulation HVAC with no filtration) air exchange times before a new worker enters in order to maintain no more than 1% chance of infection over six months of operation in the workplace. Our model is readily applied to similar settings that are not explicitly given here. We also provide a framework for evaluating infection mitigation through ventilation in multiple occupancy spaces.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Laboratórios/normas , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ventilação/normas , Local de Trabalho/normas , Ar Condicionado/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
3.
ACS Nano ; 14(7): 7704-7713, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551537

RESUMO

We advocate the widespread use of UV-C light as a short-term, easily deployable, and affordable way to limit virus spread in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Radical social distancing with the associated shutdown of schools, restaurants, sport clubs, workplaces, and traveling has been shown to be effective in reducing virus spread, but its economic and social costs are unsustainable in the medium term. Simple measures like frequent handwashing, facial masks, and other physical barriers are being commonly adopted to prevent virus transmission. However, their efficacy may be limited, particularly in shared indoor spaces, where, in addition to airborne transmission, elements with small surface areas such as elevator buttons, door handles, and handrails are frequently used and can also mediate transmission. We argue that additional measures are necessary to reduce virus transmission when people resume attending schools and jobs that require proximity or some degree of physical contact. Among the available alternatives, UV-C light satisfies the requirements of rapid, widespread, and economically viable deployment. Its implementation is only limited by current production capacities, an increase of which requires swift intervention by industry and authorities.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Calefação/normas , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ventilação/normas , Ar Condicionado/efeitos adversos , Espaços Confinados , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transportes/normas , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jun. 1, 2020. 4 p.
Não convencional em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097595

RESUMO

Esta ficha técnica presenta recomendaciones generales para evitar la transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 por medio de sistemas de calefacción, ventilación y aire acondicionado en establecimientos de salud.


This technical note presents general recommendations to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in ​health care facilities.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ar Condicionado/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filtros de Ar/normas , Betacoronavirus , Hospitais/normas
5.
Ann Ig ; 30(5 Supple 2): 22-35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have questioned the role of unidirectional airflow ventilation system in reducing surgical site infection (SSI) in prosthetic implant surgery. The aim of the ISChIA study ("Infezioni del Sito Chirurgico in Interventi di Artroprotesi" which means "Surgical site infections in arthroplasty surgery") was to evaluate, as a contribution to this debate, the association between heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, microbial air contamination and surgical site infection in hip and knee arthroplasty. METHODS: The study was performed from March 2010 to February 2012 in 14 hospitals, for a total of 28 operating theatres: 16 were equipped with vertical unidirectional airflow ventilation (U-OTs), 6 with mixed airflow ventilation (M-OTs), 6 with turbulent airflow ventilation (T-OTs). Microbial air contamination in the operating theatre was evaluated by means of passive (Index of Microbial Air contamination, IMA) and active (Colony Forming Units per cubic metre, cfu/m3) sampling. SSI surveillance was carried out according to the Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance protocol. RESULTS: A total of 1,285 elective prosthesis procedures (61.1% hip and 38.9% knee) were included in the study. The results showed a wide variability of the air microbial contamination in operating theatres equipped with unidirectional airflow. The recommended values of ≤2 IMA and ≤10 cfu/m3 were exceeded, respectively, by 58.9% and 46.4% of samples from U-OTs and by 87.6% and 100% of samples from M-OTs. No significant difference was observed between SSI cumulative incidence in surgical procedures performed in U-OTs compared with those performed in T-OTs. A lower risk of SSI, even though not statistically significant, was shown in surgical procedures performed in U-OTs with a microbial air contamination within the recommended values (≤2 IMA and ≤10 cfu/m3) compared with those performed in U-OTs where these limits were exceeded, and compared with those performed in T-OTs with microbial air contamination within the recommended values for this type of OTs (≤25 IMA, ≤180 cfu/m3. CONCLUSION: ISChIA study did not show a protective effect of unidirectional airflow compared with turbulent airflow in arthroplasty surgery. However, the frequent exceeding of recommended air microbial contamination values in OTs equipped with unidirectional airflow, and the lower SSI risk in surgical procedures performed in compliant U-OTs compared with those performed in non-compliant U-OTs and with those performed in compliant T-OTs, suggest the need of further studies, which should consider air microbial contamination and other aspects of SSI prevention that may negate the potential benefits of the ventilation system; differences in intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, medical treatment and surgical technique are also to be considered. Training interventions aimed at improving the behaviour of operators are essential.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/efeitos adversos , Microbiologia do Ar , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Calefação/efeitos adversos , Salas Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Ventilação , Ar Condicionado/normas , Microbiologia do Ar/normas , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Calefação/normas , Humanos , Itália , Vigilância da População , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Ventilação/métodos , Ventilação/normas
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617335

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop and test a tool for assessing urgency of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures. The condition of the 27 buildings were investigated and results were categorized. Statistical test studied the differences between the categories and the employees’ complaints about their work environment. To study the employees’ experiences of the work premises, a validated indoor air (IA) questionnaire was used. This study reveals a multifaceted problem: many factors affecting IAQ may also affect perceived IAQ, making it difficult to separate the impurity sources and ventilation system deficiencies affecting to employee experiences. An examination of the relationship between the categories and perceived IAQ revealed an association between the mould odour perceived by employees and mould detected by the researcher. A weak link was also found between the assessed categories and environmental complaints. However, we cannot make far-reaching conclusions regarding the assessed probability of abnormal IA exposure in the building on the basis of employee experiences. According to the results, categorising tool can partly support the assessment of the urgency for repairs when several factors that affect IAQ are taken into account.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/normas , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hospitais/normas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(5): 5013-5023, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209965

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to establish whether the air-conditioning system in buses constitutes an additional source of indoor air contamination with fungi, and whether or not the fungi concentration depends on the period from the last disinfection of the system, combined with replacement of the cabin dust particle filter. The air samples to fungi analysis using impact method were taken in 30 buses (20 with an air-conditioning system, ACS; 10 with a ventilation system, VS) in two series: 1 and 22 weeks after cabin filter replacement and disinfection of the air-conditioning system. During one test in each bus were taken two samples: before the air-conditioning or ventilation system switched on and 6 min after operating of these systems. The atmospheric air was the external background (EB). After 1 week of use of the system, the fungi concentrations before starting of the ACS and VS system were 527.8 and 1053.0 cfu/m3, respectively, and after 22 weeks the concentrations were 351.9 and 1069.6 cfu/m3, respectively. While in the sample after 6 min of ACS and VS system operating, the fungi concentration after 1 week of use was 127.6 and 233.7 cfu/m3, respectively, and after 22 weeks it was 113.3 and 324.9 cfu/m3, respectively. Results do not provide strong evidence that air-conditioning system is an additional source of indoor air contamination with fungi. A longer operation of the system promoted increase of fungi concentration in air-conditioned buses only.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/normas , Microbiologia do Ar/normas , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Veículos Automotores/normas , Desinfecção , Poeira/análise , Humanos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149078

RESUMO

It is well known that personal cooling improves thermal comfort and save energy. This study aims to: (1) compare different personal cooling systems and (2) understand what influences users' willingness to adopt them. A series of experiments on several types of personal cooling systems, which included physical measurements, questionnaires and feedback, was conducted in a real office environment. The obtained results showed that personal cooling improved comfort of participants in warm environments. Then an improved index was proposed and used to compare different types of personal cooling systems in terms of comfort and energy efficiency simultaneously. According to the improved index, desk fans were highly energy-efficient, while the hybrid personal cooling (the combination of radiant cooling desk and desk fan) consumed more energy but showed advantages of extending the comfortable temperature range. Moreover, if personal cooling was free, most participants were willing to adopt it and the effectiveness was the main factor influencing their willingness, whereas if participants had to pay, they probably refused to adopt it due to the cost and the availability of conventional air conditioners. Thus, providing effective and free personal cooling systems should be regarded as a better way for its wider application.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/estatística & dados numéricos , Ar Condicionado/normas , Eficiência , Utensílios Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Utensílios Domésticos/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Therm Biol ; 70(Pt A): 64-68, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074027

RESUMO

Personal vehicles undergo rapid development in every imaginable way. However, a concept of managing a cabin thermal environment remains unchanged for decades. The only major improvement has been an automatic HVAC controller with one user's input - temperature. In this case, the temperature is often deceiving because of thermally asymmetric and dynamic nature of the cabins. As a result, the effects of convection and radiation on passengers are not captured in detail what also reduces the potential to meet thermal comfort expectations. Advanced methodologies are available to assess the cabin environment in a fine resolution (e.g. ISO 14505:2006), but these are used mostly in laboratory conditions. The novel idea of this work is to integrate equivalent temperature sensors into a vehicular cabin in proximity of an occupant. Spatial distribution of the sensors is expected to provide detailed information about the local environment that can be used for personalised, comfort driven HVAC control. The focus of the work is to compare results given by the implemented system and a Newton type thermal manikin. Three different ambient settings were examined in a climate chamber. Finally, the results were compared and a good match of equivalent temperatures was found.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Automóveis , Ar Condicionado/economia , Ar Condicionado/normas , Temperatura Corporal , Custos e Análise de Custo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Manequins
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934173

RESUMO

Existing thermal comfort field studies are mainly focused on the relationship between the indoor physical environment and the thermal comfort. In numerous chamber experiments, physiological parameters were adopted to assess thermal comfort, but the experiments' conclusions may not represent a realistic thermal environment due to the highly controlled thermal environment and few occupants. This paper focuses on determining the relationships between upper extremity skin temperatures (i.e., finger, wrist, hand and forearm) and the indoor thermal comfort. Also, the applicability of predicting thermal comfort by using upper extremity skin temperatures was explored. Field studies were performed in office buildings equipped with split air-conditioning (SAC) located in the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) climate zone of China during the summer of 2016. Psychological responses of occupants were recorded and physical and physiological factors were measured simultaneously. Standard effective temperature (SET*) was used to incorporate the effect of humidity and air velocity on thermal comfort. The results indicate that upper extremity skin temperatures are good indicators for predicting thermal sensation, and could be used to assess the thermal comfort in terms of physiological mechanism. In addition, the neutral temperature was 24.7 °C and the upper limit for 80% acceptability was 28.2 °C in SET*.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/normas , Umidade/normas , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Temperatura , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(28): 22673-22678, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812184

RESUMO

Ozone helps decontamination environments due to its oxidative power, however present toxicity when it is in high concentrations, by long periods of exposition. This study aimed to assess the safety of ozone generator air purifier at concentrations of 0.05 ppm in rats exposed to 3 and 24 h/day for 14 and 28 days. No significant differences are observed between groups in clinical signs, feed and water intake, relative body weight gain and relative weight of organs, macroscopy and microscopy of lungs, and oxidative plasma assay. In this exposure regime, ozone does not cause genotoxicity and no significant changes in pulmonary histology indicative of toxicity. Ozone generated in low concentrations, even in exposure regimes above the recommended is safe, both acute and sub-acute exposition.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/normas , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição por Inalação , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
12.
Health Phys ; 111(5): 432-41, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27682902

RESUMO

A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated that a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan, thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack, thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans, which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well mixed location.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Teóricos , Proteção Radiológica/normas , Reologia/instrumentação , Ar Condicionado/normas , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Guias como Assunto , Proteção Radiológica/instrumentação , Reologia/normas
13.
Gig Sanit ; 95(4): 325-9, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27430060

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The purpose of work: comparison of prevalence among residents, which use or fail to use to clean split systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Collected information about morbidity rate in 235 cases people during 3 years. RESULTS: The usage of split-systems without their regular cleaning leads to the gain in the level of the prevalence of respiratory diseases by 172.7% if compared with persons, who have no air conditioning systems at home. Also, the average number of disability days increases by 218.1%) and average time of the duration of the disease increases by 71.9%. The annual treatment of split-systems and regular cleaning of filters allowed to reduce the number of diseases. In comparison with the group of people, who fail to clean air conditioning systems, the drop of morbidity rate by 56.6%, average number of disability days by 63.3% and average time of diseases by 30.9% was observed. Regular treatment of air conditioning systems cannot completely repay the morbidity rates to the level of the control group. In comparison with the people, who use no air conditioning systems, the owners of split-systems with regular treatment have lung diseases by 18.4% more often. The average number of disability days and the average time of diseases increased by 16.9% and 18.8%. These changes can be explained by the impact of unfavorable (cooling) microclimate. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of split-systems on the health of the population requires a comprehensive study and the subsequent development of normative documents regulating their safe use.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Utensílios Domésticos/normas , Doenças Respiratórias , Adulto , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Ar Condicionado/normas , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Prevalência , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Gig Sanit ; 95(3): 296-301, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27266033

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Purpose of work is a compilation of data about the microflora which colonizes a split-system, with the aim of selection of sanitary-indicative microorganisms, whose presence in the sample would indicate to the need for cleaning and disinfection of split-systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the article there were used data of five years author's scientific inquiry, related to the prevention of respiratory diseases, associated with the usage of a local air conditioning systems. We also use the data from the literature. RESULTS: For selection of "indicative" microorganisms, we proposed the usage of nine criteria, each of them have numeric value from 0 to 3 points (risk for health, prevalence rate of the disease, epidemiological link, speed of split system's colonization, difficulty of cultivation, resistance in the environment, resistance to disinfectants, frequency of detection in home air conditioning systems, frequency of detection in air conditioning systems of public buildings). After the calculation Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus received maximal score (20 points). Therefore, these two types of bacteria are indicative microorganisms. The detection of these microorganisms in split systems will indicate to the contamination of air-conditioning system. This microflora also is a criterion of cleaning and disinfection quality--presence of these microorganisms in the samples after this process will mean that the processing of air conditioning systems was performed poorly. CONCLUSIONS: Split systems are very faster colonized by conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora. To prevent the possible hazard for population's health it is necessary to develop the normative base, according to which sanitary-and-hygienic control over the split-systems working must be carried out. Proposed criteria suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are indicative microorganisms, and it's identification in the air-conditioning system would mean risk for health and necessity for cleaning and disinfection.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , Bactérias , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Ar Condicionado/normas , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Segurança de Equipamentos/métodos , Segurança de Equipamentos/normas , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
16.
Gig Sanit ; 94(3): 63-6, 2015.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302563

RESUMO

There are presented the results of the work, which aims to identify the relationship between the temperature of air in the salons of subway cars from the heat output of passengers in different people occupancy of cars during "peak hours", and to determine the efficacy offorced air handling regular ventilation or air conditioning system to remove the elevated heat load on passengers. In the work there was used the method of calculating the amount of heat output of 215 passengers (nominal fullness of the chamber) and the simulation method of heat and moisture output of the same number of passengers. The operating system of ventilation has been shown to fail to decline the average temperature of the air in the passenger compartment to the optimum values and most efficient approach for the reducing the heat load on the passengers is the use of air conditioning systems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microclima , Ferrovias , Estações do Ano , Ar Condicionado/normas , Humanos , Moscou , Temperatura
18.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 9: 4825-34, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26316716

RESUMO

In the 21st century scenario, new therapeutic tools are needed to take up the social and medical challenge posed by the more and more frequent degenerative disorders and by the aging of population. The recent category of advanced therapy medicinal products has been created to comprise cellular, gene therapy, and tissue engineered products, as a new class of drugs. Their manufacture requires the same pharmaceutical framework as for conventional drugs and this means that industrial, large-scale manufacturing process has to be adapted to the peculiar characteristics of cell-containing products. Our hospital took up the challenge of this new path in the early 2000s; and herein we describe the approach we followed to set up a pharmaceutical-grade facility in a public hospital context, with the aim to share the solutions we found to make cell therapy compliant with the requirements for the production and the quality control of a high-standard medicinal product.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/normas , Laboratórios/normas , Transplante de Células-Tronco/normas , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Ar Condicionado/normas , Microbiologia do Ar/normas , Assepsia/normas , Orçamentos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Itália , Laboratórios/economia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Controle de Qualidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco/economia
19.
HERD ; 8(4): 77-97, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates effects of the newly built nonpatient-related buildings of a large university medical center on staff perceptions and whether the design objectives were achieved. BACKGROUND: The medical center is gradually renewing its hospital building area of 200,000 m.(2) This redevelopment is carefully planned and because lessons learned can guide design decisions of the next phase, the medical center is keen to evaluate the performance of the new buildings. METHOD: A pre- and post-study with a control group was conducted. Prior to the move to the new buildings an occupancy evaluation was carried out in the old setting (n = 729) (pre-study). Post occupation of the new buildings another occupancy evaluation (post-study) was carried out in the new setting (intervention group) and again in some old settings (control group) (n = 664). The occupancy evaluation consisted of an online survey that measured the perceived performance of different aspects of the building. Longitudinal multilevel analysis was used to compare the performance of the old buildings with the new buildings. RESULTS: Significant improvements were found in indoor climate, perceived safety, working environment, well-being, facilities, sustainability, and overall satisfaction. Commitment to the employer, working atmosphere, orientation, work performance, and knowledge sharing did not improve. The results were interpreted by relating them to specific design choices. CONCLUSION: We showed that it is possible to measure the performance improvements of a complex intervention being a new building design and validate design decisions. A focused design process aiming for a safe, pleasant and sustainable building resulted in actual improvements in some of the related performance measures.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Arquitetura Hospitalar , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Adulto , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Ar Condicionado/normas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Eficiência Organizacional , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Laboratórios Hospitalares/organização & administração , Laboratórios Hospitalares/normas , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Edifícios de Consultórios Médicos/organização & administração , Edifícios de Consultórios Médicos/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Ruído Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Cultura Organizacional , Subida de Escada/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 121: 236-43, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25869418

RESUMO

Energy efficient designs are receiving increasing attention in various fields of engineering. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) control system designs involve improved energy usage with an acceptable relaxation in thermal comfort. In this paper, real time data from a building HVAC system provided by BuildingLAB is considered. A resistor-capacitor (RC) framework for representing thermal dynamics of the building is estimated using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. With objective costs as thermal comfort (deviation of room temperature from required temperature) and energy measure (Ecm) explicit MPC design for this building model is executed based on its state space representation of the supply water temperature (input)/room temperature (output) dynamics. The controllers are subjected to servo tracking and external disturbance (ambient temperature) is provided from the real time data during closed loop control. The control strategies are ported on a PIC32mx series microcontroller platform. The building model is implemented in MATLAB and hardware in loop (HIL) testing of the strategies is executed over a USB port. Results indicate that compared to traditional proportional integral (PI) controllers, the explicit MPC's improve both energy efficiency and thermal comfort significantly.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/normas , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Ventilação/normas , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Algoritmos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Temperatura , Ventilação/métodos
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