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1.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(2): 95-104, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In light of the current humanitarian crises in the Arabic world, a version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) in standard Arabic, enabling a fast and efficient diagnosis of psychiatric disorders, is urgently needed. The aim of the present pilot study was to provide a culturally sensitive translation and adaptation of the MINI to standard Arabic and to undertake first steps towards its validation in a sample of Arab refugees. METHODS: Various experts in the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy, familiar with both Western and Arab cultures, were involved in the multi-level adaption process. N = 20 Arabic speaking refugee patients could be recruited for the pilot study at the Clearingstelle, established by the Charité, Univeritätsmedizin Berlin. The MINI diagnoses were compared to diagnoses by experts who were blinded to the MINI diagnoses, and screening instruments for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9, PHQ-9) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, HTQ) were used. RESULTS: Details concerning the particularities of the cultural adaptation process are comprehensively summarized and presented. Kappa values did not show any satisfactory concordance between the MINI and expert diagnoses. However, significantly strong concordance was found between the MINI and the PHQ-9 (κ = .69) and the HTQ (κ = .68). CONCLUSION: These results provide first indications for the validity of the standard Arabic version of the MINI and can be used as a basis for further, more comprehensive validation studies. Moreover, this study depicts a model process for the cultural adaptation of psychometric instruments.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural/organização & administração , Entrevistas como Assunto , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Traduções , Arábia , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria
2.
Zootaxa ; 4565(1): zootaxa.4565.1.2, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716488

RESUMO

The genus Orosius Distant, 1918 is revised from the Arabian Peninsula. Four species are considered, two of them as new records, O. aegypticus Ghauri, 1966 stat. rev.; O. cellulosus (Lindberg, 1927). O. albicinctus Distant, 1918 has been previously recorded by Dlabola (1980). A new species, O. viraktamathi El-Sonbati Wilson sp. n. is also described. A key to species is provided.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Arábia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4658(1): zootaxa.4658.1.1, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716755

RESUMO

The onthophagine fauna of the Arabian Peninsula is reviewed. New data from public and private collections are given. The total number of Onthophagini known from the Peninsula now stands at 30 species, without taking into account dubious records, belonging to seven genera. Of these 30 species, three (Onthophagus aethiopicus d'Orbigny, 1902, O. falsus Gillet, 1925 and O. frontalis Raffray, 1877) are reported for the first time from the Arabian Peninsula, six species (Digitonthophagus eucatta Génier in Génier Moretto, 2017, Onthophagus aethiopicus d'Orbigny, 1902, O. brittoni Paulian, 1948, O. falsus Gillet, 1925, O. rugulipennis Fairmaire, 1887, and O. trapezicornis d'Orbigny, 1902) are new records from Saudi Arabia, three (D. eucatta, O. aethiopicus and O. frontalis) are new from Yemen and five (O. bicolor Raffray, 1877, O. latipennis d'Orbigny, 1898, O. nitidulus Klug, 1856, O. quadriarmatus Fairmaire 1892 and O. sellatus Klug, 1845) are new from Oman. Furthermore, Onthophagus infuscatus Klug, 1845 is recorded from Djibouti for the first time. For all the treated species a general distribution, literature citations and eventual unpublished records are provided. A new synonymy (Onthophagus saudiensis Frey, 1962 under O. sticticus Harold, 1867) is proposed. Most of the species were recorded from locations in southern Saudi Arabia, Oman and Yemen, south Tropic of Cancer. Yemen and Saudi Arabia have the highest species numbers, hosting the richest fauna with 24 and 23 species, respectively. The majority of the Onthophagini fauna (73.33 %) has Afrotropical and Afrotropical-Palaearctic affinities, while the Palaearctic and Oriental-Palaearctic species are both represented by 6.66 %. The four Arabian endemisms represent the 13.33 % of the whole fauna. Lastly, a dichotomous key for the identification of Arabian onthophagine species is provided and a redescription of Onthophagus brittoni is supplied.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Arábia , Omã , Arábia Saudita , Iêmen
4.
Zootaxa ; 4648(3): zootaxa.4648.3.11, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716943

RESUMO

Acmaeodera (Acmaeodera) strumiai sp. nov. from Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Mauritania, and A. (Acmaeotethya) dhofarica sp. nov. from Oman and Yemen are described, illustrated and compared with related species.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Arábia , Mauritânia , Omã , Arábia Saudita , Iêmen
5.
Zootaxa ; 4603(3): zootaxa.4603.3.1, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717211

RESUMO

The phylogeny of the mite genus Pterygosoma Peters, 1849 (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae), permanent parasites of lizards of the families Agamidae, Gerrhosauridae and Liolaemidae (Reptilia: Squamata), was inferred with maximum parsimony, successive weighting and implied weighting approaches based on 182 characters of 48 ingroup and 12 outgroup species. All undertaken analyses questioned the monophyly of the genus. Based on this research, Pterygosoma includes 56 mite species associated with agamas from Africa and Asia (Sauria: Agamidae). Within the genus seven natural species groups were found: mutabilis, inermis, melanum, caucasica, fimbriata, singularis and foliosetis; 13 species of the genus were not assigned to any of the groups due to their unique morphological characters. For the ligare group of the subgenus Pterygosoma s. str. (7 species) associated with the South American tree lizards from the family Liolaemidae, a new genus, Neopterygosoma gen. nov., is established. The subgenus Gerrhosaurobia Lawrence, 1959 (3 species) associated with the African plated lizards of the family Gerrhosauridae is elevated to the genus rank. Diagnoses for the three genera are presented. Historical associations are reconstructed by fitting the obtained mite tree into the host topology on the family level. Results of coevolutionary analysis highlight the coincidence of both trees. The studies suggest that the ancestor of the genus Pterygosoma switched from the hosts of Gerrhosaurobia i.e. from the plated lizards (Gerrhosauridae) to the agamas (Agamidae), and the genus Pterygosoma has its biogeographic origin in North Africa, and colonized Asia via the Arabian Peninsula, which is congruent with the historical biogeography of its hosts.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Ácaros , África , África do Norte , Animais , Arábia , Ásia , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4576(2): zootaxa.4576.2.13, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715771

RESUMO

Cyana Walker, 1854 is one of the most species-rich genera within the tribe Lithosiini Billberg of the subfamily Arctiinae Leach, family Erebidae Leach. The genus is widely distributed in tropics of Africa and Madagascar, south of the Arabian Peninsula, South and East Asia (including Russian Far East, Korean Peninsula and Japan), New Guinea and Australia. The African fauna was recently revised by Karisch (2013). In his revision, Karish offered a subdivision of the genus into 24 subgenera based on the differences in venation, configuration of androconial forewing lobes in males, pattern and genitalia structure.


Assuntos
Mariposas , África , Animais , Arábia , Austrália , Extremo Oriente , Japão , Madagáscar , Masculino , Nova Guiné , Federação Russa
7.
Zootaxa ; 4683(4): zootaxa.4683.4.5, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715911

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Stenasellus Dollfus, 1897 (Isopoda: Asellota: Stenasellidae) from stagnant freshwater habitats in a cave on Socotra Island, Yemen. S. taitii n. sp. is the first endemic stenasellid found in Socotra, showing relatively closer morphological affinities to species from the Middle East (Oman, Iran) than from the African mainland, corresponding to the known paleogeographical connection of the archipelago to Southern Arabia. With notes on the protection of Socotran groundwaters.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Animais , Arábia , Irã (Geográfico) , Ilhas , Oriente Médio , Omã , Iêmen
8.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 137: 300-312, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029747

RESUMO

The lacertid lizards of the genus Mesalina inhabit the arid regions of the Old World, from North Africa to NW India. Of the 19 recognized species within the genus, eleven occur in Arabia. In this study, we explore the genetic variability and phylogeographic patterns of the less studied M. adramitana group from southern Arabia and the Socotra Archipelago within the phylogenetic and biogeographic context of the entire genus. Our unprecedented sampling extends the distribution ranges of most Mesalina species and, for the first time, sequences of M. ayunensis are included in a phylogenetic analysis. We perform analyses of concatenated multilocus datasets and species trees, conduct species delimitation analyses, and estimate divergence times within a biogeographic framework. Additionally, we inferred the environmental suitability and identified dispersal corridors through which gene flow is enabled within M. adramitana. Our results show that the Socotra Archipelago was colonized approximately 7 Mya by a single oversea colonization from mainland Arabia. Then, an intra-archipelago dispersal event that occurred approximately 5 Mya resulted in the speciation between M. balfouri, endemic to Socotra, Samha and Darsa Islands, and M. kuri, endemic to Abd al Kuri Island. Similar to previous studies, we uncovered high levels of genetic diversity within the M. adramitana species-group, with two highly divergent lineages of M. adramitana living in allopatry and adapted to locally specific climatic conditions that necessitate further investigation.


Assuntos
Ilhas , Lagartos/classificação , Filogeografia , África do Norte , Migração Animal , Animais , Arábia , Sequência de Bases , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Lagartos/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(6): 737-741, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972489

RESUMO

Surgeons removed bladder stones by perineal lithotomy in ancient times. The first surgeon who dared to invade a body cavity knew human anatomy and was skilled in the use of surgical instruments. The operation probably originated in India since the Sushruta Samhita, a surgical text, antedates Hippocrates by several hundred years. Sushruta's knowledge of bladder of stones, surgical complications and instrumentation identifies him as originator of vesicolithotomy. Why did Hippocrates advise his students to leave operations for bladder stones to practitioners who were skilled in the art? Who were these practitioners and how did knowledge of vesicolithotomy reach Greece from India? Our research suggests that the operation came to Greece from India over ancient trade routes and with surgeons who accompanied Alexander the Great's army. The Sushruta Samhita was translated in Arabic and may have reached Europe during the dark ages by way of Arabian surgeons such as Albucasis. Chelseldon, an eighteenth century English surgeon, brought Sushruta's vesicolithotomy to a peak of perfection.


Assuntos
Posicionamento do Paciente/história , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/história , Arábia , Criança , Grécia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Índia , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/história , Cálculos da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Ocidente
10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 69, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spiny mice of the genus Acomys are distributed mainly in dry open habitats in Africa and the Middle East, and they are widely used as model taxa for various biological disciplines (e.g. ecology, physiology and evolutionary biology). Despite their importance, large distribution and abundance in local communities, the phylogeny and the species limits in the genus are poorly resolved, and this is especially true for sub-Saharan taxa. The main aims of this study are (1) to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of Acomys based on the largest available multilocus dataset (700 genotyped individuals from 282 localities), (2) to identify the main biogeographical divides in the distribution of Acomys diversity in dry open habitats in Afro-Arabia, (3) to reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus, and finally (4) to estimate the species richness of the genus by application of the phylogenetic species concept. RESULTS: The multilocus phylogeny based on four genetic markers shows presence of five major groups of Acomys called here subspinosus, spinosissimus, russatus, wilsoni and cahirinus groups. Three of these major groups (spinosissimus, wilsoni and cahirinus) are further sub-structured to phylogenetic lineages with predominantly parapatric distributions. Combination of alternative species delimitation methods suggests the existence of 26 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), potentially corresponding to separate species. The highest genetic diversity was found in Eastern Africa. The origin of the genus Acomys is dated to late Miocene (ca. 8.7 Ma), when the first split occurred between spiny mice of eastern (Somali-Masai) and south-eastern (Zambezian) savannas. Further diversification, mostly in Plio-Pleistocene, and the current distribution of Acomys were influenced by the interplay of global climatic factors (e.g., Messinian salinity crisis, intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation) with local geomorphology (mountain chains, aridity belts, water bodies). Combination of divergence dating, species distribution modelling and historical biogeography analysis suggests repeated "out-of-East-Africa" dispersal events into western Africa, the Mediterranean region and Arabia. CONCLUSIONS: The genus Acomys is very suitable model for historical phylogeographic and biogeographic reconstructions of dry non-forested environments in Afro-Arabia. We provide the most thorough phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus and identify major factors that influenced its evolutionary history since the late Miocene. We also highlight the urgent need of integrative taxonomic revision of east African taxa.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Murinae/genética , Filogeografia , África , África Oriental , África do Norte , África Ocidental , Animais , Arábia , Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Oriente Médio , Murinae/classificação , Filogenia
11.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(3): 748-758, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715341

RESUMO

The Austronesian dispersal across the Indonesian Ocean to Madagascar and the Comoros has been well documented, but in an unexplained anomaly, few to no traces have been found of the Austronesian expansion in East Africa or the Arabian Peninsula. To revisit this peculiarity, we surveyed the Western Indian Ocean rim populations to identify potential Austronesian genetic ancestry. We generated full mitochondrial DNA genomes and genome-wide genotyping data for these individuals and compared them with the Banjar, the Indonesian source population of the westward Austronesian dispersal. We find strong support for Asian genetic contributions to maternal lineages and autosomal variation in modern day Somalia and Yemen. Surprisingly, this input reveals two apparently different geographic origins and timings of admixture for the Austronesian contact; one at a very early phase (likely associated with the early Austronesian dispersals), and a later movement dating to the end of nineteenth century. These Austronesian gene flows come, respectively, from Madagascar and directly from an unidentified location in Island Southeast Asia. This result reveals a far more complex dynamic of Austronesian dispersals through the Western Indian Ocean than has previously been understood and suggests that Austronesian movements within the Indian Ocean may have been part of a lengthy process, probably continuing well into the modern era.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Mitocondrial , Migração Humana , África Oriental , Arábia , Bornéu , Humanos , Ilhas do Oceano Índico
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 134: 35-49, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703516

RESUMO

The process of species diversification is often associated with niche shifts in the newly arising lineages so that interspecific competition is minimized. However, an opposing force known as niche conservatism causes that related species tend to resemble each other in their niche requirements. Due to the inherent multidimensionality of niche space, some niche components may be subject to divergent evolution while others remain conserved in the process of speciation. One such possible component is the species' climatic niche. Here, we test the role of climatic niche evolution on the diversification of the Old World cat snakes of the genus Telescopus. These slender, nocturnal snakes are distributed in arid and semiarid areas throughout Africa, southwest Asia and adjoining parts of Europe. Because phylogenetic relationships among the Telescopus species are virtually unknown, we generated sequence data for eight genetic markers from ten of the 14 described species and reconstructed a time-calibrated phylogeny of the genus. Phylogenetic analysesindicate that the genus is of considerably old origin that dates back to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Biogeographical analyses place the ancestor of the genus in Africa, where it diversified into the species observed today and from where it colonized Arabia and the Levant twice independently. The colonization of Arabia occurred in the Miocene, that of the Levant either in the Late Oligocene or Early Miocene. We then identified temperature and precipitation niche space and breadth of the species included in the phylogeny and examined whether there is phylogenetic signal in these climatic niche characteristics. Despite the vast range of the genus and its complex biogeographic history, most Telescopus species have similar environmental requirements with preference for arid to semiarid conditions. One may thus expect that the genus' climatic niche will be conserved. However, our results suggest that most of the climatic niche axes examined show no phylogenetic signal, being indicative of no evolutionary constraints on the climatic niche position and niche breadth in Telescopus. The only two variables with positive phylogenetic signal (temperature niche position and precipitation niche breadth) evolved under the Brownian motion model, also indicating no directional selection on these traits. As a result, climatic niche evolution does not seem to be the major driver for the diversification in Telescopus.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Clima , Colubridae/classificação , Filogeografia , África , Animais , Arábia , Teorema de Bayes , Calibragem , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Chuva , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4709, 01 Fevereiro 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998221

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the DUSP6 gene mutation in three generations of Malaysian Malay subjects having Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Genetic analyses of DUSP6 gene were carried out in 30 subjects by selecting three individuals representing three generations, respectively, from ten Malaysian Malay families having Class III malocclusion and 30 healthy controls. They were submitted Clinical Evaluation to clinical examination, lateral cephalometric radiographs, dental casts, and/ or facial and intra-oral photographs. Buccal cell was taken from each participant of Class III malocclusion and control groups. DNA extractions from buccal cell were carried out using Gentra puregene buccal cell kit. Bio Edit Sequence Alignment Editor software was used to see the sequencing result. Results: A heterozygous missense mutation c.1094C>T (p. Thr 365 Ile) was identified in DUSP6 gene in three members of one family with Class III malocclusion, whereas no mutation was found in the control group. Conclusion: Current study successfully identified a missense mutation in DUSP6 gene among one Malaysian Malay family affected by Class III malocclusion. The outcome of this study broadened the mutation spectrum of Class III malocclusion and the importance of DUSP6 gene in skeletal functions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Variação Genética/genética , Cefalometria/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Má Oclusão , Arábia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fotografia Dentária/instrumentação
14.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(1): 195-204, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666546

RESUMO

Moniliformis cryptosaudi n. sp. (Moniliformidae) is an acanthocephalan described from the long-eared hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus (Gmelin) (Erinaceidae) in Iraq as an incipient cryptic species of Moniliformis saudi Amin, Heckmann, Mohammed, Evans, 2016 described from the desert hedgehog Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg) (Erinaceidae) in Saudi Arabia. Microscopical studies demonstrate that the two species are morphologically indistinguishable with practically identical measurements and counts but differed significantly in their energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) of metal composition of hooks. Hooks of specimens of the new species appeared to be of collagen material with very low levels of phosphorus and calcium unlike those of M. saudi and Moniliformis kalahariensis Meyer, 1931 that had high levels of calcium and phosphorus. Using 18S rDNA and cox1 genes, M. Saudi and M. kalahariensis were shown to be molecularly distinct but the molecular profiles of M. saudi and M. cryptosaudi were more similar. The molecular profile of M. kalahariensis collected from the South African hedgehog Atelerix frontalis Smith (Erinaceidae) in South Africa is reported for the first time and is studied only for comparative purposes. Moniliformis saudi and M. kalahariensis had comparable EDXA metal analysis that was distinct from that of M. cryptosaudi.


Assuntos
Ouriços-Cacheiros/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Moniliformis/classificação , Moniliformis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Arábia , Cálcio/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Iraque , Microscopia , Moniliformis/anatomia & histologia , Moniliformis/genética , Fósforo/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria por Raios X
15.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(1): 149-162, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267472

RESUMO

Insects account for a large portion of Earth's biodiversity and are key players for ecosystems, notably as pollinators. While insect migration is suspected to represent a natural phenomenon of major importance, remarkably little is known about it, except for a few flagship species. The reason for this situation is mainly due to technical limitations in the study of insect movement. Here, we propose using metabarcoding of pollen carried by insects as a method for tracking their migrations. We developed a flexible and simple protocol allowing efficient multiplexing and not requiring DNA extraction, one of the most time-consuming part of metabarcoding protocols, and apply this method to the study of the long-distance migration of the butterfly Vanessa cardui, an emerging model for insect migration. We collected 47 butterfly samples along the Mediterranean coast of Spain in spring and performed metabarcoding of pollen collected from their bodies to test for potential arrivals from the African continent. In total, we detected 157 plant species from 23 orders, most of which (82.8%) were insect-pollinated. Taxa present in Africa-Arabia represented 73.2% of our data set, and 19.1% were endemic to this region, strongly supporting the hypothesis that migratory butterflies colonize southern Europe from Africa in spring. Moreover, our data suggest that a northwards trans-Saharan migration in spring is plausible for early arrivals (February) into Europe, as shown by the presence of Saharan floristic elements. Our results demonstrate the possibility of regular insect-mediated transcontinental pollination, with potential implications for ecosystem functioning, agriculture and plant phylogeography.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Borboletas/fisiologia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Entomologia/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Pólen/genética , África , Animais , Arábia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Espanha
16.
Brain Res Bull ; 145: 92-96, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059706

RESUMO

For centuries, a large number of people living in the southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Africa have chewed the fresh leaves and twigs of the plant Catha edulis Forsk, more commonly known as khat, for its psychostimulatory effect. The main active compound in khat is cathinone, whose synthetic derivatives form a part of the new psychoactive substances list. This review summaries the prevalence of khat use, its harvesting and consumption, the biosynthetic pathway in khat, the mechanism of action, the results from animal and human studies, and its dependence potential. It is unlikely that khat use will be prohibited in countries where it is traditionally consumed and socially acceptable unlike in other countries of the world where both the importation and the consumption of khat and cathinone is banned. Khat users being mainly Muslims prohibited from using alcohol or other drugs probably represent the largest global number of mono-drug users of an amphetamine-like stimulant. Thus, khat use represents a unique situation and a neglected area of research in Africa.


Assuntos
Catha/efeitos adversos , Catha/fisiologia , África/epidemiologia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anfetaminas/farmacologia , Arábia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mastigação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 10(2): 65-78, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-174093

RESUMO

We systematically linked cross-cultural literature to the Central Eight risk factors as an example of risk assessment procedures. We expected offenders with a migration background (MB) from Turkey or Arab countries to score higher on criminal history, criminal attitudes, antisocial companions, and education and employment problems in comparison to German offenders without an MB. In contrast, for offenders with an MB from Turkey or Arab countries, a reduced risk for unsatisfactory relationships with their parents, alcohol, and leisure-related factors was assumed. The Central Eight risk factors were applied retrospectively for male offenders serving a sentence length of more than 12 months. German offenders without an MB (n = 214) were compared to offenders with a Turkish (n = 135) or Arab (n = 112) MB concerning risk profiles and predictive validity. Risk profiles of offenders with an MB deviated (d = 0.25-0.56) from risk profiles of German offenders without an MB. For offenders without an MB criminal history, antisocial personality, criminal attitudes, antisocial companions, and alcohol/drug problems significantly predicted (AUC = .56-.73) different recidivism events. Similar results were found for offenders with a Turkish MB (AUC = .60-.70) except for antisocial companions (AUC = .50). Results for offenders with an Arab MB were inconclusive; only alcohol/drug problems consistently showed good predictive values (AUC = .66-.68). Findings demonstrate that a culture-sensitive approach in risk assessment is inevitable and recommendations for culture-sensitive research, risk assessment, and offender treatment are discussed


Se ha relacionado sistemáticamente la literatura multicultural con los ocho factores centrales de riesgo, como ejemplo de procesos de evaluación de riesgo. Se esperaba que los delincuentes con origen migratorio (OM) en Turquía o en países árabes obtuviesen una puntuación más alta en historial y actitud delictivos, relaciones interpersonales antisociales y problemas de educación y empleo, en comparación con los delincuentes alemanes sin origen migratorio (OM). En contraste, se asumía que los delincuentes con origen migratorio en Turquía y países árabes tenian menor riesgo de relaciones insatisfactorias con sus padres, alcohol y factores relacionados con el ocio. Se utilizaron retrospectivamente los ocho factores centrales de riesgo con delincuentes masculinos condenados a más de 12 meses. Se compararon delincuentes alemanes sin origen migratorio (n = 214) y delincuentes con origen migratorio en Turquía (n = 135) o en países árabes (n = 112) con respecto a perfiles de riesgo y validez predictiva. Los perfiles de riesgo de los delincuentes con OM se desviaban (d = 0.25, 0.56) de los perfiles de riesgo de los alemanes sin OM. Para delincuentes sin OM de historial delictivo, personalidad antisocial, actitud delictiva, relaciones antisociales y problemas de alcoholismo y drogadicción se predijeron (AUC = .56-.73) diferentes episodios de reincidencia. Se obtuvieron resultados similares para delincuentes turcos con OM (AUC = .60-.70), excepto en relaciones antisociales (AUC = .50). Los resultados para los delincuentes árabes con OM fueron inconcluyentes; solo los problemas de alcoholismo y drogadicción mostraron invariablemente valores predictivos fidedignos (AUC = .66-68). Los resultados demuestran que es inevitable un acercamiento sensible a la cultura en la evaluación del riesgo. Se dan recomendaciones para una investigación sensible a la cultura, la evaluación del riesgo y el tratamiento de los delincuentes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Causalidade , Fatores Culturais , Comparação Transcultural , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Arábia/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Zootaxa ; 4514(3): 341-371, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486202

RESUMO

Study of ground beetles of the Garf Raydah Nature Reserve, located in the Asir Mountains of southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) resulted in one species, Paussus abditus Nagel, sp. n. described as new to science. Thirteen species (21.3%) are reported as new country records and fifteen species (24.6%) are new records for Asir Province. Adult beetles were collected from 2013 to 2017. The determination of this material yielded a total of 61 species in 40 genera and 17 tribes belonging to nine subfamilies of Carabidae. The species richness represented approximately 36.1% of carabid species previously reported from KSA. The most species rich tribes were the Lebiini (20 species), the Harpalini (10 species), and the Bembidiini (6 species). The life form analysis of adults indicated 18 life form types that are grouped into three categories, Zoophagous (77.1%), Mixophytophagous (18.0%), and Myrmecophilous (4.9%). Zoogeographical analyses indicated that the Afrotropical (19.3%) and the Saharo-Arabian (19.3%) species dominate the carabid fauna of this region of KSA. Coryza cf. maculata (Nietner, 1856) is considered the only Oriental representative. Only one cosmopolitan species, Perigona nigriceps (Dejean, 1831), was collected. Eleven endemics were identified; six species are considered KSA endemics and five are Arabian Peninsula endemics.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Arábia , Arábia Saudita
19.
Vet Parasitol ; 262: 75-83, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389015

RESUMO

Domesticated Old World camels (Camelus dromedarius and C. bactrianus) are important for the economy of several countries in Asia, Africa, and the Arabian Peninsula, and coccidiosis is important as a cause of mortality in juvenile camels. There is confusion concerning the species of coccidian parasites in camels and their life cycles. The objective of the present paper is to review biology of the Eimeria and Cystoisospora species in camels. The following conclusions were drawn. Although five species of Eimeria; E. cameli, E. rajasthani, E. dromedarii, E. bactriani, and E. pellerdyi were named from camels, only E. cameli, E. rajasthani, E. dromedarii have been consistently found in numerous surveys and they are morphologically distinct. We consider E. pellerdyi and E. bacterini as species enquirende/ not valid. E. cameli oocysts are distinctive, dark brown and up to 108 µm long. Its gametogonic stages and oocysts are present in the lamina propria of small intestines; only sexual stages have been confirmed. The remaining species of Eimeria (E. rajasthani and E. dromedarii) in camels are <40 µm long and their endogenous stages are unknown. There is one valid species of Cystoisospora, C. orlovi in camels and is associated with severe disease in young camels, both pastoral and stall fed camels. Camels as young as nine days old can develop severe diarrhea and can die before oocysts are detected in feces. Lesions and endogenous stages are confined to the large intestine. The main lesion is hemorrhagic, diphtheroid to hemorrhagic colitis-associated with sexual stages; asexual stages are unknown. Oocysts are rarely excreted by adult camels, and in low numbers. Therefore, infection in very young camels remains unexplained.


Assuntos
Camelus/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Arábia/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Eimeria/citologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Oocistos , Sarcocystidae/citologia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4429(3): 513-547, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313255

RESUMO

Mesalina are small diurnal lacertid lizards inhabiting arid areas from North Africa to northwestern India. Previous phylogenetic studies have shown the existence of several species complexes within the genus, some of them with high levels of undiscovered diversity. In the present study, we carry out an integrative systematic revision of the Mesalina guttulata species complex using both molecular and morphological data from across its entire distribution range in North Africa, the Middle East and Arabia. The results of the genetic analyses indicate that M. guttulata and M. bahaeldini are two allopatric sister taxa separated by the Suez Canal and that the species complex includes a further three unnamed deep phylogenetic lineages, two of them restricted to southern and southwestern Arabia and described herein as Mesalina austroarabica sp. nov. and Mesalina arnoldi sp. nov., respectively. As a result of the lack of enough material, the third deep lineage, distributed across Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Jordan, is provisionally left undescribed. The two newly described species are characterized by their size, scale counts and tail coloration, as well as differences at the three mitochondrial and one nuclear gene analyzed in the present study.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Filogenia , África do Norte , Animais , Arábia , Índia , Jordânia , Kuweit , Lagartos , Oriente Médio , Arábia Saudita
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