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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933053, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, children who were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) with vascular inflammation were described as having a vasculitis similar to Kawasaki's disease. There are now consensus clinical guidelines that have described the presentation and diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This report aims to describe a case of MIS-C in an 11-year-old Saudi Arabian girl who presented with coronary artery aneurysm and cardiac involvement. CASE REPORT We describe an 11-year-old Saudi girl who was asymptomatic for 3 weeks after contracting SARS-CoV-2. Three weeks after suffering a mild flulike illness, she developed a high fever, cough, and severe clinical deterioration within 12 h of admission, including shock, rash, pleural effusion, high inflammatory markers, and a coronary aneurysm. As per current practice, the diagnosis was confirmed as multisystem inflammatory syndrome based on a SARS-CoV-2 test with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from 2 nasopharyngeal aspirates. Her condition was successfully treated with antibiotics, inotropes, IVIG, aspirin, and Tocilizumab, in addition to high-flow oxygen therapy. Eventually, she was able to return home after fully recovering. CONCLUSIONS The findings in this report suggest that children with MIS-C due to SARS-CoV-2 infection can have a good prognosis, even when they suffer from coronary artery and cardiac involvement. The increasing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants that affect children supports the importance of RT-PCR for the COVID-19 diagnostic test for children with multisystem or cardiovascular inflammation, which may guide the most appropriate clinical management of the variants of MIS-C.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aneurisma Coronário , Criança , Aneurisma Coronário/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Coronário/etiologia , Vasos Coronários , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
2.
Saudi Med J ; 42(9): 927-968, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470833

RESUMO

The demand for liver transplantation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is associated with the country's high burden of liver disease. Trends in the epidemiology of liver transplantation indications among recipients in KSA have changed over 20 years. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis has eclipsed the hepatitis C virus in the country due to the effective treatment strategies for HCV. Risk factors for NASH, like type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia, are becoming a major concern and a leading indication for liver transplantation in the KSA. There is also a significantly increased prevalence and incidence of genetic adult familial liver diseases in KSA. New immunosuppressive agents and preservation solutions, improved surgical capabilities, and early disease recognition and management have increased the success rate of liver transplant outcome but concerns about the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy can jeopardise long-term survival outcomes. Despite this, indications for liver transplantation continue to increase, resulting in ongoing challenges to maximize the number of potential donors and reduce patient mortality rate while expecting to get transplanted. The Saudi Center of Organ Transplant is the recognized National Organ Donation Agency for transplantation, which renders important support for procurement and allocation of organs. This guidance document aims to help healthcare providers in managing patients in the liver transplant setting.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Transplante de Fígado , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Adulto , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Doadores de Tecidos
3.
Saudi Med J ; 42(9): 1009-1016, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the effectiveness of HIV guidelines in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). METHODS: A retrospective review from January 2009 to December 2018 at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The main outcome measures were characteristics of HIV-exposed patients and transmission rate. RESULTS: A total of 18 HIV-positive mothers and their 26 infants were included. The mean age of mothers at delivery was 31.69 years, and 50% were under 30 years old. All mothers received lifelong ART, except one who was not diagnosed until the 27th week of gestation. Among the mothers, 83% complied with treatment regimens, and 11% had ART resistance. Human immunodeficiency virus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was undetectable in 19 pregnancies. Seven mothers had opportunistic infections and treatment was immediately initiated. After reviewing the infants' HIV PCR tests, the transmission rates of HIV were 0% for both spontaneous vaginal delivery and cesarean section. CONCLUSION: Many challenges face the efforts to decrease vertical HIV transmission, and a particular focus on the transitions between stages of care is needed. We believe that early screening, counseling, and regular follow-up have contributed to MTCT elimination.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Cesárea , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita
4.
Saudi Med J ; 42(9): 1024-1030, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess teledermatology (TD) perception among dermatologists in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify the most common advantages and disadvantages of TD. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey-based study to address Saudi dermatologist perceptions of TD from July 2020 to December 2020, during Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Out of 664 emails sent, 107 complete responses were returned. Approximately 40.2% used TD through phone calls, followed by those who used a virtual clinic (32.7%). Also, the best way to use TD, according to respondents, was for triage before inpatient and outpatient visits. When we compared the use of TD in the outpatient and inpatient settings, outpatient responses always had more positive attitudes than inpatients. The most important benefit of TD is to reduce the risk of pandemic infections (69%). More than half of the participants sometimes used TD for diagnosis (n=63, 58.9%) and management (n=59, 55.1%), and 69 (64.5%) considered using it in the future. CONCLUSION: Our survey-based study indicates that TD is an important part in the future dermatology because our participants agreed that TD decreases cost, increases access to dermatology care, and reduces the risk of pandemic infections. And it is necessary to establish an infrastructure for TD that protects patient's privacy and ensures accurate diagnosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dermatologistas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
5.
Saudi Med J ; 42(9): 1036-1040, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470844

RESUMO

To describe a patient's condition and clinical progress, admitted to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with Coronaviruses disease-19 (COVID-19) infection who presented initially with gastrointestinal symptoms. The novel COVID-19 disease does not only affect the respiratory tract but also affects other parts of the body. A 23-year old male patient came to the emergency room suffering from acute abdominal pain and vomiting. The patient appeared to have a complicated course of infection with gastrointestinal manifestations and a perforated duodenal ulcer without any respiratory symptoms. Laboratory and radiographic investigations revealed positive results for COVID-19. The chest CT showed a ground-glass appearance. Accordingly, the patient was referred for an emergency laparotomy and was treated mainly for a perforated duodenal ulcer. Unfortunately, the patient died due to several complications. Patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms during this pandemic should be assessed for COVID-19 infection, even if respiratory symptoms are absent.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Úlcera Péptica Perfurada , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
6.
Saudi Med J ; 42(9): 1041-1044, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the digital radiology rejection rates and reasoning pre-COVID-19 (PC) and during COVID-19 (DC) from September 2019 to August 2020. METHODS: This record-base retrospective study where data were extracted from the radiography equipment (Carestream Health, Rochester, New York, USA) at the Department of Radiology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia over 12 months. The data were equally divided into PC and DC. RESULTS: The DC rejection rate decreased from PC by 2.6% with a significant p=0.00001. During COVID-19 there were 15,376 images of different body parts, versus 23,861 images during PC. Position errors were the main reasons for rejection for both PC (39.8%) and DC (42.7%), followed by technique errors (PC: 19.2%) (DC: 17.2%). CONCLUSION: Different sectors in hospitals were affected by COVID-19, including diagnostic radiology, in the positive direction. Thus, the DC rejection rate was markedly reduced compared with PC. This may be due to radiology technicians becoming more cautious in dealing with patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
7.
Saudi Med J ; 42(9): 969-974, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify ribosome protein L5 gene variants and the risk of hepatic vein thrombosis in Saudi patients. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted during the period of May 2018 to September 2019. Sixty-five patient cases of hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT) were chosen, and 50 healthy individuals of the same ages and both gender were set as a control group. The genotype of the gene RPL5 was determined by PCR please provide abbreviation in full and capillary electrophoresis. Sanger sequencing for genetically screened variants was applied for the RPL5 gene. RESULTS: Alleles A at variant rs182018447 and T allele at variant rs559377519 were strongly corelated (p=0.009 and p=0.037, respectively) with the risk of HVT. The genotype frequencies of the RPL5 gene, the A/A genotypes at rs182018447 and T/T at rs559377519 were associated with HVT (p=0.000 and p=0.004; respectively) and an increase in risk for HVT among these patients. Please rephrase the highlighted text without using the word respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the 5 genetic novel variants examined in the RPL5 gene were associated with a risk of HVT in all our Saudi cases. Additionally, the A/A at rs182018447 and T/T at rs559377519 genotypes were substantially susceptible to HVT in all these patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Budd-Chiari , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
8.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(8): 782-789, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486714

RESUMO

Background: Social media are increasingly being used by young adults worldwide. The question is whether they can be successfully incorporated into health programmes to promote physical activity. Aims: To measure the effect of a WhatsApp-based intervention for promoting physical activity among female college students in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This randomized controlled trial from November 2019 to January 2020 included 110 students. The intervention group received a brief orientation on exercise and up to 4 physical activity promotion messages per week via WhatsApp for 10 weeks. The messages were obtained from the websites of the US Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization (WHO). Physical activity was assessed at baseline and at 10-weeks' follow-up using the WHO Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: The 2 groups were similar in sociodemographic and baseline physical activity levels. Postintervention data analysis revealed significant improvement in the proportion of participants with moderate-intensity physical activity in the work and recreation domains. Compared with the control group, mean metabolic equivalents/week of the intervention group improved significantly. The mean difference in total physical activity before and after intervention was significant in all domains and in all categories of activity. The proportion of participants who met the WHO criteria for minimum physical activity per week increased from 69.8% to 90.5% after intervention. Conclusion: Social-network-based interventions improve physical activity and may be incorporated into youth-targeted health programmes.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17648, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480041

RESUMO

Ascorbic acid represents an appealing option for clinicians to utilize in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic due to its proposed clinical efficacy, relative safety, and low cost. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ascorbic acid in supplemental doses as adjunctive therapy for patients critically ill with COVID-19. This was a two-center, non-interventional, retrospective cohort study. All critically ill adult patients admitted to ICU with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis between March 1st and December 31st, 2020, were included in the final analysis. The study was conducted at two large governmental tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The purpose was to investigate the clinical outcomes of low-dose ascorbic acid as adjunctive therapy in COVID-19 after propensity score matching using baseline severity scores, systematic use of corticosteroids, and study centers. A number of 739 patients were included in this study, among whom 296 patients were included after propensity score matching. There was no association between the administration of ascorbic acid and in-hospital mortality or the 30-day mortality [OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.47, 1.23), p value = 0.27 and OR (95% CI) 0.73 (0.43, 1.20), p value = 0.21, respectively]. Using ascorbic acid was associated with a lower incidence of thrombosis compared with the non-ascorbic-acid group [6.1% vs. 13% respectively; OR (95% CI) 0.42 (0.184, 0.937), p value = 0.03]. Low dose of ascorbic acid as an adjunctive therapy in COVID-19 critically ill patients was not associated with mortality benefits, but it was associated with a lower incidence of thrombosis. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , COVID-19 , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 763, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are common worldwide. Several factors are suggested in their aetiology, one of which is ergonomics alongside other individual factors. This study aims at investigating the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among administrative office workers at a large university in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited office workers at a Saudi university. A questionnaire was used that involved three sections, the first section consisted of sociodemographic questions, the second included the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) checklist to assess ergonomic factors possibly involved, and the third included the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire to measure the outcome. Bi-variate analyses were performed by Chi-Squared tests and T-tests where appropriate, and a multivariable logistic regression was done to yield odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in any region during the past 12 months preceding the study was 84.5%, and only 30% have sought medical advice. The most common area of complaint was the lower back (54.5%). After adjustment, age and years of experience were positively associated with musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09 and OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.15). Normal weight was associated with a significant reduction in risk (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.05-0.18). ROSA score was an independent risk factor (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05-2.96). CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal symptoms were highly prevalent in the current sample. Identified predictors may support the need for interventions to reduce risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Estudos Transversais , Ergonomia , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 715982, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490196

RESUMO

Background: Adherence to novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appropriate behavior plays a crucial element in the management of the infections of COVID-19. Despite the importance of transmission-reducing behaviors among healthcare professionals, there is a lack of literature in this area of research explicitly relating to respiratory therapists (RTs). Therefore, it is essential to assess the adherence level to COVID-19 transmission-reducing behaviors among the RTs in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A web-based online survey was conducted using questions based on the risk assessment guidelines of WHO. A random representative sample of RTs (N = 215) residing in Saudi Arabia was recruited for the study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed using STATA software. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify key factors that are associated with adherence to COVID-19 appropriate behavior among the study participants. Results: Of the 215 participants, 59.5% were aged between 26 and 35 years, and 40.9% were women. Most (85.5%) participants had a bachelor's degree while 12.0% had a master's degree. About 56.2% of RTs provided direct care to a confirmed patient of COVID-19 during the study periods. The study showed 80.9% of RTs in Saudi Arabia adhered to personal protective equipment (PPE) at the workplace and 65.0% at home. Moreover, the findings of the study indicated that senior RTs (with >5 years of experience) demonstrated a higher adherence level to the guidelines than RTs with <5 years of experience. High-risk perception [aOR:2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-3.27], and work history of <5 years [aOR:2.00; 95% CI: 1.14-3.15], were found to be the strongest predictors in explaining the adherence to appropriate behavior among the RTs at the workplace. Whereas the high-risk perception [aOR:2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-3.27] and being married [aOR:1.85; 95% CI: 1.08-3.82] were found to be the strongest predictors at home. Conclusion: Adherence ("Always" or "Most times") to COVID-19 appropriate behavior was found to be high at hospital settings among the study participants. However, the same practice was found to be inconsistence in non-healthcare settings among the RTs. Considering the paramount role of COVID-19 appropriate behavior in reducing the transmissions the policy focus, therefore, needs to be on creating a well-spread behavior change communication that is curtailing the adoption of appropriate behavior in the non-healthcare settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are prevalent among university students in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on university students' mental health and sleep in Saudi Arabia. METHOD: A total of 582 undergraduate students from Saudi Arabia aged between 18 and 45 years old (M = 20.91, SD = 3.17) completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire measuring depression, anxiety, stress, resilience, and insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). Analysis included an independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Hierarchical regression analysis. RESULTS: Undergraduate students reported high levels of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress and low levels of resilience (p < 0.001) during the pandemic. In addition, students reported experiencing insomnia. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that lower resilience, high levels of insomnia, having a pre-existing mental health condition, and learning difficulties (such as dyslexia, dyspraxia, or dyscalculia) were significantly associated with high levels of depression and stress. In addition, lower resilience, a high level of insomnia, and pre-existing mental health conditions were significantly associated with high levels of anxiety. Finally, a lower level of psychological resilience and a high level of insomnia were significantly associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety and stress within university students. CONCLUSION: This study has provided evidence that a lower level of psychological resilience and insomnia were associated with mental health problems among undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia, thus enhancing psychological resilience and interventions to support sleep and mental health are vital to support student well-being outcomes throughout the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Sono , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050901, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446498

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory infection caused by the MERS-CoV. MERS was first reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Every year, the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca attracts more than two million pilgrims from 184 countries, making it one of the largest annual religious mass gatherings (MGs) worldwide. MGs in confined areas with a high number of pilgrims' movements worldwide continues to elicit significant global public health concerns. MERCURIAL was designed by adopting a seroconversion surveillance approach to provide multiyear evidence of MG-associated MERS-CoV seroconversion among the Malaysian Hajj pilgrims. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MERCURIAL is an ongoing multiyear prospective cohort study. Every year, for the next 5 years, a cohort of 1000 Hajj pilgrims was enrolled beginning in the 2016 Hajj pilgrimage season. Pre-Hajj and post-Hajj serum samples were obtained and serologically analysed for evidence of MERS-CoV seroconversion. Sociodemographic data, underlying medical conditions, symptoms experienced during Hajj pilgrimage, and exposure to camel and untreated camel products were recorded using structured pre-Hajj and post-Hajj questionnaires. The possible risk factors associated with the seroconversion data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The primary outcome of this study is to better enhance our understanding of the potential threat of MERS-CoV spreading through MG beyond the Middle East. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has obtained ethical approval from the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia. Results from the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented in conferences and scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NMRR-15-1640-25391.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Islamismo , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Viagem
14.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108208, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies suggest that persons with seizure disorders are socially disadvantaged compared to the general population. There are scarce reports in the literature on the prevalence of employment and occupational safety among patients with seizure disorders in Saudi Arabia. We aimed to describe the occupational statuses of patients with seizure disorders and determine factors associated with unemployment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Five-hundred-and-forty patients with known seizure disorders or epilepsy who attended neurology and neurosurgery outpatient clinics between January and November 2018 completed a semi-structured questionnaire delivered by interview. RESULTS: Forty-four percent of participants were unemployed (27% of males and 64% of females). Fifteen percent of currently or previously employed participants reported that they had formerly resigned from their job due to their seizure disorder, most commonly as a result of their own fears or concerns. Almost half of the participants reported that their employer made arrangements in the workplace for their seizure disorder, while 18% reported that they did not disclose their diagnosis. Gender, age, and highest educational level were associated with employment status and reason for unemployment. Patients with seizures secondary to trauma were less than half as likely to be employed compared to other participants (aOR = 0.45 95%CI 0.21-0.97, p = 0.042). Holding a driving license increased the odds of being employed (aOR = 2.68 95%CI 1.32-5.46, p = 0.007). Participants on 4 or more antiepileptic medications were more likely to report not being well enough to work. SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with seizure disorders are at increased risk of unemployment, even though many desire work. Unemployment is linked to social factors rather than disease-specific characteristics. Employers in Saudi Arabia generally accommodate patients in the workplace; however, individuals should further be empowered with information on safety in the workplace and their rights to employment.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
15.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211040359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common worldwide. Recommendations to reduce discomfort often commence with increasing physical activity levels. In Saudi Arabia, levels of physical activity prior to the COVID-19 pandemic were low. This cross-sectional study aims at estimating the prevalence of MSDs among Saudi physicians, as well as determining the pattern and level of physical activity post lockdown and examining their association. METHODS: Physical activity levels were assessed via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and MSDs were assessed via the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Chi-squared tests with significance levels of <.05 were performed to explore bivariate associations. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were given by binary logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 3492 physicians participated in this study, and over half of them (63.55%) reported low physical activity. Risk of MSDs increased with aging and with increasing BMI (P for trend <.05). Females were more likely to report MSDs (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.07-1.86), as well as physicians with a chronic condition (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.24-1.37) and those who work in shifts (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37). Moderate activity conferred a non-significant protective effect (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.79-1.13), whilst high physical activity had a non-significant increased risk of MSDs in this population. CONCLUSION: Physical activity in this population is astonishingly low, while prevalence of MSDs is relatively high. Significant factors include age, sex, shift work, and the presence of chronic conditions. Current results warrant the consideration of preventive measures for physicians.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Médicos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 443, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, most of educational institutions have moved to online electronic learning methods because of the COVID-19 pandemic. On March 8, 2020, the Saudi Ministry of Education announced remote learning for public and private schools and universities as a preventive and precautionary measure to curb the spread of the coronavirus. The objective of this study was to explore the e-learning experience of the students of the colleges of health sciences with regard to the technical preparedness, academic achievements, e-learning advantages and limitations. A well-structured and validated questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale and open-ended questions about their e-learning experience was distributed to a heterogeneous purposive sample of the health sciences students in Saudi Arabian universities. RESULTS: Of the 1288 respondents, of various demographical features a relatively higher proportion of 58.2 % agreed that they had enough information about the online learning. However, the proportion who reported receiving adequate guidance, technical support, and having satisfactory hardware and internet access to online learning were 48.1 %, 42, and 35.4 %, respectively. Of all participants, 40.8 % agreed that they had gained a good understanding of their courses learning outcomes. Only 30.0 % agreed that the quality of the online teaching was similar to traditional classes and 56.1 % agreed that the online learning is unsuitable for the medical sciences studies. E-learning advantages mentioned were the flexible accessibility of the learning materials, time, effort, and money saving, acquiring and improving technical and self-learning skills, health safety, interaction without shyness, and better academic accomplishment. On the other hand, disadvantages and difficulties included inadequate tools to facilitate online learning, poor internet connection, lack of technological skills by the educators and students. In addition, there was inadequate or lack of practical classes, lack of a unified clear policy for the conduct of online classes and exams and grade distribution, limited online exam time. CONCLUSIONS: The sudden shift to e-learning without prior preparedness has revealed some pitfalls that need to be adjusted. The initial findings were considered satisfactory for such a new experience for both learners and students. However, there is a great chance for improving and expanding the e-learning process.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Universidades
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16769, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408245

RESUMO

Handwashing (HW) with water and soap is one of the cheapest and most effective ways of protecting oneself and others against the coronavirus. Here, the HW knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Saudi adults were assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic using a cross-sectional study conducted between May 8 and June 8, 2020, during a partial lockdown period. A web-based validated questionnaire was distributed through different social media platforms, and the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, seven items related to knowledge, four items related to attitudes, and thirteen items related to the practice of HW were assessed. A total of 1323 (51% male and 49% female) adults from all regions of Saudi Arabia responded to the questionnaire. The overall mean (± SD) was 5.13 (± 1.18) for knowledge of HW and COVID-19, 2.79 (± 0.77) for attitude toward HW, and 7.8 (± 2.56) for HW practice. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed factors associated with knowledge to be age and family income. Sex, educational level, family income, and HW knowledge were associated with negative and neutral attitude, whereas age, sex, family income, and HW knowledge were associated with practice. These results suggest that HW knowledge was strongly associated with positive attitudes toward HW and correct HW practice in Saudi adults during the COVID-19 lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 33(1): 21, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is lymphoid neoplasm usually affecting lymphatic system; it accounts 3.6% of cancers in Saudi Arabia. Modern treatment protocols had shown particular success rates in overall-survival (OS) and event-free-survival (EFS). In our study, we reviewed the medical records of 80 pediatric and young adolescent patients diagnosed HL from January 2006 to July 2020, treated at tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic, clinical, and pathological data were explored. First line therapy was ABVD, COG, COPP, R-CHOP, or radiotherapy alone in 53/80 (66.4%), 24/80 (30%), 1/80 (1.2%), 1/80 (1.2%), or 1/80 (1.2%) patients; respectively. Response assessment was done by CT + / - PET scan after first 2 cycles then every 2 cycle and end of therapy. Another assessment was done if any clinical suspicion of recurrence. RESULTS: Median age 11 (range 3-16) years. Males to females 1.3:1. Seventy-two out of eighty (90%) patients showed first complete remission (CR1) and maintained remission for median 40 (range 7-136) months. Eight out of eighty (10%) patients showed refractory disease. Nineteen patients received salvage therapy (ICE or ESHAP/brentuximab vedotin or gemcitabine/brentuximab vedotin), 14/19 (73.7%) had 2nd complete remission (CR2) for median time 24 (ranged 9-78) months, while 5/19 (26.3%) did not show any response. Five-year OS and EFS were 95% and 75%. Two patients had 2ry malignant neoplasms, one had AML and died, the other had malignant fibrous histocytoma and still alive. None of our patients had fertility problem. Also, they did not experience chronic pulmonary or cardiotoxicity. Classic Hodgkin's lymphoma: nodular sclerosis subtype was more prominent (55%) than mixed cellularity subtype (22.5%), which is similar to several European and US studies, lymphocyte rich (11.25%) and lymphocyte depleted (0%), while nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (11.25%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided unique descriptive study of childhood HL, in Saudi Arabia, with valuable insight into the long-term outcome and late toxicity. Our results are comparable to other studies in the Middle East and European countries.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bleomicina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Vimblastina/uso terapêutico
19.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(8): 1109-1116, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397017

RESUMO

It is the most common and best-known chromosomal disorder in humans. Its incidence in Saudi Arabia is reported to be 1 in 554 live births. and the scientific evidence on the experience of dental caries (Dental Caries) in DS population is non-conclusive. The aim of this systematic review was to report on the Dental Caries experience among DS population in Saudi Arabia. The electronic databases were searched for scientific research articles published from January 2000 to July 2020. The data search was performed in the electronic search engines like PubMed, Google scholar, Scopus, Web of science, Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Saudi Digital Library. Eight studies which met the eligibility criteria were further analyzed. The qualitative and quantative data were included in the analysis. The sample size of the study population in the included studies varied from 36 to 224 participants and their age ranged from 3 years to 40 years. In this systematic review we found that five studies have reported a higher prevalence of Dental Caries among the DS population. Three studies reported that there was no difference in the Dental Caries prevalence among the DS population when compared to those without DS. The findings of these studies emphasizes the need to prioritize preventive and curative programs for this special care group. Oral health education programs should focus on targeting the DS population as well as their caretakers in order to help them in achieving better quality of life.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Síndrome de Down , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Qualidade de Vida , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
20.
Saudi Med J ; 42(8): 853-861, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after pandemic's peak and before the vaccine enrollment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and further explore predictors for SARS-CoV-2 positivity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 515 blood donors from November 22 to December 17, 2020 was conducted at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to look at SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) positivity. The participants were asked questions about their demographic characteristics, past SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms and exposures. RESULTS: The seroprevalence in our study was 12.2% (n=63/515). Being a non-citizen was associated with significantly higher seroprevalence (OR 2.10, p=0.02). Participants with history of SARS-CoV-2 exposure or symptoms regardless of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis had higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity compared to unexposed or asymptomatic participants (OR 2.47, p=0.0008 or 11.19, p=0.0001, respectively). Blood donors who had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 IgG infection had a higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity rate (OR 5.04, p=0.008) and index value (p=0.003) than the asymptomatic. Of all the reported symptoms, cough (p=0.004) and anosmia (p=0.002) were significant predictors of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the blood donors in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is considerably lower than the percentages necessary for herd immunity. Developing SARS-CoV-2-symptoms is the critical factor for higher seropositivity after SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doadores de Sangue , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
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