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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000782, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692742

RESUMO

Tight regulation of gene transcription and mRNA splicing is essential for plant growth and development. Here we demonstrate that a plant-specific protein, EMBRYO DEFECTIVE 1579 (EMB1579), controls multiple growth and developmental processes in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that EMB1579 forms liquid-like condensates both in vitro and in vivo, and the formation of normal-sized EMB1579 condensates is crucial for its cellular functions. We found that some chromosomal and RNA-related proteins interact with EMB1579 compartments, and loss of function of EMB1579 affects global gene transcription and mRNA splicing. Using floral transition as a physiological process, we demonstrate that EMB1579 is involved in FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)-mediated repression of flowering. Interestingly, we found that EMB1579 physically interacts with a homologue of Drosophila nucleosome remodeling factor 55-kDa (p55) called MULTIPLE SUPPRESSOR OF IRA 4 (MSI4), which has been implicated in repressing the expression of FLC by forming a complex with DNA Damage Binding Protein 1 (DDB1) and Cullin 4 (CUL4). This complex, named CUL4-DDB1MSI4, physically associates with a CURLY LEAF (CLF)-containing Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (CLF-PRC2). We further demonstrate that EMB1579 interacts with CUL4 and DDB1, and EMB1579 condensates can recruit and condense MSI4 and DDB1. Furthermore, emb1579 phenocopies msi4 in terms of the level of H3K27 trimethylation on FLC. This allows us to propose that EMB1579 condensates recruit and condense CUL4-DDB1MSI4 complex, which facilitates the interaction of CUL4-DDB1MSI4 with CLF-PRC2 and promotes the role of CLF-PRC2 in establishing and/or maintaining the level of H3K27 trimethylation on FLC. Thus, we report a new mechanism for regulating plant gene transcription, mRNA splicing, and growth and development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Mutação com Perda de Função , Lisina/metabolismo , Metilação , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Ligação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos
2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 187-201, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681357

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The mutation of FAX1 (Fatty Acid Export 1) disrupts ROS homeostasis and suppresses transcription activity of DYT1-TDF1-AMS-MS188 genetic network, leading to atypical tapetum PCD and defective pollen formation in Arabidopsis. Fatty acids (FAs) have multiple important biological functions and exert diverse cellular effects through modulating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) homeostasis. Arabidopsis FAX1 (Fatty Acid Export 1) mediates the export of de novo synthesized FA from chloroplast and loss of function of FAX1 impairs male fertility. However, mechanisms underlying the association of FAX1-mediated FA export with male sterility remain enigmatic. In this study, by using an integrated approach that included morphological, cytological, histological, and molecular analyses, we revealed that loss of function of FAX1 breaks cellular FA/lipid homeostasis, which disrupts ROS homeostasis and suppresses transcriptional activation of the DYT1-TDF1-AMS-MS188 genetic network of anther development, impairing tapetum development and pollen wall formation, and resulting in male sterility. This study provides new insights into the regulatory network for male reproduction in plants, highlighting an important role of FA export-mediated ROS homeostasis in the process.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/citologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pólen/genética , Reprodução , Fatores de Transcrição
3.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008883, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609718

RESUMO

Plant steroid hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant growth and development at many levels. While negative regulatory factors that inhibit development and are counteracted by BRs exist in the root meristem, these factors have not been characterized. The functions of UPB1 transcription factor in BR-regulated root growth have not been established, although its role in regulating root are well documented. Here, we found that BIN2 interacts with and phosphorylates the UPB1 transcription factor consequently promoting UPB1 stability and transcriptional activity. Genetic analysis revealed that UPB1 deficiency could partially recover the short-root phenotype of BR-deficient mutants. Expression of a mutated UPB1S37AS41A protein lacking a conserved BIN2 phosphorylation sites can rescue shorter root phenotype of bin2-1 mutant. In addition, UPB1 was repressed by BES1 at the transcriptional level. The paclobutrazol-resistant protein family (PRE2/3) interacts with UPB1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity to promote root meristem development, and BIN2-mediated phosphorylation of UPB1 suppresses its interaction with PRE2/3, and subsequently impairing root meristem development. Taken together, our data elucidate a molecular mechanism by which BR promotes root growth via inhibiting BIN2-UPB1 module.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosforilação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/genética
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008900, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667955

RESUMO

In this study we performed a genotype-phenotype association analysis of meiotic stability in 10 autotetraploid Arabidopsis lyrata and A. lyrata/A. arenosa hybrid populations collected from the Wachau region and East Austrian Forealps. The aim was to determine the effect of eight meiosis genes under extreme selection upon adaptation to whole genome duplication. Individual plants were genotyped by high-throughput sequencing of the eight meiosis genes (ASY1, ASY3, PDS5b, PRD3, REC8, SMC3, ZYP1a/b) implicated in synaptonemal complex formation and phenotyped by assessing meiotic metaphase I chromosome configurations. Our results reveal that meiotic stability varied greatly (20-100%) between individual tetraploid plants and associated with segregation of a novel ASYNAPSIS3 (ASY3) allele derived from A. lyrata. The ASY3 allele that associates with meiotic stability possesses a putative in-frame tandem duplication (TD) of a serine-rich region upstream of the coiled-coil domain that appears to have arisen at sites of DNA microhomology. The frequency of multivalents observed in plants homozygous for the ASY3 TD haplotype was significantly lower than in plants heterozygous for ASY3 TD/ND (non-duplicated) haplotypes. The chiasma distribution was significantly altered in the stable plants compared to the unstable plants with a shift from proximal and interstitial to predominantly distal locations. The number of HEI10 foci at pachytene that mark class I crossovers was significantly reduced in a plant homozygous for ASY3 TD compared to a plant heterozygous for ASY3 ND/TD. Fifty-eight alleles of the 8 meiosis genes were identified from the 10 populations analysed, demonstrating dynamic population variability at these loci. Widespread chimerism between alleles originating from A. lyrata/A. arenosa and diploid/tetraploids indicates that this group of rapidly evolving genes may provide precise adaptive control over meiotic recombination in the tetraploids, the very process that gave rise to them.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Meiose/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pareamento Cromossômico/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Diploide , Tetraploidia
5.
Gene ; 758: 144954, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683079

RESUMO

Teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor1 (TCP) is a plant-specific protein family member involved in plant growth and development. However, the functions of most members of the cotton TCP family are unknown. In this study, the GbTCP5 gene encodes a sea-island cotton class II TCP CIN subclass transcription factor. The GbTCP5 transcription factor is located in the nucleus, has transcriptional activation activity, and can bind to TCP II cis-acting elements. GbTCP5 was widely expressed in tissues with the highest transcript level in the calyx. GbTCP5 is expressed at different developmental stages of the fiber and has significantly high transcriptional level expression in the fibers at 20, 30 and 35 days post anthesis (DPA). Heterologous overexpression of the GbTCP5 gene increased root hair length, root hair and stem trichome density, and stem lignin content in transgenic Arabidopsis compared to the wild type (WT). GbTCP5 binds the promoters of the GL3, EGL3, CPC, MYB46, LBD30, CesA4, VND7, CCOMT1, and CAD5 genes to upregulate their expression. Moreover, the homologous genes of these genes are expressed in the fibers of different developmental stages of the sea-island cotton fiber. These results indicate that GbTCP5 regulates root hair development and secondary wall formation in Arabidopsis and may be a candidate gene for improving cotton fiber quality.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Gossypium/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497140

RESUMO

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are widely involved in many adverse conditions among plants. In this study, we isolated a LEA4 gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) termed MsLEA4-4 via a homology cloning strategy. MsLEA4-4 encodes 166 amino acids, and the structural analysis showed that the gene contained five repeating TAQAAKEKTQQ amino acid motifs. There were a large number of α-helix in MsLEA4-4, and belongs to hydrophilic amino acid. Subcellular localization analysis showed that MsLEA4-4 was localized in the nucleus. The MsLEA4-4 promoter consisted of G-box and A-box elements, abscisic acid-responsive elements (ABREs), photo regulation and photoperiodic-controlling cis-acting elements, and endosperm expression motifs. The MsLEA4-4 overexpressing in Arabidopsis conferred late-germination phenotypes. Resistance of the overexpressed plants to abiotic stress significantly outperformed the wild-type (WT) plants. Under salt stress and abscisic acid treatment, with more lateral roots and higher chlorophyll content, the overexpressed plants has a higher survival rate measured against WT. Compared to those in the WT plants, the levels of soluble sugar and the activity of various antioxidant enzymes were elevated in the overexpressed plants, whereas the levels of proline and malondialdehyde were significantly reduced. The expression levels of several genes such as ABF3, ABI5, NCED5, and NCED9 increased markedly in the overexpressed plants compared to the WT under osmotic stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Secas , Medicago sativa/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Expressão Gênica , Germinação , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
7.
Nature ; 583(7815): 277-281, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528176

RESUMO

Plant hormones known as strigolactones control plant development and interactions between host plants and symbiotic fungi or parasitic weeds1-4. In Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, the proteins DWARF14 (D14), MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2), SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2-LIKE 6, 7 and 8 (SMXL6, SMXL7 and SMXL8) and their orthologues form a complex upon strigolactone perception and play a central part in strigolactone signalling5-10. However, whether and how strigolactones activate downstream transcription remains largely unknown. Here we use a synthetic strigolactone to identify 401 strigolactone-responsive genes in Arabidopsis, and show that these plant hormones regulate shoot branching, leaf shape and anthocyanin accumulation mainly through transcriptional activation of the BRANCHED 1, TCP DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 and PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 genes. We find that SMXL6 targets 729 genes in the Arabidopsis genome and represses the transcription of SMXL6, SMXL7 and SMXL8 by binding directly to their promoters, showing that SMXL6 serves as an autoregulated transcription factor to maintain the homeostasis of strigolactone signalling. These findings reveal an unanticipated mechanism through which a transcriptional repressor of hormone signalling can directly recognize DNA and regulate transcription in higher plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcrição Genética , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 55-65, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572798

RESUMO

Increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has a significant effect on plant growth and development. To explore the elevated-CO2 response, we generated transcriptional profiles over a time course (2 h-14 days) of exposure to elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genes related to photosynthesis were down-regulated and circadian rhythm-related genes were abnormally regulated in the early to middle phase of elevated CO2 exposure. To understand the novel mechanism of elevated CO2 signaling, we focused on 42 unknown small coding genes that showed differential expression patterns under elevated CO2 conditions. Four transgenic plants overexpressing the small coding gene exhibited a growth-defective phenotype under elevated CO2 but not under current CO2. Transcriptome analysis showed that circadian rhythm-related genes were commonly regulated in four transgenic plants. These circadian rhythm-related genes were transcribed in the dark when CO2 concentrations in the leaf was high. Taken together, our identified four small coding genes are likely to participate in elevated CO2 signaling to the circadian rhythm.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Transcriptoma
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492072

RESUMO

The role of root exudates has long been recognized for its potential to improve nutrient use efficiency in cropping systems. However, studies addressing the variability of root exudates involved in phosphorus solubilization across plant developmental stages remain scarce. Here, we grew Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in sterile liquid culture with a low, medium, or high concentration of phosphate and measured the composition of the root exudate at seedling, vegetative, and bolting stages. The exudates changed in response to the incremental addition of phosphorus, starting from the vegetative stage. Specific metabolites decreased in relation to phosphate concentration supplementation at specific stages of development. Some of those metabolites were tested for their phosphate solubilizing activity, and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, malic acid, and nicotinic acid were able to solubilize calcium phosphate from both solid and liquid media. In summary, our data suggest that plants can release distinct compounds to deal with phosphorus deficiency needs influenced by the phosphorus nutritional status at varying developmental stages.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Fosfatos/farmacocinética , Exsudatos de Plantas/análise , Solubilidade
10.
Gene ; 754: 144818, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485308

RESUMO

Plants are continuously exposed to agents that can generate DNA lesions. Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is one of the repair pathways employed by plants to protect their genome, including from sunlight. The Xeroderma Pigmentosum type B (XPB) protein is a DNA helicase shown to be involved in NER and is also an essential subunitof the Transcription Factor IIH (TFIIH) complex. XPB was found to be a single copy gene in eukaryotes, but found as a tandem duplication in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, AtXPB1 and AtXPB2. We aimed to investigate whether the XPB in tandem duplication was common within members of the Brassicaceae. We analyzed genomic DNA of species from different tribes of the family and the results indicate that the tandem duplication occurred in Camelineae tribe ancestor, of which A. thaliana belongs, at approximately 8 million years ago. Further experiments were devised to study possible functional roles for the A. thaliana AtXPB paralogs. A non-coincident expression profile of the paralogs was observed in various plant organs, developmental and cell cycle stages. AtXPB2 expression was observed in proliferating cells and clustered with the transcription of other components of the TFIIH such as p44, p52 and XPD/UVH6 along the cell cycle. AtXPB1 gene transcription, on the other hand, was enhanced specifically after UV-B irradiation in leaf trichomes. Altogether, our results reported herein suggest a functional specialization for the AtXPB paralogs: while the AtXPB2 paralog may have a role in cell proliferation and repair as XPB of other eukaryotes, the AtXPB1 paralog is most likely implicated in repair functions in highly specialized A. thaliana cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Ciclo Celular , Fator de Transcrição TFIIH/genética , Fator de Transcrição TFIIH/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Raios Ultravioleta
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502716

RESUMO

Thymol is a natural phenolic monoterpene widely produced by different species belonging to the Labiateae family. Although the thymol phytotoxicity is well known, the knowledge of its potential toxic mechanism is still limited. In this regard, the model species Arabidopsis thaliana was treated for 16 days by sub-irrigation with 300 µM of thymol. The results confirmed the high phytotoxic potential of this phenolic compound, which caused a reduction in plant growth and development. Thymol induced a water status alteration accompanied by an increase in ABA content and stomatal closure. Furthermore, leaves appeared necrotic in the margins and their temperature rinsed. The increase in H2O2 content suggested an oxidative stress experienced by treated plants. Both metabolomic and proteomic analysis confirmed this hypothesis showing a strong increase in osmoprotectants content, such as galactinol and proline, and a significant up-accumulation of proteins involved in ROS detoxification. Furthermore, the down-accumulation of proteins and pigments involved in the photosynthetic machinery, the increase in light sensitivity and the lower PSII efficiency well indicated a reduction in photosynthetic activity. Overall, we can postulate that thymol-induced phytotoxicity could be related to a combined osmotic and oxidative stress that resulted in reduced plant development.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma , Proteoma , Timol/toxicidade , Ácido Abscísico , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008849, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516352

RESUMO

Cohesin, a multisubunit protein complex, is required for holding sister chromatids together during mitosis and meiosis. The recruitment of cohesin by the sister chromatid cohesion 2/4 (SCC2/4) complex has been extensively studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitosis, but its role in mitosis and meiosis remains poorly understood in multicellular organisms, because complete loss-of-function of either gene causes embryonic lethality. Here, we identified a weak allele of Atscc2 (Atscc2-5) that has only minor defects in vegetative development but exhibits a significant reduction in fertility. Cytological analyses of Atscc2-5 reveal multiple meiotic phenotypes including defects in chromosomal axis formation, meiosis-specific cohesin loading, homolog pairing and synapsis, and AtSPO11-1-dependent double strand break repair. Surprisingly, even though AtSCC2 interacts with AtSCC4 in vitro and in vivo, meiosis-specific knockdown of AtSCC4 expression does not cause any meiotic defect, suggesting that the SCC2-SCC4 complex has divergent roles in mitosis and meiosis. SCC2 homologs from land plants have a unique plant homeodomain (PHD) motif not found in other species. We show that the AtSCC2 PHD domain can bind to the N terminus of histones and is required for meiosis but not mitosis. Taken together, our results provide evidence that unlike SCC2 in other organisms, SCC2 requires a functional PHD domain during meiosis in land plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Meiose/genética , Dedos de Zinco PHD/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genoma de Planta/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Mitose/genética , Morfogênese/genética , Mutagênese , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Polinização/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510485

RESUMO

Understanding cell and tissue level regulation of growth and morphogenesis has been at the forefront of biological research for many decades. Advances in molecular and imaging technologies allowed us to gain insights into how biochemical signals influence morphogenetic events. However, it is increasingly evident that apart from biochemical signals, mechanical cues also impact several aspects of cell and tissue growth. The Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a dome-shaped structure responsible for the generation of all aboveground organs. The organization of the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton that mediates apoplastic cellulose deposition in plant cells is spatially distinct. Visualization and quantitative assessment of patterns of cortical microtubules are necessary for understanding the biophysical nature of cells at the SAM, as cellulose is the stiffest component of the plant cell wall. The stereotypical form of cortical microtubule organization is also a consequence of tissue-wide physical forces existing at the SAM. Perturbation of these physical forces and subsequent monitoring of cortical microtubule organization allows for the identification of candidate proteins involved in mediating mechano-perception and transduction. Here we describe a protocol that helps investigate such processes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/citologia , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Imagem Molecular , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Sobrevivência Celular , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Meristema/citologia , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Morfogênese
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2532, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439842

RESUMO

Facilitation studies typically compare plants under differential stress levels with and without neighbors, while the density of neighbors has rarely been addressed. However, recent empirical studies indicate that facilitation may be density-dependent too and peak at intermediate neighbor densities. Here, we propose a conceptual model to incorporate density-dependence into theory about changes of plant-plant interactions under stress. To test our predictions, we combine an individual-based model incorporating both facilitative response and effect, with an experiment using salt stress and Arabidopsis thaliana. Theoretical and experimental results are strikingly consistent: (1) the intensity of facilitation peaks at intermediate density, and this peak shifts to higher densities with increasing stress; (2) this shift further modifies the balance between facilitation and competition such that the stress-gradient hypothesis applies only at high densities. Our model suggests that density-dependence must be considered for predicting plant-plant interactions under environmental change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Estresse Fisiológico , Aclimatação , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Dinâmica Populacional
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 199: 110727, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446101

RESUMO

Sulfonamides (SAs) are antibiotics widely used in clinical practice, livestock and poultry production, and the aquaculture industry. The compounds enter the soil environment largely through livestock and poultry manure application to farmland. SAs not only affect plant growth, but also pose a potential threat to human health through SA residues in plant tissues. In particular, sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) has been classified as a Category 3 carcinogen by the World Health Organization, and thus its soil ecological toxicity and possible health risks are of concern. Using A. thaliana as a model plant, stress responses and biological residues of sulfadiazine (SD), sulfametoxydiazine (SMD), and SMZ were investigated in the present study. Root length and aboveground plant biomass were significantly inhibited by the three types of SA, whereas lateral roots exposed to SMD grew vigorously. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and photosystem II maximum photochemical quantum yield declined with increase in drug concentration, which indicated that exposure to SAs affected photosynthesis and inhibited chlorophyll synthesis in A. thaliana. With increase in drug concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the leaves increased significantly. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were activated at low SA concentrations, but increased lipid peroxidation occurred with increase in SA concentration. Of the three compounds, SMZ was the most toxic to A. thaliana, followed by SD, and SMD was the least toxic. The results indicated that the risk of SMD entering an organism through the food chain is greater than that for SMZ and SD.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Sulfanilamidas/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110721, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464438

RESUMO

Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are small (10-15 kDa) glutathione (GSH) - dependent redox proteins. The role of Grxs are well documented in tolerance to heavy metal stress in prokaryotic and mammalian systems and a few plant genera, but is poorly understood in plants against drought. In the present study, two rice glutaredoxin (Osgrx) genes (LOC_Os02g40500 and LOC_Os01g27140) responsible for tolerance against heavy metal stress have been studied for investigating their role against drought. Each glutaredoxin gene was over-expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to reveal their role in drought stress. The relative expression of both Osgrx genes was higher in the transgenic lines. Transgenic lines of both Osgrxs showed longer roots, higher seed germination, and survival efficiency during drought stress. The physiological parameters (PN, gs, E, WUE, qP, NPQ and ETR), antioxidant enzymes (GRX, GR, GPX, GST, APX, POD, SOD, CAT, DHAR, and MDHAR), antioxidant molecules (ascorbate and GSH) and stress-responsive amino acids (cysteine and proline) levels were additionally increased in transgenic lines of both Osgrxs to provide drought tolerance. The outcomes from this study strongly determined that each Osgrx gene participated in the moderation of drought and might be utilized in biological engineering strategies to overcome drought conditions in different crops.


Assuntos
Glutarredoxinas/genética , Oryza/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Secas , Genes de Plantas , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232762, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379789

RESUMO

Cytokinin is an indispensable phytohormone responsible for physiological processes ranging from root development to leaf senescence. The term "cytokinin" refers to several dozen adenine-derived compounds occurring naturally in plants. Cytokinins (CKs) can be divided into various classes and forms; base forms are generally considered to be active while highly abundant cytokinin-N-glucosides (CKNGs), composed of a CK base irreversibly conjugated to a glucose molecule, are considered inactive. However, results from early CK studies suggest CKNGs do not always lack activity despite the perpetuation over several decades in the literature that they are inactive. Here we show that exogenous application of trans-Zeatin-N-glucosides (tZNGs, a specific class of CKNGs) to Arabidopsis results in CK response comparable to the application of an active CK base. These results are most apparent in senescence assays where both a CK base (tZ) and tZNGs (tZ7G, tZ9G) delay senescence in cotyledons. Further experiments involving root growth and shoot regeneration revealed tZNGs do not always have the same effects as tZ, and have largely distinct effects on the transcriptome and proteome. These data are in contrast to previous reports of CKNGs being inactive and raise questions about the function of these compounds as well as their mechanism of action.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citocininas/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zeatina/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0228515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, it was found that 1% Phytagel plates used to conduct Arabidopsis thaliana seedling phenotypic analysis no longer reproduced previously published results. This Phytagel, which is produced in China (Phytagel C), has replace American-made Phytagel (Phytagel), which is no longer commercially available. In this study, we present the impact of Phytagel produced in the United States vs. China on seedling phenotypic analysis. As a part of this study, an alternative gelling agent has been identified that is capable of reproducing previously published seedling morphometrics. RESULTS: Phytagel and Phytagel C were investigated based on their ability to reproduce the subtle phenotype of the sob3-4 esc-8 double mutant. Fluence-rate-response analysis of seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel C plates failed to replicate the sob3-4 esc-8 subtle phenotype seen on 1% Phytagel. Furthermore, root penetrance analysis showed a significant difference between sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel and 1% Phytagel C. It was also found that 1% Phytagel C was significantly harder than 1% Phytagel. As a replacement for Phytagel C, Gellan was tested. 1% Gellan was able to reproduce the subtle phenotype of sob3-4 esc-8. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in root penetration of the wild type or sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings between 1% Phytagel and 1% Gellan. This may be due to the significant reduction in hardness in 1% Gellan plates compared to 1% Phytagel plates. Finally, we tested additional concentrations of Gellan and found that seedlings on 0.6% Gellan looked more uniform while also being able to reproduce previously published results. CONCLUSIONS: Phytagel has been the standard gelling agent for several studies involving the characterization of subtle seedling phenotypes. After production was moved to China, Phytagel C was no longer capable of reproducing these previously published results. An alternative gelling agent, Gellan, was able to reproduce previously published seedling phenotypes at both 1% and 0.6% concentrations. The information provided in this manuscript is beneficial to the scientific community as whole, specifically phenomics labs, as it details key problematic differences between gelling agents that should be performing identically (Phytagel and Phytagel C).


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Géis/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômica , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453778

RESUMO

Glyoxalase pathway is the major pathway of methylglyoxal detoxification and is ubiquitously present in all organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Glyoxalase I (GLYI) and Glyoxalase II (GLYII), the two core enzymes of this pathway work together to neutralize methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl molecule with detrimental cytotoxicity at higher concentrations. The first step towards the detoxification of MG is catalyzed by GLYI, a metalloenzyme that requires divalent metal ions (either Zn2+ as seen in eukaryotes or Ni2+ as in prokaryotes). However, both Zn2+ and Ni2+ dependent GLYIs have been shown to co-exist in a higher eukaryote i.e. Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we determine the role of both Zn2+ dependent (AtGLYI2) and Ni2+ dependent (AtGLYI3, AtGLYI6) GLYIs from Arabidopsis in salinity stress tolerance. AtGLYI2 overexpressing Arabidopsis plants showed better growth rate while maintaining lower levels of MG under high saline conditions. They were taller with more number of silique formation with respect to their Ni2+ dependent counterparts. Further, lack in germination of Arabidopsis AtGLYI2 mutants in presence of exogenous MG indicates the direct involvement of Zn2+ dependent GLYI in MG detoxification, suggesting Zn2+ dependent GLYI as the main enzyme responsible for MG detoxification and salinity stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactoilglutationa Liase/genética , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Mutação , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(6): 621-629, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393884

RESUMO

Epigenetic marks are reprogrammed in the gametes to reset genomic potential in the next generation. In mammals, paternal chromatin is extensively reprogrammed through the global erasure of DNA methylation and the exchange of histones with protamines1,2. Precisely how the paternal epigenome is reprogrammed in flowering plants has remained unclear since DNA is not demethylated and histones are retained in sperm3,4. Here, we describe a multi-layered mechanism by which H3K27me3 is globally lost from histone-based sperm chromatin in Arabidopsis. This mechanism involves the silencing of H3K27me3 writers, activity of H3K27me3 erasers and deposition of a sperm-specific histone, H3.10 (ref. 5), which we show is immune to lysine 27 methylation. The loss of H3K27me3 facilitates the transcription of genes essential for spermatogenesis and pre-configures sperm with a chromatin state that forecasts gene expression in the next generation. Thus, plants have evolved a specific mechanism to simultaneously differentiate male gametes and reprogram the paternal epigenome.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Reprogramação Celular , Cromatina/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Histonas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Homologia de Sequência
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