Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.271
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) among the health care workers in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 among the health care workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May till mid-July among 389 health care workers from government and private hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a pre-structured online questionnaire that measured adverse psychological outcomes, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. The Pearson chi-square test was used to assess the distribution of depression and anxiety among health care workers. RESULTS: A high level of anxiety was recorded among the health care workers, and 69.3% of health care workers below the age of 40 were found to have depression. There was a significant increase in depression among staff with chronic health problems (72.1% vs. 61.9%; p = 0.048). High anxiety levels were detected among young staff compared to others (68.7% vs. 43.8%; p = 0.001). Moreover, 82.1% of the female staff were anxious, as compared to 55.6% of the males (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found increased prevalence of adverse psychological outcomes among the health care workers in Saudi Arabia during the outbreak of COVID-19. Therefore, there is a need for proper screening and development of corresponding preventive measures to decrease the adverse psychological outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203424

RESUMO

This article focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on smoking and smoking cessation behaviours and support for smoke-free zones in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested structured survey was distributed by email in October-November 2020 to students and staff at the University of Jeddah. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics with summative content analysis of open text. Participants providing open text comments (n = 374/666; 56.4%) were non-smokers (n = 293; 78.3%), former smokers (n = 26; 7.0%) and current smokers (n = 55; 14.7%). Some had household members (n = 220; 58.8%) and friends who smoke (n = 198; 52.9%) plus daily exposure to secondhand smoke at home (n = 125; 33.4%). There was an awareness during COVID-19 of: smoking inside cafes/restaurants and other indoor and outdoor public places; exposure to warnings in the media both against and promoting smoking; widespread support for smoke-free zones. Smokers plans for accessing smoking cessation support are inconsistent with retrospective reports. Many express positivity highlighting reductions in smoking but there were also negative reports of increased smoking. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every aspect of society worldwide. People have been at home more with restricted freedom of movement and limitations on social liberty. These individual accounts can help to focus evidence-based smoking prevention and cessation programmes during and post-COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204093

RESUMO

Since the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused a global pandemic, the amount of misinformation in various media outlets has been on the rise. This has caused confusion among both healthcare workers and the general population about what the proper precautions against COVID-19 are. This study investigated attitudes towards misinformation related to protective measures that can be taken against COVID-19. The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia using an online survey questionnaire during the first three months of lockdown responding to the pandemic. The sample size of the study was N = 1294, of which 275 were healthcare workers and 974 were non-healthcare workers. The findings indicate that the Saudi Arabian population has a "Neutral" attitude towards COVID-19-related misinformation, meaning that, overall, they neither agree nor disagree with the most common COVID-19-related misinformation. Both healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers displayed a "Neutral" attitude towards herbal remedies for COVID-19. The level of agreement regarding the SARS-CoV-2 virus remaining in the throat for two days and the BCG vaccine protecting against COVID-19 was low. The findings of this research imply that knowledge dissemination is severely lacking in Saudi Arabia and that the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia should sincerely consider educating healthcare workers better about verified and true information regarding COVID-19. Conclusion: Future research should include larger sample sizes for each of the healthcare specialties surveyed in this study and analyse their attitudes towards COVID-19 misinformation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a major public health problem around the world. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the awareness and prevalence of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) with regard to COVID-19 among the Hail community, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to help health authorities to effectively control the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 412 participants living in Hail, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire assessed demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices for the prevention of COVID-19, as well as psychological feelings in terms of GAD as an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The study found that most of the respondents demonstrated good knowledge, attitudes, and practice for COVID-19 prevention. The elderly and employed demonstrated significant positive attitudes and practices (p < 0.05). Participants with a positive attitude were almost two and a half times (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.54-3.99) more likely to have good practices. Additionally, the rural respondents were less likely (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21-0.96) to have a positive attitude. Married participants were more than one and a half (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.04-2.44) times more likely to have a positive attitude. The prevalence of GAD was 21.8% and was significantly increased among participants with inadequate knowledge (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.25-3.22), females (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.19-3.09), individuals with chronic diseases (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.02-2.86), and non-Saudi participants (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.02-5.85). CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring a sufficient combination of relatively good levels of knowledge, positive attitudes, and desired practices serves as a good approach to preventing the spread of COVID-19. However, the increased prevalence of GAD requires the attention of policymakers. Therefore, a great emphasis should be placed on health awareness campaigns, with a focus on misconceptions and the provision of counseling.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209629

RESUMO

COVID-19 disease was announced as a global pandemic in March 2020 by the World health organization (WHO). Saudi Arabia was among the first countries to enforce restriction measures such as closing schools, remote working, and a travel ban. We aim to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people's depression in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey of 1109 participants was conducted during the curfew between 18th of May and 11th of June 2020. An online questionnaire included questions about the commitment to follow the precautionary measures, knowledge on COVID-19, and depression. Depression was assessed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised method. Females, unmarried individuals, elderly persons, parents of young children, unemployed, and small families were more likely to be depressed. Education level did not explain the differences in depression. However, the more knowledge the participants had about COVID-19 the better they followed the restrictions. A regression analysis revealed that the commitment of a person to follow the restrictions increased his/her depression symptoms. Attention should be paid to different groups of people in future psychiatric planning.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282489

RESUMO

In the first few months of the pandemic, Makkah region reported the highest number of COVID-19 cases among all regions in Saudi Arabia. More than 80% of these reported cases were non-Saudi residents. In this study, we evaluated the perceived threat from and psychological impact of COVID-19 among non-Saudi residents of Makkah region. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected using a standardized self-report questionnaire. A total of 292 expatriates were included in the study, the majority of whom were non-Arabic speakers. The prevalence of self-reported depression was nearly 40%, anxiety was 32%, and stress was 43%. The findings indicated variability in the prevalence of psychological symptoms among expatriates from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, work environment and perceived threat were strong predictors of psychological disorders. This suggested that the perceived threat from and psychological burden of COVID-19 among non-Saudis in Makkah region is substantial. Future research should investigate the reasons behind these variations in the psychological impact of the pandemic among different ethnic groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273440

RESUMO

Online examinations, commonly referred to as e-exams (electronic examinations), underwent a considerable progression, getting adapted ubiquitously among higher education institutions worldwide. Their preferment was rapid due to the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The process of conducting exams online is being opted as the appropriate way of assessment, ensuring the students' safety and well-being. According to Warts et al., this form of examination has been pretty effective in the past when blended with the conventional assessment. However, at present, implemented as the singular way of assessment, e-exams have shown a more significant promise in being beneficial to the learners. As a matter of fact, a comprehensive analysis on understanding the learners' perception towards the e-exams was not done earlier, particularly in the developing nations. Thus, it was pertinent to examine the pre-requisites of e-exams to promote it as a useful tool for the smooth conduct of exams in the aforesaid nations. Against such a backdrop, this study was conducted during January to March 2021 on 207 students enrolled in four universities, three situated in the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India: Delhi University (DU), Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), and Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and one situated in Saudi Arabia, namely Saudi Electronic University (SEU). A quantitative approach was employed for the study, with the responses recorded via web questionnaires. Confirmatory -factor analysis (CFA) was applied in the study to examine whether the process of conducting online examinations is being chosen as the appropriate form of assessment, ensuring the safety and well-being of students through AMOS (version 24) software. For determining the reliability of the two latent constructs, namely "Perceptions of students towards E-exams (PSE)" and "Pre-requisites of E-exams (POE)," Cronbach's alpha was used through SPSS (version 25) software in the study, and the results reveal that the strong internal consistency exists between all the measured variables. In addition, the mean and standard deviation were used by the researchers to find out the pre-requisites of the online examination system. The participants expressed their insights on the relative benefits of online examination. Their perception was based on pedagogy, validity and reliability, affective factors, practicality, and security. From their insights, it was concluded that online examination is more advantageous than conventional paper-based exams. The outcome also applies to the authenticity of grading and the overall efficiency concerning the time, effort, and expenditure on conducting the examination. Contrarily, the participating students also recognized numerous hurdles in implementing e-exams concerning security, validity, and impartiality. The conclusion further revealed that online examination is especially relevant for formative assessment of learning instead of summative assessment, provided authenticity, security, and flexibility are used as fundamental tenants in the proper implementation of e-exams. The outcome of the present study will facilitate higher education institutions and policymakers in taking the electronic examination system to the next level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Universidades , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259495

RESUMO

Since the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused a global pandemic, the amount of misinformation in various media outlets has been on the rise. This has caused confusion among both healthcare workers and the general population about what the proper precautions against COVID-19 are. This study investigated attitudes towards misinformation related to protective measures that can be taken against COVID-19. The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia using an online survey questionnaire during the first three months of lockdown responding to the pandemic. The sample size of the study was N = 1294, of which 275 were healthcare workers and 974 were non-healthcare workers. The findings indicate that the Saudi Arabian population has a "Neutral" attitude towards COVID-19-related misinformation, meaning that, overall, they neither agree nor disagree with the most common COVID-19-related misinformation. Both healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers displayed a "Neutral" attitude towards herbal remedies for COVID-19. The level of agreement regarding the SARS-CoV-2 virus remaining in the throat for two days and the BCG vaccine protecting against COVID-19 was low. The findings of this research imply that knowledge dissemination is severely lacking in Saudi Arabia and that the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia should sincerely consider educating healthcare workers better about verified and true information regarding COVID-19. Conclusion: Future research should include larger sample sizes for each of the healthcare specialties surveyed in this study and analyse their attitudes towards COVID-19 misinformation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) among the health care workers in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 among the health care workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May till mid-July among 389 health care workers from government and private hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected using a pre-structured online questionnaire that measured adverse psychological outcomes, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. The Pearson chi-square test was used to assess the distribution of depression and anxiety among health care workers. RESULTS: A high level of anxiety was recorded among the health care workers, and 69.3% of health care workers below the age of 40 were found to have depression. There was a significant increase in depression among staff with chronic health problems (72.1% vs. 61.9%; p = 0.048). High anxiety levels were detected among young staff compared to others (68.7% vs. 43.8%; p = 0.001). Moreover, 82.1% of the female staff were anxious, as compared to 55.6% of the males (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found increased prevalence of adverse psychological outcomes among the health care workers in Saudi Arabia during the outbreak of COVID-19. Therefore, there is a need for proper screening and development of corresponding preventive measures to decrease the adverse psychological outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204429

RESUMO

Online examinations, commonly referred to as e-exams (electronic examinations), underwent a considerable progression, getting adapted ubiquitously among higher education institutions worldwide. Their preferment was rapid due to the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The process of conducting exams online is being opted as the appropriate way of assessment, ensuring the students' safety and well-being. According to Warts et al., this form of examination has been pretty effective in the past when blended with the conventional assessment. However, at present, implemented as the singular way of assessment, e-exams have shown a more significant promise in being beneficial to the learners. As a matter of fact, a comprehensive analysis on understanding the learners' perception towards the e-exams was not done earlier, particularly in the developing nations. Thus, it was pertinent to examine the pre-requisites of e-exams to promote it as a useful tool for the smooth conduct of exams in the aforesaid nations. Against such a backdrop, this study was conducted during January to March 2021 on 207 students enrolled in four universities, three situated in the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India: Delhi University (DU), Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), and Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and one situated in Saudi Arabia, namely Saudi Electronic University (SEU). A quantitative approach was employed for the study, with the responses recorded via web questionnaires. Confirmatory -factor analysis (CFA) was applied in the study to examine whether the process of conducting online examinations is being chosen as the appropriate form of assessment, ensuring the safety and well-being of students through AMOS (version 24) software. For determining the reliability of the two latent constructs, namely "Perceptions of students towards E-exams (PSE)" and "Pre-requisites of E-exams (POE)," Cronbach's alpha was used through SPSS (version 25) software in the study, and the results reveal that the strong internal consistency exists between all the measured variables. In addition, the mean and standard deviation were used by the researchers to find out the pre-requisites of the online examination system. The participants expressed their insights on the relative benefits of online examination. Their perception was based on pedagogy, validity and reliability, affective factors, practicality, and security. From their insights, it was concluded that online examination is more advantageous than conventional paper-based exams. The outcome also applies to the authenticity of grading and the overall efficiency concerning the time, effort, and expenditure on conducting the examination. Contrarily, the participating students also recognized numerous hurdles in implementing e-exams concerning security, validity, and impartiality. The conclusion further revealed that online examination is especially relevant for formative assessment of learning instead of summative assessment, provided authenticity, security, and flexibility are used as fundamental tenants in the proper implementation of e-exams. The outcome of the present study will facilitate higher education institutions and policymakers in taking the electronic examination system to the next level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Universidades , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205608

RESUMO

In the first few months of the pandemic, Makkah region reported the highest number of COVID-19 cases among all regions in Saudi Arabia. More than 80% of these reported cases were non-Saudi residents. In this study, we evaluated the perceived threat from and psychological impact of COVID-19 among non-Saudi residents of Makkah region. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected using a standardized self-report questionnaire. A total of 292 expatriates were included in the study, the majority of whom were non-Arabic speakers. The prevalence of self-reported depression was nearly 40%, anxiety was 32%, and stress was 43%. The findings indicated variability in the prevalence of psychological symptoms among expatriates from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, work environment and perceived threat were strong predictors of psychological disorders. This suggested that the perceived threat from and psychological burden of COVID-19 among non-Saudis in Makkah region is substantial. Future research should investigate the reasons behind these variations in the psychological impact of the pandemic among different ethnic groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 22(2): 95-97, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237997

RESUMO

AIM: Except for emergencies and urgent cases, dental treatments have been suspended in Saudi Arabia. This report examines the pattern of emergency dental care provided to children and adolescents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia, which has been affected by the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In late March 2020, the General Directorate of Dentistry, Ministry of Health (MOH), administered an online dental emergency investigation form, which was to be completed by all MOH (governmental) dental centres and sent to the MOH on daily basis. This report included patient information (such as gender and age), whether the patient had contacted the hotline service centre, dental diagnosis, specialty of the treating dental professional and treatment provided. Descriptive analyses were generated. RESULTS: Only few (n=95) patients under the age of 14 sought emergency dental treatment during the investigated period (six weeks). Findings showed very low utilisation of the hotline service (14.7%). Most had dental pain (n=85; 89.5%). Eighty four (88.4%) patients were seen by a general dental practitioner (GDP), while the rest (n=11; 11.6%) were seen by a specialised dental professional (SDP). The dental abscess (33.7%) and caries into pulp (29.5%) were the most common diagnoses for emergency dental visits among the children and adolescents. A high proportion of dental centres provided medication prescriptions and assumed inappropriate dental management during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on child and adolescent emergency dental services. The number of dental emergency visits was low, with a high percentage of dental infection. We urge dental professionals to pursue a consistent approach in treating emergency dental conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic era and following the national protocols.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Criança , Odontólogos , Emergências , Humanos , Lactente , Papel Profissional , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a major public health problem around the world. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the awareness and prevalence of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) with regard to COVID-19 among the Hail community, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to help health authorities to effectively control the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 412 participants living in Hail, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire assessed demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices for the prevention of COVID-19, as well as psychological feelings in terms of GAD as an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The study found that most of the respondents demonstrated good knowledge, attitudes, and practice for COVID-19 prevention. The elderly and employed demonstrated significant positive attitudes and practices (p < 0.05). Participants with a positive attitude were almost two and a half times (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.54-3.99) more likely to have good practices. Additionally, the rural respondents were less likely (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21-0.96) to have a positive attitude. Married participants were more than one and a half (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.04-2.44) times more likely to have a positive attitude. The prevalence of GAD was 21.8% and was significantly increased among participants with inadequate knowledge (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.25-3.22), females (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.19-3.09), individuals with chronic diseases (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.02-2.86), and non-Saudi participants (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.02-5.85). CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring a sufficient combination of relatively good levels of knowledge, positive attitudes, and desired practices serves as a good approach to preventing the spread of COVID-19. However, the increased prevalence of GAD requires the attention of policymakers. Therefore, a great emphasis should be placed on health awareness campaigns, with a focus on misconceptions and the provision of counseling.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288873

RESUMO

COVID-19 disease was announced as a global pandemic in March 2020 by the World health organization (WHO). Saudi Arabia was among the first countries to enforce restriction measures such as closing schools, remote working, and a travel ban. We aim to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people's depression in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional online survey of 1109 participants was conducted during the curfew between 18th of May and 11th of June 2020. An online questionnaire included questions about the commitment to follow the precautionary measures, knowledge on COVID-19, and depression. Depression was assessed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised method. Females, unmarried individuals, elderly persons, parents of young children, unemployed, and small families were more likely to be depressed. Education level did not explain the differences in depression. However, the more knowledge the participants had about COVID-19 the better they followed the restrictions. A regression analysis revealed that the commitment of a person to follow the restrictions increased his/her depression symptoms. Attention should be paid to different groups of people in future psychiatric planning.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288870

RESUMO

This article focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on smoking and smoking cessation behaviours and support for smoke-free zones in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested structured survey was distributed by email in October-November 2020 to students and staff at the University of Jeddah. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics with summative content analysis of open text. Participants providing open text comments (n = 374/666; 56.4%) were non-smokers (n = 293; 78.3%), former smokers (n = 26; 7.0%) and current smokers (n = 55; 14.7%). Some had household members (n = 220; 58.8%) and friends who smoke (n = 198; 52.9%) plus daily exposure to secondhand smoke at home (n = 125; 33.4%). There was an awareness during COVID-19 of: smoking inside cafes/restaurants and other indoor and outdoor public places; exposure to warnings in the media both against and promoting smoking; widespread support for smoke-free zones. Smokers plans for accessing smoking cessation support are inconsistent with retrospective reports. Many express positivity highlighting reductions in smoking but there were also negative reports of increased smoking. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every aspect of society worldwide. People have been at home more with restricted freedom of movement and limitations on social liberty. These individual accounts can help to focus evidence-based smoking prevention and cessation programmes during and post-COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
16.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy characterized by rapidly evolving weakness and areflexia, reaching nadir within 4 weeks. Data on the characteristic of GBS in Saudi Arabia are limited. This study aimed to describe the clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory characteristics and outcome of a multicenter cohort of patients with GBS. METHODS: This is a retrospective multicenter nationwide study. Patients who had GBS, identified through Brighton Criteria, between January 2015 and December 2019 were included. Data collected included demographics, clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid profile, reported electrophysiological patterns, treatment, and outcome. Reported GBS subtypes were compared using chi-square, Fisher's exact, or Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients with GBS were included (men, 61.5%), with a median age of 38 (interquartile range, 26.25-53.5) years. The most commonly reported antecedent illnesses were upper respiratory tract infection (39.1%) and diarrhea (27.8%). All but two patients (98.7%) had weakness, 64.1% had sensory symptoms, 43.1% had facial diplegia, 33.8% had oropharyngeal weakness, 12.4% had ophthalmoplegia, and 26.3% needed mechanical ventilation. Cytoalbuminological dissociation was observed in 69.1% of the patients. GBS-specific therapy was administered in 96.8% of the patients, of whom 88.1% had intravenous immunoglobulin, and 11.9% had plasmapheresis. Approximately half of the patients were able to walk independently within 9 months after discharge, and a third regained the ability to walk independently thereafter. Death of one patient was caused by septicemia. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy was the most commonly reported GBS subtype (37.7%), followed by acute motor axonal neuropathy (29.5%), and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (19.2%). CONCLUSION: The clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcome of GBS in the Arab population of Saudi Arabia are similar to the international cohorts. The overall prognosis is favorable.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/sangue , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmaferese/métodos , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Trop Biomed ; 38(2): 94-101, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172696

RESUMO

The Corona pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) calls on the Saudi government to take action to control the infection. The government closed borders, prohibited travel, limited outdoor movements, and told primary and secondary care facilities to reduce all regular non-urgent health services. It is not known whether these measures have impacted the prevalence of parasitic intestinal infections. This study has therefore been carried out to investigate this issue. Dataset of 217 stool samples submitted to the King Faisal Medical Complex (KFMC) Microbiology Laboratory in Taif, Saudi Arabia for parasitological examination during the pandemic (January-June 2020) and 649 samples submitted during the corresponding months of the previous year (January-June 2019) were extracted and analyzed. Overall, 24.1% (209/866) of samples were parasitespositives; 26.6% (173/649) before and 16.5% (36/217) during the pandemic, with 79% reduction. There was a significant difference in gender-parasitism between the two periods where the majority of parasitism were for males (p<0.001). Infections were frequent in patients aged 5- 14 years both before (84/649; 12.9%) and during (12/217; 5.5%) the pandemic, with significant difference observed between the two cohorts (p<0.002). Moreover, the majority of infected patients were non-Saudi (67.9%; 142/209), with a significant difference in nationality reported, (p=0.024). Protozoa were identified in 21.8% (189) of all samples investigated, of which, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium species were identified in 6.1% (53), 5.4% (47), 5.0% (44), 2.8% (25), and 2.3% (20), respectively. Helminths were diagnosed in 2.3% (20/866) of samples. Eggs of hookworm, Ascaris, Taenia spp, and Hymenolepis nana were detected in 0.9% (8), 0.5% (5), 0.3% (3) and 0.4% (4), respectively. In parallel with our research hypothesis, a substantial decrease in the burden of intestinal parasitic infections was recorded with the lock-down measures taken during the Corona pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253441, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a consequence of stay-at-home and other lockdown measures, such as social distancing, all health care service provisions during the COVID-19 pandemic have been affected, including the provision of speech therapy. Telehealth services can play a major role in maintaining access to health care, help speech and language pathologists (SLPs) overcome physical barriers by providing patients and caregivers with access to health care, and limit the discontinuity of patient care. To have a better understanding of the changes that have occurred in these services during COVID-19, this research was conducted to explore the nature and current situation of speech-language services in Saudi Arabia based on caregivers' perspectives. It also investigated whether changes have occurred in these services during the COVID-19 lockdown. The study also determined the perception of caregivers in delivering SLS sessions remotely. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 385 caregivers in Saudi Arabia. An online survey asked whether children were experiencing any SLS problems and if they had received any intervention. The survey also assessed the perception of changes in service during the COVID-19 lockdown and the perceptions, acceptance, and willingness of the caregivers to deliver telehealth speech services in Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: About 50% of the respondents had or were suspected to have a child with SLS problems, and just over half of them had accessed SLS services. Most of the respondents reported suspension of therapy sessions as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. While the respondents had little experience using telehealth prior to the pandemic, they generally showed a willingness to use telehealth in therapy sessions, expressing a preference for video calls over other options. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that SLS services in Saudi Arabia are limited and that accessing these services is challenging. Alternative service delivery using remote services could help caregivers overcome such challenges. When telehealth was introduced as an option for service delivery, the caregivers showed welcoming responses, particularly with video calls.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuidadores , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idioma , Fala , Adolescente , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deglutição , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26478, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190172

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the effect of dose titration for different oral antiepileptic medications among children with epilepsy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.A single-center prospective pilot, cohort study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All medical records of pediatric patients below the age of 14 years of age who has been newly diagnosed with epilepsy by attending a medical specialist or on a new epileptic treatment plans were enrolled in the study.A total of 76 epileptic patients were screened for 3 months' period and 48 patients were included in this study. Out of the 48 patients, 31 patients followed the regular practice in the titration processes and 17 patients were in the British national formulary (BNF) guideline. Fifteen children who were on monotherapy of levetiracetam were in regular practice guideline experienced poor seizure control with a recorded number of seizure incidence (n = 10). The patient in regular practice guidelines using a combination therapy of phenytoin and levetiracetam were experiencing some behavioral disturbance and sedation effect. Seventeen patients followed in the BNF guideline who were on levetiracetam were experienced less adverse effect (n = 2) with no behavioral changes.The group who followed the regular practice found having a greater incidence of documented adverse effects compared to the patients following the BNF guideline. The titrating antiepileptic medication has a detrimental effect on the pediatric population as observed in this study.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Epilepsia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/classificação , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e25919, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087834

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Most of the reports about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children reported mild-to-moderate disease manifestations. However, recent reports explored a rare pediatric multisystem syndrome possibly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).The study prospectively enrolled 5 patients with clinical and laboratory evidence of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. They were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Their clinical presentation, laboratory, and outcome were described.All patients shared similar clinical presentations such as persistent documented fever for more than 3 days, respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal involvement, and increased inflammatory markers (CRP, ESR, and ferritin). Three patients had concurrent positive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, and the other 2 patients had contact with suspected COVID-19 positive patients. They were all managed in the PICU and received intravenous immunoglobulin, systemic steroid, and hydroxychloroquine. The hospital stays ranged between 3 and 21 days. One patient died due to severe multiorgan failures and shock, and the other 4 patients were discharged with good conditions.Pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for MIS-C. MIS-C has a spectrum of clinical and laboratory presentations, and the clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis and should initiate its early treatment to avoid unfavorable outcomes. Long-term follow-up studies will be required to explore any sequelae of MIS-C, precisely the cardiovascular complications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/fisiopatologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...