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1.
Tumour Biol ; 41(9): 1010428319863627, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500540

RESUMO

Stratification of colorectal cancer for better management and tangible clinical outcomes is lacking in clinical practice. To reach this goal, the identification of reliable biomarker(s) is a prerequisite to deliver personalized colorectal cancer theranostics. Osteopontin (SPP1) is a key extracellular matrix protein involved in several pathophysiological processes including cancer progression and metastasis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms regulating its expression, localization, and molecular functions in cancer are still poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the SPP1 expression profiles in Saudi colorectal cancer patients, and to assess its prognostic value. Hundred thirty-four (134) archival paraffin blocks of colorectal cancer were collected from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and automated immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate SPP1 protein expression patterns in colorectal cancer. About 20% and 23% of our colorectal cancer samples showed high SPP1 cytoplasmic and nuclear expression patterns, respectively. Cytoplasmic SPP1 did not correlate with age, gender, tumor size, and location. However, significant correlations were observed with tumor grade (p = 0.008), tumor invasion (p = 0.01), and distant metastasis (p = 0.04). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significantly lower recurrence rate in patients with higher SPP1 cytoplasmic expression (p = 0.05). At multivariate analysis, high SPP1 cytoplasmic expression was an independent favorable prognostic marker (p = 0.02). However, nuclear SPP1 expression did not show any prognostic value (p = 0.712). Our results showed a particular SPP1 prognostic relevance that is not in line with most colorectal cancer previous studies that may be attributed to the molecular pathophysiology of our colorectal cancer cohort. Saudi Arabia has both specific genomic makeup and particular environment that could lead to distinctive molecular roots of cancer. SPP1 has several isoforms, tissue localizations and molecular functions, signaling pathways, and downstream molecular functions. Therefore, a more individualized approach for CRC studies and particularly SPP1 prognosis outcomes' assessment is highly recommended toward precision oncology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Osteopontina/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1140-1146, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417059

RESUMO

Objective: Hypertension among adolescents is an emerging public health problem. The current study aims to estimate the burden of hypertension and identify its risk factors among male adolescents of intermediate and secondary schools. Subjects and Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study that targeted 400 male adolescents in the age group of 15-17 years. Blood pressure was defined as per the "Fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents". An electronic device approved for use by the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010, (Omron M3W; HEM-7202-E) was used for measuring blood pressure. CDC's body mass index tool was adopted for defining overweight and obesity. Descriptive analysis for hypertension and the risk factors were carried out. Chi-square test and odds ratios were calculated to assess any association between categorical variables. Results: Overall 36 (9.0%) adolescents had prehypertension and 69 (17.2%) had hypertension. Systolic prehypertension, systolic hypertension, diastolic prehypertension, and diastolic hypertension were present in 6.5%, 17.2%, 5.8%, and 9.0% of the adolescents, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed that overweight and obesity, no physical activity, or once-a-week physical activity, positive family history of hypertension, and smoking were predictors of systolic prehypertension and showed a significant relationship with systolic hypertension. Conclusion: There is a considerable prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, among school-going male adolescents. We recommend school-based health education programs and routine screening directed toward the risk factors of noncommunicable diseases like hypertension with special attention to obesity, physical inactivity, and smoking.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308861

RESUMO

Introduction: Tobacco is one of the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Tobacco consumption among teenagers is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. Younger smokers are more liable to smoking complications. The objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in the Northern Borders region, KSA. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Arar city. Four schools were chosen randomly from 21 secondary schools. A total of 240 students responded to the pre-designed questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on demographic factors, smoking behavior and knowledge about smoking hazards. Results: Prevalence of current smoking among male secondary school students is 40.8%. Cigarette smoking was the most common type (67.3%) followed by Shish smoking (22.4%). Few students (2.1%) reported other forms of smoking, example (Hashish). Of the studied group, 39.8% smoke on a daily basis with 29.6% of them smoke more than five cigarettes per day. Conclusion: Smoking is a prevalent habit among teenagers. Special concern should be directed to smoking cessation campaigns with behavioral, legal and economic interventions.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303924

RESUMO

Introduction: traumatic spinal fracture is a painful and disabling injury associated with poor long-term functional outcome. The objective of the present study was to assess the frequency of spinal fractures in road traffic accident (RTA) victims, their management, mortality rate and associated injuries. This study reveals and adds useful insights to the literature from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in terms of incidence of RTA-related spinal fractures, including their management and mortality rate. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sultan Center for Health Services (KKH & PSCHS) in AlKharj, KSA from September 2016 to June 2017. A total of 120 patients suffering from spinal/vertebral fractures due to RTAs were included in this study. The data was collected from patients' charts, including age, gender, region or distribution of the spinal fracture, associated fractures, number of fractures, degrees of shock, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), treatment modalities, along with the management of spinal fractures, days of hospital stay, referral and discharges or deaths. Results: the mean age of patients was 29.21. The most common anatomic region of the fracture was the cervical region (35%). Injuries associated with traumatic spinal fracture were predominated by clavicular fractures. More than half of the victims (58.30%) had a cervical brace applied before leaving the hospital. 29.20% patients required posterior stabilization with pedicle screws. Anterior corpectomy, grafting and plating was done to 4.30% patients. Conclusion: traumatic spinal fractures require prompt diagnosis and timely management in order to improve the outcome.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamentos Ortopédicos , Parafusos Pediculares , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/mortalidade , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(9): 1857-1861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency, etiology, treatment, and visual prognosis of retinal detachment (RD) in patients with uveitis. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed in 707 consecutive patients (1042 eyes) with uveitis, of whom 97 (13.7%) (157 eyes [15.1%]) had RD. RESULTS: There were 126 (12.1%) eyes with exudative retinal detachment (ERD), 16 (1.5%) with tractional retinal detachment (TRD), and 15 (1.4%) with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Panuveitis was most commonly associated with RD (144 (91.1%) eyes). Infectious causes were more common in RRD, and non-infectious etiologies were most common in ERD and TRD. Oral prednisone was the initial therapy in ERD. Additionally, in these cases, cyclosporine was prescribed most frequently (47.1% patients), followed by azathioprine (26.4% patients). Fourteen (87.5%) eyes with TRD and all RRD cases underwent surgery. In patients with ERD, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.1 ± 0.7 LogMAR at baseline and 0.6 ± 0.2 LogMAR at last visit (p = 0.001). In patients with TRD, mean BCVA was 0.7 ± 0.4 LogMAR at baseline and 0.6 ± 0.4 LogMAR at last visit (p = 0.056). In patients with RRD, mean BCVA was 1.6 ± 0.9 LogMAR at baseline and 20 1.3 ± 0.9 LogMAR at last visit (p = 0.185). CONCLUSION: In Saudi Arabia, ERD is observed in 12.1% of the eyes with uveitis, and less than 2% of eyes had TRD or RRD. Visual prognosis is usually good after ERD. Infection is the most frequent cause of RRD associated with uveitis and the visual prognosis is poor.


Assuntos
Previsões , Descolamento Retiniano/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Uveíte/complicações , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmoscopia , Prognóstico , Descolamento Retiniano/diagnóstico , Descolamento Retiniano/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Uveíte/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15878, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169693

RESUMO

Obesity is a significant public health concern that predisposes individuals to a high risk of premature mortality. Previous studies also reported that low serum concentrations of AMY1 have been associated with obesity. The aimed of the study to assess the relationship between salivary amylase (AMY1) activity and body mass index (BMI) in Saudi male and female adults in Riyadh. This study included a total of 200 (100 individuals who were overweight and obese and 100 who had normal body weight [control individuals]) Saudi participants aged 20 to 50 years old. They were recruited from physical fitness clubs and were school employees in Riyadh City. The dietary food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The activity of the AMY1 was measured using a microplate fluorescence reader. A significant (P ≤ .05) increase was observed in the incidence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), and family history of overweight and obesity in overweight and obese individuals than in the control individuals, and these were in parallel to the significant increase in weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and BMI. A significant (P ≤ .05) increase was also observed in the carbohydrate and total fat dietary intake of overweight and obese individuals in relation to the respective dietary reference intake (DRI) values. AMY1 activity was significantly lower than the reference values in the overweight and obese group. Furthermore, AMY1 activity was significantly (P ≤ .05) reverse with weight, WC, HC, and BMI in both males and females in the overweight and obese group. In conclusion, the Saudi overweight and obese population seems to be at risk of low AMY1, which correlates with their obesity.


Assuntos
Amilases/análise , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Saliva/química , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 24(2): 89-94, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presenation of acute disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in pediatric age group, treatments, and to asses the outcome at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia. METHODS: The medical records of all patients younger than 18 years of age with a diagnosis of ADEM and treated at King Abdulaziz Medical City from January 1996 to Decemeber 2016 were collected. A total of 20 patients were included. RESULTS: Of 20 patients enrolled in our study, 13 (65%) were female. Autumn and summer were the most common seasons in which ADEM presented (60%); 19 (95%) patients had a history of preceding viral illnesses. The most common neurological deficits on presentation were weakness (85%), ataxia (45%), and nystagmus (45%). Cortical and subcortical lesions (60%) were the most common finding on cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Seventeen patients (85%) received steroid only. Only 16 patients continued with follow-up, with a mean duration of 7 months. All 16 patients improved: 11 patients were recovered and 5 patients still had a neurological deficit at the clinic visits. No patient had relapsed. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients in this case series have an excellent outcome and attended follow-up visits and no disease relapses were identified. Further exploration of the disease is recommended.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 24(2): 130-136, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of falls in individuals with stroke undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with stroke admitted to from January 2011 to June 2013 was carried out in Inpatient rehabilitation Unit at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data collected included demographic variables, types of stroke, comorbidities, characteristics of falls, factors affecting falls and length of hospital stay. Data was descriptively analyzed. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine any significant relationship between the categorical variables. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of falls during rehabilitation. RESULTS: Out of 146 stroke survivors, 36 patients had a fall during inpatient rehabilitation. Majority did not sustain any injury. Fall status was significantly associated with age group (p=0.048), type of stroke (p=0.005) and previous history of stroke (p=0.020). The side of stroke (p=0.011) and fall risk were statistically significantly related to fall outcomes (p=0.005). Length of hospital stay (LOS) was also associated with fall outcome (p=0.044). CONCLUSION: Age, hemorrhagic stroke, laterality of stroke and previous history of stroke were identified as risk factors associated with falls. Injured patients tend to stay longer for inpatient rehabilitation. Due to different culturual, environmental and health system variations, development of regional guidelines for fall prevention in stroke survivors can help to reduce the risk of falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
Saudi Med J ; 40(5): 452-457, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare King Saud University Medical City experience in laparoscopic liver resection with our previously established database for open resections. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All adult patients who underwent liver resection from 2006 to 2017 were included. Patients who had their procedure converted to open were excluded. RESULTS: Among the 111 liver resections included, 22 (19.8%) were performed laparoscopically and 89 (80.1%) were performed using the open technique. Malignancy was the most common indication in both groups (78.5%). The mean operative time was 275 min (SD 92.2) in the laparoscopic group versus 315 min (SD 104.3) in the open group. Intraoperative blood transfusion was required in the laparoscopic (9%) and open groups (31.4%). The morbidity rate was 13.6% in the laparoscopic group and 31.4% in the open group, and the mortality rate was 0% in the laparoscopic group and 5.6% in the open group. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic liver resection appears to be a safe technique and can be performed in various benign and malignant cases.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia/métodos , Hepatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparoscopia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Saudi Med J ; 40(5): 483-489, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the general knowledge among primary health care (PHC) physicians regarding the management of common urological problems in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This is an observational prospective study, where a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to practicing PHC physicians in the western region of Saudi Arabia on January 2017. The questionnaire consisted of 21-item questions, inquiring about demographics and general urological knowledge and skills. The management of common urological problems was assessed by case scenarios for specific urological condition, including urethral catheterization, definition and evaluation of hematuria, recognition of age-specific increase in prostatic specific antigen (PSA), and management of lower urinary tract symptoms. Results: A total of 148 questionnaires were distributed, with a response rate of 75.7%, where 112 respondents completed the questionnaires,  including 54.3% residents, 39% general practitioners, and 5.4% specialists. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were males and 68% were Saudi practitioners. A higher number of respondents expressed that they were able to catheterize a male than female patient (56.5% versus 34.3%). Only 6.4% of respondents defined microscopic hematuria accurately. Knowledge about hematuria, serum prostate specific antigen and overactive bladder was low in all groups. Apart from hematuria, seeking urological consultations was less than 35% for all other disease entities. CONCLUSION: Urological knowledge among PHC physicians seems to be insufficient. Significant percentages of the participants were unable to catheterize a female patient, did not know the definition of hematuria; and whether to ask for urological consultations in cases of hematuria, increased PSA, and overactive bladder.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Médicos de Atenção Primária/psicologia , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Urologia , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Hematúria , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cateterismo Urinário , Doenças Urológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Urológicas/terapia
12.
Saudi Med J ; 40(5): 503-506, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the histopathological pattern of lung cancers in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This retrospective histopathology-based study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia and comprised cases of lung cancers for 11 years  between January 2006 and December 2017. The data was obtained from histopathologic reports and evaluated for age, gender, site of tumor, and histopathological patterns with grade.  Results:  A total of 138 patients with lung cancers were identified, 103 (74.6%) patients were males and 35 (25.4%) patients were females with a male to female ratio of 2.9:1. The ages ranged from 6 to 97 years with a mean age of 60.6 ± 14.7 years. Adenocarcinoma (AC) was the most common pathological type (47.8%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (25.3%), neuroendocrine tumor (8.7%) and metastatic carcinoma (8%). Both ACs and SCCs showed a male predominance with a ratio of 2.9:1 (male) and  4.8:1 (female). The majority of ACs (56.5%) and SCCs (65.7%) were moderately differentiated. Conclusion: The study established a baseline of lung cancer pattern on the basis of histopathological experience in a tertiary referral hospital in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. The results obtained showed similarities with that in the world literature and Saudi national studies.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(22): e15928, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145360

RESUMO

Congenital chloride losing diarrhea (CCLD) is a rare type of chronic watery diarrhea due to mutations in SLC26A3 gene leading to defective chloride-bicarbonate exchanges with the resultant loss of chloride and retention of bicarbonate.We aim to define pediatric Saudi CCLD patients' characteristics to achieve prompt diagnosis, management, follow up with good quality of life, and prevention of complications in these patients.We carried retrospective data review of demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and outcome of all pediatric patients fulfilling the criteria of CCLD over 10 years from 2004 to 2014 from a single center in Taif region, Saudi Arabia.Forty-nine patients fulfilled the criteria of CCLD from 21 families with more than one affected patient in the same family in 90% of them and positive consanguinity in 91% of the cohort. Most patients were born preterm with intrauterine growth restriction and usually neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions with prematurity and its complications. Thirteen patients were discharged without diagnosis of CCLD and 3 were misdiagnosed as intestinal obstruction with unnecessary surgical intervention. Many complications do existed with renal complications being the most common with three patients received renal transplantation.Prematurity with abdominal distension and stool like urine were the commonest presentation of CCLD in Saudi children. Positive consanguinity and more than one affected sibling are present in most of our cohort.High index of suspicion by clinicians is a cornerstone for early diagnosis with subsequent favorable outcome.A multicenter national incidence study of CCLD in KSA and its genetic attributes is recommended. Premarital screening should be implemented specially for consanguineous marriage.


Assuntos
Diarreia/congênito , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/epidemiologia , Consanguinidade , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 12(3): 445-447, 2019 May - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal viral disease that continues to threaten human and animal health in endemic countries. Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country on the Peninsula, little has been reported in the country about rabies situation. METHODS: A total of 199 animals suspected of rabies from 2010 to 2017, were examined for rabies infection using the Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFAT). RESULTS: There were 158 (79.4%) positive cases of rabies of the examined animals, Most positive cases were found in Al-Qassim (63), Eastern region (48), Riyadh (25) and Al-Madina (10). Rabies was diagnosed in Procavia capensis and monkeys (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) in Saudi Arabia for the first time. In addition, infected livestock, especially camels, sheep and goat that pose a risk to veterinarians and farmers which increases the risk of potential zoonosis of rabies in Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that Rabies in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem and dogs and camels are the main reservoir and continue to present health risks for both human and animals throughout the country, underscoring the importance of applying rabies control measures to animals and humans.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Raiva/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Camelus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Cães/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Papio/virologia , Saúde Pública , Raiva/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Ovinos/virologia
15.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 26(1): 27-32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114121

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence and determinants of dry eye disease (DED) among 40 years and older population of Riyadh (except capital), Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in Riyadh district between 2013 and 2017. All Saudi aged >40 years attended at the Primary Health Center were the study population. McCarty Symptom Questionnaire was adopted. A representative sample was examined. The best-corrected visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment assessment were performed. DED was graded as absent, mild, moderate, and severe. RESULTS: We examined 890 participants. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of DED was 45.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 44.8-45.4). One-third of the participants had DED. However, two-third of DED cases were of mild grade. The prevalence of DED among females was significantly higher. The variation of DED by age group was not statistically significant (χ2= 2.6, Degree of freedom = 3, and P = 0.1). Presence of glaucoma was significantly associated to DED (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6, [95% CI = 1.2-5.6], and P = 0.01). Use of topical glaucoma medication was significantly associated to DED (OR = 4.6 [95% CI = 1.8-11.8], and P = 0.001). However, severity of DED was not found to be associated with glaucoma medication (χ2= 2.6, P = 0.1). Associations of diabetes and hypertension to DED were not statistically significant (OR = 0.97 [95% CI = 0.73-1.3], and P = 0.84) (OR = 1.1 [95% CI = 0.8-1.4], and P = 0.6). The severe visual impairment was not associated to the grade of DED (P = 0.55). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DED among Saudi is high, but severe DED is found to be less. Association with female gender, glaucoma, and topical glaucoma medications was reported. Association with diabetes, hypertension, and age group variation was not significant.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Feminino , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(6): 199-205, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045263

RESUMO

Success in eradication of Helicobacter pylori is declining globally because H. pylori has developed resistance against most of the antibiotics proposed for eradication regimens, mainly through point mutations. The present study included 200 patients with dyspepsia attending Taif Hospital. Gastric biopsies were obtained during gastroscopy and subjected to rapid urease testing. Molecular methods were used to confirm diagnoses of H. pylori infection and to identify resistance gene variants of four antibiotics; namely, clarithromycin, metronidazole, fluoroquinolones and tetracycline (23S rRNA, gyrA, rdxA and 16S rRNA respectively). Of all investigated patients, Molecular diagnoses were made in 143 of all investigated patients; thus, the prevalence was .5%. The overall rate of resistance to clarithromycin among the H. pylori-positive patients was high (39.9%) and the rate of resistance significantly greater (48.2%) among the secondary resistance group, secondary resistance being defined as resistance as a result of previous exposure to the relevant antibiotic. The rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones was considered moderate; the difference in rate of resistance between the primary and secondary resistance groups (8.4% and 9.5%, respectively) was not significant Also, there was a low prevalence of both primary and the secondary tetracycline resistance in the study cohort. In contrast, the prevalence of metronidazole resistance was considered high with no significant difference between the two resistance groups. H. pylori showed an increased prevalence of resistance to all four of the commonly used therapeutic agents. Thus, eradication therapy should be based on the regional results of susceptibility testing. Moreover, treatment tailored according to individually determined H. pylori susceptibility may be a reasonable future goal.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Patologia Molecular , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Claritromicina/farmacologia , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Girase/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Nitrorredutases/genética , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(8): 1981-1996, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139937

RESUMO

Acute lower respiratory tract infection is a major health problem that affects more than 15% of the total population of Saudi Arabia each year. Epidemiological studies conducted over the last three decades have indicated that viruses are responsible for the majority of these infections. The epidemiology of respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia is proposed to be affected mainly by the presence and mobility of large numbers of foreign workers and the gathering of millions of Muslims in Mecca during the Hajj and Umrah seasons. Knowledge concerning the epidemiology, circulation pattern, and evolutionary kinetics of respiratory viruses in Saudi Arabia are scant, with the available literature being inconsistent. This review summarizes the available data on the epidemiology and evolution of respiratory viruses. The demographic features associated with Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus infections are specifically analyzed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of this virus. The data support the view that continuous entry and exit of pilgrims and foreign workers with different ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds in Saudi Arabia is the most likely vehicle for global dissemination of respiratory viruses and for the emergence of new viruses (or virus variants) capable of greater dissemination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Islamismo , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Viagem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 427, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a public health challenge in Saudi Arabia, particularly for the elderly. This study was conducted to estimate mortality per 1000 person-year among TB and resistant TB cases and to identifying factors associated with mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 713 new TB cases at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh diagnosed between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2016. Patient medical records and microbiology lab databases were used to identify TB cases. Through reviews were conducted of patients' medical records, including physician notes, physical examinations, radiology (scans and imaging), laboratory tests, and follow-up notes. Collected data include demographic information, clinical features, diagnoses, comorbidities, and death rates. RESULTS: Of the 713 TB patients included in this study, 110 died, giving an average mortality rate of 22 per 1000 person-years (PY; 95% CI: 18.2-26.4). Elderly patients (≥ 60 years) had a higher mortality rate of 36.5 per 1000 PY (95% CI: 28.9-45.5). As age increases by one year, the hazard of mortality increase by 2.4% (aHR: 1.024 [95% CI: 1.009-1.039, P = 0.002]). Higher hazard of mortality was found among males (aHR: 2.014 [95% CI: 1.186-3.418, P = 0.010]). Patients with respiratory and other types of comorbidities and cancer had a higher mortality hazard (aHR: 1.898 [95% CI: 1.005-3.582, P = 0.048]; aHR: 2.346 [95% CI: 1.313-4.192, P = 0.004]; aHR: 3.292 [95% CI: 1.804-6.006, P = 0.001]), respectively. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was found in 2 cases (0.28%) (95% CI: 0.08-1.02), 1.68% were resistant to only one antibiotic, 0.14% had rifampicine-resistant TB (RR-TB), 0.28% had MDR-TB, and 0.14% had extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate among TB patients was found to be 22 per 1000 person-year at our center. TB was associated with high mortality rates among males, the elderly, and patients with cancer, respiratory illness, and other comorbidities. Future clinical practice should include establishing an efficient TB diagnostic program and continued hazard assessment of TB treatment options.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais Urbanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8073057, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949511

RESUMO

Introduction: Obesity is becoming the most common health problem of the 21st century, as it will contribute significantly to the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in developing countries. The main objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight among adults attending primary health care settings, southwestern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The studied population was composed of adults visiting primary health care centres in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a representative sample of 1681 adult patients. Obesity and overweight were defined according to the WHO standards. Statistical analysis was conducted using the statistical package SPSS 17.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of obesity and overweight in the studied population. Results: Data on body mass index (BMI) measurement was recorded for 1649 out of 1681 participants (98.1%). The overall mean weight was 74.1 ± 15.81 kg; and that for men was 77.69 ± 16.14 kg vs. 69.37 ± 14.02 kg for women with significant statistical difference of p < 0.001. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was, respectively, 38.3% and 27.6%. Smoking was not significantly associated with obesity, whereas hypertension was significantly associated with obesity. The risk of overweight or obesity significantly increased from the highest to the lowest monthly income; it passed from 1.67 CI 95% = [1.24-2.25] within the category 5000-7000 SAR to 2.23 CI 95% = [1.71-2.90] within the category less than 5000 SAR. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of overweight and obesity which should be considered as a public health concern to be followed by specific interventions at the community level with multidisciplinary activities starting from childhood as a primordial prevention program.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 152: 177-182, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946851

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the attitude of type 2 diabetes patients toward Ramadan fasting. A Secondary purpose was to describe rates of hypoglycemia during Ramadan according to type of treatment. METHODS: A prospective, non-randomized study for 2 years. Participants with type 2 diabetes attending Dammam Diabetes Center, Saudi Arabia were stratified for fasting according to ADA recommendations. Results are presented using mean, standard deviation and percentages. RESULTS: Total of 360 participants with type 2 diabetes. Mean ±â€¯SD glycosylated hemoglobin was 8.9 ±â€¯2.1. More than 80% of individuals were in the ADA higher risk group however, they all fasted Ramadan. The mean non-fasting days was 2.6 days and overall rate of hypoglycaemia was 24.7%. Both parameters were directly proportionate to the risk stratification level (P-value <0.05). Despite hypoglycaemia, 29.3% continued fasting. Hypoglycemia was highest in patients treated with insulin (P-value <0.05) followed by those treated with oral agents including sulphonylurea as compared to oral agents excluding sulfonylurea (P-value = 0.002). Those who experienced hypoglycemia prior to Ramadan had the highest rate of hypoglycemia during Ramadan (53.3%) (P-value = 0.0065). CONCLUSIONS: Despite medical advice, the vast majority of type 2 diabetes participants categorized as high risk, fasted Ramadan. Approximately one quarter of people with type 2 diabetes in our cohort experience hypoglycaemia and this was directly related to their fasting risk level. A sizeable proportion continued the fast despite hypoglycemic. Insulin therapy with or without oral agents and previous episodes of hypoglycemia before Ramadan predicted hypoglycemia risk during Ramadan. HbA1c and weight showed some clinical improvements post Ramadan fasting. This is a single center study of mostly high risk fasting patients and hence, these results should not be generalized.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Jejum , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Islamismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Jejum/psicologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Islamismo/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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