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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036287

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine on low back pain (LBP) intensity, prevalence, and associated risk factors among adults in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). A total of 463 adults (259 males and 204 females) aged between 18 and 64 years and residing in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire composed of 20 questions regarding demographic characteristics, work- and academic-related aspects, physical activity (PA), daily habits and tasks, and pain-related aspects was used. The LBP point prevalence before the quarantine was 38.8%, and 43.8% after the quarantine. The LBP intensity significantly increased during the quarantine. The low back was also the most common musculoskeletal pain area. Furthermore, during the quarantine, a significantly higher LBP intensity was reported by those individuals who (a) were aged between 35 and 49 years old, (b) had a body mass index equal to or exceeding 30, (c) underwent higher levels of stress, (d) did not comply with the ergonomic recommendations, (e) were sitting for long periods, (f) did not practice enough physical activity (PA), and (g) underwent teleworking or distance learning. No significant differences were found between genders. The COVID-19 quarantine resulted in a significant increase in LBP intensity, point prevalence, and most associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 686-690, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025940

RESUMO

AIM: To study the prevalence of different malocclusion traits in Najran in Saudi adolescents and adults seeking orthodontic treatment in Najran in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifty male patients in the age group of 12-35 years who visited faculty of dentistry in Najran University for orthodontic treatment were examined and were divided into two age groups, adolescents and adults. The patients were examined and classified into Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions. They were also examined for overjet, overbite, open bite, crossbite, scissor's bite, crowding, and spacing. RESULTS: The prevalence of Angle's malocclusion Classes I, II, and III was 52.8%, 31.6%, and 15.6%, respectively. The most common anomaly was moderate overbite followed by lateral open bite. Posterior crossbite was found to be more prevalent than anterior crossbite. CONCLUSION: Angle's Class I malocclusion was most prevalent type, followed by Class II, and then Class III. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study can be used to formulate an appropriate preventive and orthodontic treatment measures pertaining to the population of adolescent and adult Saudi males.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Mordida Aberta , Sobremordida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Perit Dial Int ; 40(5): 496-498, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998645

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease that increased the burden on health-care system. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 74,795 cases have been reported until 26 May 2020 and the number of cases is rapidly increasing. The mortality rate of COVID-19 worldwide is 6.37%. Here we report three cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to pneumonia of severe COVID-19; they were treated with automated peritoneal dialysis (PD) with full recovery. To the best of our knowledge, few reports in the literature have discussed the use of PD in AKI secondary to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Amostragem , Arábia Saudita , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Saudi Med J ; 41(10): 1090-1097, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the risk factors for hospital admission among COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between May 2020 and July 2020. Out of 7,260 COVID-19 patients, 920 were identified as T2DM. After the exclusion process, 806 patients with T2DM were included in this analysis. Patients' data were extracted from electronic medical records. A logistic regression model was performed to estimate the risk factors of hospital admission. Results: Of the total of 806 COVID-19 patients with T2DM, 48% were admitted in the hospital, 52% were placed under home isolation. Older age between 70-79 years (OR [odd ratio] 2.56; p=0.017), ≥80 years (OR 6.48; p=0.001) were significantly more likely to be hospitalized compared to less than 40 years. Similarly, patients with higher HbA1c level of ≥9% compared to less than 7%; (OR 1.58; p=0.047); patients with comorbidities such as, hypertension (OR 1.43; p=0.048), cardiovascular disease (OR 1.56; p=0.033), cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.38; p=0.016), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.51; p=0.018), malignancy (OR 2.45; p=0.025), chronic kidney disease (CKD) IIIa, IIIb, IV (OR 2.37; p=0.008), CKD V (OR 5.07; p=0.007) were significantly more likely to be hospitalized. Likewise, insulin-treated (OR 1.46; p=0.03) were more likely to require hospital admission compared to non-insulin treated patients. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients with diabetes, higher age, high HbA1c level, and presence of other comorbidities were found to be significant risk factors for the hospital admission.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4830(2): zootaxa.4830.2.2, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056151

RESUMO

New species and a new sex association are proposed in the genera Gynecaptera Skorikov, 1935 and Macroocula Panfilov, 1954 (Bradynobaenidae, Apterogyninae). Two new species from Al-Madina region (Saudi Arabia), G. albicrus sp. nov. and M. madinaensis sp. nov., are described, illustrated and compared with the closest species. The previously unknown female of M. sinaica (Invrea, 1963) is described and illustrated for the first time.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Feminino , Arábia Saudita
6.
Zootaxa ; 4855(1): zootaxa.4855.1.1, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056354

RESUMO

Despite the species richness of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) world-wide (about 6,200 species) and their role as agents for controlling plant pests, their significance as pollinators, and as bioindicators of site quality, hoverfly fauna of Saudi Arabia is poorly known. In exploring the biodiversity of Diptera in southwest Saudi Arabia a survey of the hoverfly fauna of Jazan, Asir, Najran and Al-Baha was performed mainly using Malaise traps, sweep nets and light traps from 2011 to 2014. Forty known species of Syrphidae were identified and recorded in this study, 19 of them new to Saudi Arabia. This makes the total number of Syrphidae species recorded in Saudi Arabia (including one species recorded by others) is 41. In addition, three taxa belonging to the genera Eumerus Meigen, Orthonevra Macquart, and Paragus Latreille that could not be identified safely to species level because there were no adequate identification keys or males were missing in the collected material. A key to the genera of Syrphidae occurring in Saudi Arabia is provided. The fauna of Syrphidae recorded in this study consists much more of Afrotropical zoogeographical elements than Palaearctic ones. A complete checklist of Syrphidae of Saudi Arabia is provided. Biological data, where known, and world-wide distribution of the studied taxa are provided. This paper is published with the purpose of assisting biogeographical, biological or ecological studies on syrphids in Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Biodiversidade , Masculino , Plantas , Arábia Saudita
7.
Zootaxa ; 4791(1): zootaxa.4791.1.1, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056688

RESUMO

Chloropidae are of major economic importance, since the larvae of some species are pests of cereals and grasses, some are parasitoids and predators, and adults of some Hippelates spp. visit and transmit or are suspected of transmitting yaws sores in man and animals and by feeding around the eyes are vectors of Brazilian Purpuric Fever. Within the framework of the exploration of the biodiversity of Diptera in Southwest Saudi Arabia a survey of the grass flies fauna in 18 sites in Jazan, Asir, and Najran in south-western Saudi Arabia was performed mainly using Malaise traps and sweep nets from 2010- to 2016. Sixty six species of 43 genera and three subfamilies of Chloropidae were identified and are recorded from Saudi Arabia, 20 of them for the first time and three are described as new species: Elachiptera arabica Deeming sp. n.; Kwarea ismayi Deeming sp.n. and Tricimba turneri Deeming sp.n.. This makes the total number of Chloropidae species in Saudi Arabia 95 (including 29 species previously recorded). Seventy images are presented. The species of Chloropidae listed are predominantly of Afrotropical/ Palaearctic origin. An updated checklist of Chloropidae species of Saudi Arabia is presented.This study adds new records of Chloropidae to the Saudi Arabian Diptera fauna, which will become reference points for research detailing the systematic geographic distribution and for identifying other specimens submitted for identification. Further species will undoubtedly be discovered with more research involving collecting and rearing methods.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Biodiversidade , Larva , Poaceae , Arábia Saudita
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1207-1214, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913158

RESUMO

Aims: Our study aimed to assess the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) changes during the initial stage of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy and determined the impact of various orthodontic therapy needs on the OHRQoL of Saudi patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients aged 14-24 years (69% females) were recruited from the orthodontic clinics. OHRQoL was quantified by a self-administered short version of oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire used before treatment (T0) and following bonding of fixed appliance on days 1 (T1), 7 (T2), 14 (T3), and 30 (T4). The higher the OHIP-14 score, the poorer the OHRQoL. The dental health component (DHC) of the index of orthodontic treatment needs (IOTN) was used to assess malocclusion severity. The missing, overjet, crossbite, displacement, overbite (MOCDO) hierarchical scale was used to categorize the most severe feature in each patient and determine the grade of orthodontic treatment need. Changes of OHRQoL over time were compared using the Friedman test. Result: Overall OHIP-14 score significantly increased following orthodontic appliance bonding at T1 and T2 compared to T0 (P < 0.001). The functional limitation domains in OHIP-14 pain and discomfort, physical disability, psychological disability, and psychological discomfort were affected at T1 compared to T0 (P < 0.05). Grade 4 IOTN-DHC (definite treatment needs) significantly influenced most OHIP-14 domains compared to other grades. Conclusion: With the growing therapeutic and cosmetic demands of orthodontic treatment and the focus on OHRQoL, the study findings can be used to enhance patients' cooperation, expectation, and adherence to orthodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão/terapia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índice de Necessidade de Tratamento Ortodôntico , Masculino , Dor , Arábia Saudita , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 79-85, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the psychological impact and mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, and insomnia during COVID-19 crisis among ophthalmologists. METHODS: This was a simple random study in which ophthalmologists practicing in Saudi Arabia were asked to fill in a self-administered online survey during the period from March 28, 2020, to April 04, 2020. Four validated psychiatric assessment tools were used to detect symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and stress perception. RESULTS: One hundred and seven participants successfully completed the survey with a response rate of 30.6%. Males constituted 56.1% (n = 60). Ophthalmology residents constituted the majority (n = 66, 61.7%). About half of the physicians exhibited symptoms of depression (n = 56, 50.5%), anxiety (n = 50, 46.7%), and insomnia (n = 48, 44.9%). Symptoms of stress ranged between low (28%), moderate (68.2%), and high (3.7%). According to the cutoff values for severe symptoms, 29% were identified as having depression, 38.3% had anxiety, and 15% had insomnia.Depression was found to be more common among female ophthalmologists (P = 0.06), those living with an elderly (P = 0.003), and fellows (P = 0.006). Female ophthalmologists suffering from anxiety were significantly more than male ophthalmologists (P = 0.046). There was a trend toward suffering from anxiety in frontline health-care providers (P = 0.139) and in ophthalmologists who are living with an elderly (P = 0.149). Female participants exhibited significantly more moderate-to-high symptoms of stress (P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists' psychological needs, females in particular, should be addressed appropriately during the COVID-19 pandemic. Establishing psychological support units, especially for high-risk individuals, should be considered to minimize psychological adverse effects.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Oftalmologistas/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Oftalmologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Saudi government has taken the decision to prevent the entrance of about 2.5 million international pilgrims seeking to perform hajj in order to protect the world from a catastrophic widespread of disease. Moreover, health systems in Saudi Arabia are offering free testing for residents whether Saudi and non-Saudi. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the spread of COVID-19 associated with preventive measures taken in Saudi Arabia and to develop a detailed COVID-19 prevention strategy as a framework for the Saudi Arabia community. METHODOLOGY: Population size and age distributions among the country of Saudi Arabia were taken from the 2020 World Population Prospects. Contact patterns were measured using the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health Statistical Annual Report. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that performing screening tests as early as possible to facilitate the rapid detection of infected cases, fast treatment, and instant isolation for suspected cases is the most definitive rejoinder for public health. Moreover, our study revealed the significance of performing preventive measures in reducing infection and death rates around Saudi Arabia by 27%, while in other countries, it reduced the death rate ranging from 10-73%. This study provides an achievable strategy for prevention and early detection of COVID-19 spread.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Islamismo , Quarentena , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
13.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(3): 214-221, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) reported 170,639 cases and 1430 deaths from COVID-19 since the first case emerged in the country on March 2 through June 25, 2020. The objective of this report is to describe the characteristics and outcome observed among 99 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the largest academic hospital in KSA, and assess co-infection with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). METHODS: This single-center case series data included select epidemiological, clinical, radiological features and laboratory findings of all confirmed hospitalized cases of COVID-19 in King Saud University Medical City (KSUMC), Riyadh, KSA, from March 22 until May 31, 2020, followed through June 6, 2020. We conducted retrospective analysis of listed data from 99 hospitalized patients and present characteristics and factors associated with severity in percentages and univariate odds ratios. Cases were confirmed using nasopharyngeal or throat swab by real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and MERS-CoV by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The 99 hospitalized COVID-19 patients included in this analysis constitute 16% of 632 positive SARS-CoV-2 among 6633 persons who were tested at the KSUMC (positivity rate, 9.4%). MERS-CoV PCR was negative in all 99 patients tested. The majority of these 99 hospitalized patients were males (66%), had a mean age of 44 years (range, 19-87), and a quarter (25.3%) were health care workers. Patients with comorbid conditions accounted for 52.5% of patients including the 8.1% who were asymptomatic; diabetes mellitus being the most frequent (31.3%), followed by hypertension (22.2%). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (67.7%), cough (60.6%), dyspnea (43.4%), upper respiratory symptoms (27.3%), fatigue (26.3%), diarrhea (19.2%) and loss of smell (9.1%). The clinical conditions among these 99 patients included upper respiratory tract infection (47.5%), abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers a fifth (21%) of patients had moderate pneumonia, while 7% had severe pneumonia with 22.2% requiring admission to the intensive care unit and 12.1% died. Late presentation with severe disease, an abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin), and end organ damage (high creatinine or high aspartate aminotransferase) were predictors for admission to critical care unit or died. CONCLUSION: We observed no MERS-CoV co-infection in this early cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were relatively young, more than half had comorbid conditions, presented with fever and/or cough, an abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, and high inflammatory markers. Given MERS-CoV endemicity in the country, co-monitoring of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection is critical.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987773

RESUMO

Emotional eating (EE) is prevalent among women and is associated with obesity. The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and mandatory quarantine increased the risk of mental symptoms and, inferentially, emotional eating (EE). We investigated the EE prevalence and predictors during this pandemic. Overall, 638 women, ages 18-39, completed an online survey incorporating the Emotional Eating Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. We asked about nutrition and collected data on weight, height, and pandemic responses. Most respondents (47.2%) reported low EE; 40.4% were "moderate" and 12.4% "high" emotional eaters; 42.8% reported depression, 27% anxiety, 71% moderate stress, and 12.5% severe stress. The main EE indicators/predictors were fat intake (ß = 0.192, p = 0.004), number of meals (ß = 0.187, p < 0.001), sugar consumption (ß = 0.150, p < 0.001), body mass index (ß = 0.149, p < 0.001), stress (ß = 0.143, p = 0.004), energy intake (ß = 0.134, p = 0.04), and fast food intake frequency (ß = 0.111, p < 0.01). EE score correlated negatively with increased family income (ß = -0.081, p = 0.049). Higher stress correlated with worse sleep, less sleep, and less physical activity. Emotional eating is common among young Saudi women during the pandemic. We recommend healthy food choices and increased physical activity to improve sleep and mitigate stress.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Saudi Med ; 40(5): 365-372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954790

RESUMO

Evidence of cardiovascular complications associated with the COVID-19 global pandemic continues to evolve. These include direct and indirect myocardial injury with subsequent acute myocardial ischemia, and cardiac arrhythmia. Some results from a limited number of trials of antiviral medications, along with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, have been beneficial. However, these pharmacotherapies may cause drug-induced QT prolongation leading to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Mitigation of the potential risk in these susceptible patients may prove exceptionally challenging. The Saudi Heart Rhythm Society established a task force to perform a review of this subject based on has recently published reports, and studies and recommendations from major medical organizations. The objective of this review is to identify high-risk patients, and to set clear guidelines for management of patients receiving these pharmacotherapies.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Comitês Consultivos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Arábia Saudita , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Torsades de Pointes/diagnóstico
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 719, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) face considerable mental and physical stress caring for patients with Covid-19. They are at higher risk of acquiring and transmitting this virus. This study aims to assess perception and attitude of HCWs in Saudi Arabia with regard to Covid-19, and to identify potential associated predictors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, HCWs at three tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia were surveyed via email with an anonymous link, by a concern scale about Covid-19 pandemic during 15-30 April, 2020. Concerns of disease severity, governmental efforts to contain it and disease outcomes were assessed using 32 concern statements in five distinct domains. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of high concern scores. RESULTS: A total of 844 HCW responded to the survey. Their average age was 40.4 ± 9.5 years, 40.3% were nurses, 58.2% had direct patient contact, and 77.3% were living with others. The majority of participants (72.1%) had overall concern scores of 55 or less out of a maximum score of 96 points, with an overall mean score of 48.5 ± 12.8 reflecting moderate level of concern. Three-fourth of respondents felt at risk of contracting Covid-19 infection at work, 69.1% felt threatened if a colleague contracted Covid-19, 69.9% felt obliged to care for patients infected with Covid-19 while 27.7% did not feel safe at work using the standard precautions available. Nearly all HCWs believed that the government should isolate patients with Covid-19 in specialized hospitals (92.9%), agreed with travel restriction to and/or from areas affected by Covid-19 (94.7%) and felt safe the government implemented curfew and movement restriction periods (93.6%). Predictors of high concern scores were; HCWs of Saudi nationality (p < 0.001), younger age (p = 0.003), undergraduate education (p = 0.044), living with others (p = 0.003) working in the western region (p = 0.003) and direct contact with patients (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the high concern among HCWs about Covid-19 and identifies the predictors of those with highest concern levels. To minimize the potential negative impact of those concerns on the performance of HCWs during pandemics, measures are necessary to enhance their protection and to minimize the psychological effect of the perceived risk of infection.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Centros de Atenção Terciária
17.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(10): 533-538, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925664

RESUMO

There is a growing interest outside the United States in obtaining Magnet accreditation. King Fahad Specialist Hospital-Dammam became the 1st Ministry of Health hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to be recognized as a Magnet-accredited institution. Understanding the return on investment of Magnet accreditation is important and speaks to the value of Magnet for international hospitals. Data from a peer hospital will aid nurse executives when presenting the business case for Magnet accreditation.


Assuntos
Acreditação , Administração Hospitalar , Internacionalidade , Humanos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Segurança do Paciente , Arábia Saudita , Estados Unidos
18.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1583-1587, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947759

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the impact of the coronavirus disease lockdown on diabetes patients living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in terms of their compliance with medication intake and lifestyle habits, and quality of life. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, qualitative prospective study, a questionnaire was administered over the telephone to diabetes patients who had attended National Guard primary care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The survey included questions on demographic data, type of diabetes, medications used, comorbidities, medication compliance, and daily habits before and after the lockdown, and those assessing patients' psychological parameters during the past month by using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Data analysis was performed using SPSS program version 26. RESULTS: Totally, 394 patients participated. All of them had type 2 diabetes, and 37.6% had only one comorbidity. Antidiabetic monotherapy was used in 76.4% of the patients, while combination therapy was used in 23.6%. The compliance score before the lockdown was significantly higher (18.49 ± 3.05) than that after it (17.40 ± 3.25) (p-value <0.001). The average psychological assessment score was 9.78 ± 4.14 (range 8-35). Male participants and smokers had a significantly better psychological status than female participants (p-value = 0.002) and non-smokers (p value < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The patients' levels of compliance with medications and healthy lifestyle habits were significantly reduced after the lockdown. These findings highlight the need for healthcare professionals to encourage diabetes patients to adhere to healthy lifestyle habits and use telemedicine during lockdowns to ensure optimal blood glucose control and reduce the incidence of complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21463, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898995

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic condition caused by the accumulation of fat in the liver. NAFLD may range from simple steatosis to advanced cirrhosis, and affects more than 1 billion people around the world. To date, there has been no effective treatment for NAFLD. In this study, we evaluated the expression of 4 candidate NAFLD biomarkers to assess their possible applicability in the classification and treatment of the disease.Twenty-six obese subjects, who underwent bariatric surgery, were recruited and their liver biopsies obtained. Expression of 4 candidate biomarker genes, PNPLA3, COL1A1, PPP1R3B, and KLF6 were evaluated at gene and protein levels by RT-qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively.A significant increase in the levels of COL1A1 protein (P = .03) and PNPLA3 protein (P = .03) were observed in patients with fibrosis-stage NAFLD compared to that in patients with steatosis-stage NAFLD. However, no significant differences were found in abundance of PPP1R3B and KLF6 proteins or at the gene level for any of the candidate.This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report on the expression levels of candidate biomarker genes for NAFLD in the Saudi population. Although PNPLA3 and PPP1R3B had been previously suggested as biomarkers for steatosis and KLF6 as a possible marker for the fibrosis stage of NAFLD, our results did not support these findings. However, other studies that had linked PNPLA3 to fibrosis in advanced NAFLD supported our current finding of high PNPLA3 protein in patients with fibrosis. Additionally, our results support COL1A1 protein as a potential biomarker for the fibrosis stage of NAFLD, and indicate its use in the screening of patients with NAFLD. Further studies are required to validate the use of COL1A1 as a biomarker for advanced NAFLD in a larger cohort.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colágenos Fibrilares , Lipase , Proteínas de Membrana , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/classificação , Obesidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
20.
Work ; 66(4): 767-775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention is the best way to manage a pandemic like COVID-19. The World Health Organization has issued public advice to create awareness by providing people knowledge to prevent/protect them from COVID-19. Hence, the present study was planned to assess knowledge of prevention and its practical use amongst samples from the Saudi Arabian population. It can be used to bring awareness among the masses not only in expanding their knowledge about COVID-19 but also on how to enforce a practicing behavior in relation to the prevention of COVID-19. The study is among the pioneer studies on the issue related to knowledge and practice of the prevention of COVID-19 among Saudis and foreign nationals residing in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: The prime objective of this study is to examine the existence of knowledge among the Saudi and non-Saudi nationals about COVID-19 and its impact on their behavior to practice the protocols to prevent the disastrous infection of COVID-19. This study has also examined how the residents in Saudi Arabia react to the methods and protection measures adopted by the government for their dominions to eradicate the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: The study used a survey-based methodology and data was collected from Saudi nationals as well as expatriates living and working in five different regions of Saudi Arabia. Non-probability snowball sampling was used to reach and select the population of the current study. A self-designed, structured, and validated questionnaire was electronically distributed among the respondents. SPSS version 21 was used to analyze the data of the current study. RESULTS: Out of the 443 respondents, 356 respondents (84%) knew they had to wash their hands for 20 seconds and did this as well, 303 respondents (75%) knew that sneezing or coughing into the arm/elbow can prevent the spread of COVID-19 and were doing this as well, 357 respondents (82%) knew that COVID-19 can be transferred by shaking hands and avoided this, 333 respondents (79%) knew that they had to maintain a safe distance of at least one meter and kept this distance, 315 respondents (76%) knew that touching one's face can transfer the virus and avoid this, and 414 respondents (95%) knew that staying at home can decrease the chances of getting infected. The relationship between different regions and most of the knowledge-based and practice-based questions was significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results reveal that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and practice, but the strength of association is weak. It was found that knowledge and practice of COVID-19 was followed differently in the five regions of Saudi Arabia and the level of education of the respondents influenced their choice of practice to protect themselves from the effects of COVID-19. The study has contributed in the body of literature by examining the inter-relationship between knowledge and practice and their use in prevention of COVID-19 among the Saudi population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Distância Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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