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1.
Science ; 378(6616): 175-180, 2022 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227996

RESUMO

Deciding whether to grow or to divert energy to stress responses is a major physiological trade-off for plants surviving in fluctuating environments. We show that three leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) act as direct ligand-perceiving receptors for PLANT PEPTIDE CONTAINING SULFATED TYROSINE (PSY)-family peptides and mediate switching between two opposing pathways. By contrast to known LRR-RKs, which activate signaling upon ligand binding, PSY receptors (PSYRs) activate the expression of various genes encoding stress response transcription factors upon depletion of the ligands. Loss of PSYRs results in defects in plant tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This ligand-deprivation-dependent activation system potentially enables plants to exert tuned regulation of stress responses in the tissues proximal to metabolically dysfunctional damaged sites where ligand production is impaired.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Repetições Ricas em Leucina , Peptídeos , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ligantes , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Proteínas de Repetições Ricas em Leucina/metabolismo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(38): e2205842119, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095196

RESUMO

RNA uridylation, catalyzed by terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases), represents a conserved and widespread posttranscriptional RNA modification in eukaryotes that affects RNA metabolism. In plants, several TUTases, including HEN1 SUPPRESSOR 1 (HESO1) and UTP: RNA URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE (URT1), have been characterized through genetic and biochemical approaches. However, little is known about their physiological significance during plant development. Here, we show that HESO1 and URT1 act cooperatively with the cytoplasmic 3'-5' exoribonucleolytic machinery component SUPERKILLER 2 (SKI2) to regulate photosynthesis through RNA surveillance of the Calvin cycle gene TRANSKETOLASE 1 (TKL1) in Arabidopsis. Simultaneous dysfunction of HESO1, URT1, and SKI2 resulted in leaf etiolation and reduced photosynthetic efficiency. In addition, we detected massive illegitimate short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from the TKL1 locus in heso1 urt1 ski2, accompanied by reduced TKL1/2 expression and attenuated TKL activities. Consequently, the metabolic analysis revealed that the abundance of many Calvin cycle intermediates is dramatically disturbed in heso1 urt1 ski2. Importantly, all these molecular and physiological defects were largely rescued by the loss-of-function mutation in RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6), demonstrating illegitimate siRNA-mediated TKL silencing. Taken together, our results suggest that HESO1- and URT1-mediated RNA uridylation connects to the cytoplasmic RNA degradation pathway for RNA surveillance, which is crucial for TKL expression and photosynthesis in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Fotossíntese , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transcetolase , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , RNA Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transcetolase/genética , Transcetolase/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo
3.
Plant J ; 112(2): 451-459, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042697

RESUMO

The search for genetic regulators of leaf venation patterning started over 30 years ago, primarily focused on mutant screens in the eudicotyledon Arabidopsis thaliana. Developmental perturbations in either cotyledons or true leaves led to the identification of transcription factors required to elaborate the characteristic reticulated vein network. An ortholog of one of these, the C2H2 zinc finger protein DEFECTIVELY ORGANIZED TRIBUTARIES 5 (AtDOT5), was recently identified through transcriptomics as a candidate regulator of parallel venation in maize (Zea mays) leaves. To elucidate how AtDOT5 regulates vein patterning, we generated three independent loss-of-function mutations by gene editing in Arabidopsis. Surprisingly, none of them exhibited any obvious phenotypic perturbations. To reconcile our findings with earlier reports, we re-evaluated the original Atdot5-1 and Atdot5-2 alleles. By genome sequencing, we show that reported mutations at the Atdot5-1 locus are actually polymorphisms between Landsberg erecta and Columbia ecotypes, and that other mutations present in the background most likely cause the pleiotropic mutant phenotype observed. We further show that a T-DNA insertion in the Atdot5-2 locus has no impact on leaf venation patterns when segregated from other T-DNA insertions present in the original line. We thus conclude that AtDOT5 plays no role in leaf venation patterning in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Folhas de Planta , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cotilédone/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
Plant Cell ; 34(11): 4173-4190, 2022 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005862

RESUMO

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that guide chemical modifications of structural RNAs, which are essential for ribosome assembly and function in eukaryotes. Although numerous snoRNAs have been identified in plants by high-throughput sequencing, the biological functions of most of these snoRNAs remain unclear. Here, we identified box C/D SnoR28.1s as important regulators of plant growth and development by screening a CRISPR/Cas9-generated ncRNA deletion mutant library in Arabidopsis thaliana. Deletion of the SnoR28.1 locus, which contains a cluster of three genes producing SnoR28.1s, resulted in defects in root and shoot growth. SnoR28.1s guide 2'-O-ribose methylation of 25S rRNA at G2396. SnoR28.1s facilitate proper and efficient pre-rRNA processing, as the SnoR28.1 deletion mutants also showed impaired ribosome assembly and function, which may account for the growth defects. SnoR28 contains a 7-bp antisense box, which is required for 2'-O-ribose methylation of 25S rRNA at G2396, and an 8-bp extra box that is complementary to a nearby rRNA methylation site and is partially responsible for methylation of G2396. Both of these motifs are required for proper and efficient pre-rRNA processing. Finally, we show that SnoR28.1s genetically interact with HIDDEN TREASURE2 and NUCLEOLIN1. Our results advance our understanding of the roles of snoRNAs in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , RNA de Plantas , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ribose/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/metabolismo , Metilação , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Plant Cell ; 34(11): 4583-4599, 2022 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005863

RESUMO

Proper plant growth and development require spatial coordination of cell divisions. Two unrelated microtubule-binding proteins, TANGLED1 (TAN1) and AUXIN-INDUCED IN ROOT CULTURES9 (AIR9), are together required for normal growth and division plane orientation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tan1 air9 double mutant has synthetic growth and division plane orientation defects, while single mutants lack obvious defects. Here we show that the division site-localized protein, PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN1 (POK1), was aberrantly lost from the division site during metaphase and telophase in the tan1 air9 mutant. Since TAN1 and POK1 interact via the first 132 amino acids of TAN1 (TAN11-132), we assessed the localization and function of TAN11-132 in the tan1 air9 double mutant. TAN11-132 rescued tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes and localized to the division site during telophase. However, replacing six amino-acid residues within TAN11-132, which disrupted the POK1-TAN1 interaction in the yeast-two-hybrid system, caused loss of both rescue and division site localization of TAN11-132 in the tan1 air9 mutant. Full-length TAN1 with the same alanine substitutions had defects in phragmoplast guidance and reduced TAN1 and POK1 localization at the division site but rescued most tan1 air9 mutant phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that TAN1 and AIR9 are required for POK1 localization, and yet unknown proteins may stabilize TAN1-POK1 interactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos , Raízes de Plantas , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitose , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2122148119, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858396

RESUMO

In Darwin's and Mendel's times, researchers investigated a wealth of organisms, chosen to solve particular problems for which they seemed especially well suited. Later, a focus on a few organisms, which are accessible to systematic genetic investigations, resulted in larger repertoires of methods and applications in these few species. Genetic animal model organisms with large research communities are the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fly Drosophila melanogaster, the zebrafish Danio rerio, and the mouse Mus musculus. Due to their specific strengths, these model organisms have their strongest impacts in rather different areas of biology. C. elegans is unbeatable in the analysis of cell-to-cell contacts by saturation mutagenesis, as worms can be grown very fast in very high numbers. In Drosophila, a rich pattern is generated in the embryo as well as in adults that is used to unravel the underlying mechanisms of morphogenesis. The transparent larvae of zebrafish are uniquely suited to study organ development in a vertebrate, and the superb versatility of reverse genetics in the mouse made it the model organism to study human physiology and diseases. The combination of these models allows the in-depth genetic analysis of many fundamental biological processes using a plethora of different methods, finally providing many specific approaches to combat human diseases. The plant model Arabidopsis thaliana provides an understanding of many aspects of plant biology that might ultimately be useful for breeding crops.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Pesquisa em Genética , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Peixe-Zebra/genética
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2202172119, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858436

RESUMO

The desiccated, quiescent state of seeds confers extended survival of the embryonic plant. However, accumulation of striking levels of genome damage in quiescence impairs germination and threatens plant survival. The mechanisms by which seeds mitigate this damage remain unclear. Here, we reveal that imbibed Arabidopsis seeds display high resistance to DNA damage, which is lost as seeds advance to germination, coincident with increasing cell cycle activity. In contrast to seedlings, we show that seeds minimize the impact of DNA damage by reducing meristem disruption and delaying SOG1-dependent programmed cell death. This promotes root growth early postgermination. In response to naturally accumulated DNA damage in aging seeds, SOG1 activates cell death postgermination. SOG1 activities are also important for promoting successful seedling establishment. These distinct cellular responses of seeds and seedlings are reflected by different DNA damage transcriptional profiles. Comparative analysis of DNA repair mutants identifies roles of the major genome maintenance pathways in germination but that the repair of cytotoxic chromosomal breaks is the most important for seed longevity. Collectively, these results indicate that high levels of DNA damage incurred in seeds are countered by low cell cycle activity, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair, promoting successful seedling establishment. Our findings reveal insight into both the physiological significance of plant DNA damage responses and the mechanisms which maintain seed longevity, important for survival of plant populations in the natural environment and sustainable crop production under changing climates.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Dano ao DNA , Germinação , Sementes , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Germinação/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Nature ; 607(7918): 339-344, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768511

RESUMO

Extreme weather conditions associated with climate change affect many aspects of plant and animal life, including the response to infectious diseases. Production of salicylic acid (SA), a central plant defence hormone1-3, is particularly vulnerable to suppression by short periods of hot weather above the normal plant growth temperature range via an unknown mechanism4-7. Here we show that suppression of SA production in Arabidopsis thaliana at 28 °C is independent of PHYTOCHROME B8,9 (phyB) and EARLY FLOWERING 310 (ELF3), which regulate thermo-responsive plant growth and development. Instead, we found that formation of GUANYLATE BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 3 (GBPL3) defence-activated biomolecular condensates11 (GDACs) was reduced at the higher growth temperature. The altered GDAC formation in vivo is linked to impaired recruitment of GBPL3 and SA-associated Mediator subunits to the promoters of CBP60g and SARD1, which encode master immune transcription factors. Unlike many other SA signalling components, including the SA receptor and biosynthetic genes, optimized CBP60g expression was sufficient to broadly restore SA production, basal immunity and effector-triggered immunity at the elevated growth temperature without significant growth trade-offs. CBP60g family transcription factors are widely conserved in plants12. These results have implications for safeguarding the plant immune system as well as understanding the concept of the plant-pathogen-environment disease triangle and the emergence of new disease epidemics in a warming climate.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Meio Ambiente , Aquecimento Global , Imunidade Vegetal , Temperatura , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Calmodulina/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fitocromo B , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(27): e2202669119, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763576

RESUMO

Induction of a pluripotent cell mass, called callus, from detached organs is an initial step in in vitro plant regeneration, during which phytohormone auxin-induced ectopic activation of a root developmental program has been shown to be required for subsequent de novo regeneration of shoots and roots. However, whether other signals are involved in governing callus formation, and thus plant regeneration capability, remains largely unclear. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis calcium (Ca2+) signaling module CALMODULIN IQ-MOTIF CONTAINING PROTEIN (CaM-IQM) interacts with auxin signaling to regulate callus and lateral root formation. We show that disruption of IQMs or CaMs retards auxin-induced callus and lateral root formation by dampening auxin responsiveness, and that CaM-IQM complexes physically interact with the auxin signaling repressors INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE (IAA) proteins in a Ca2+-dependent manner. We further provide evidence that the physical interaction of CaM6 with IAA19 destabilizes the repressive interaction of IAA19 with AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 7 (ARF7), and thus regulates auxin-induced callus formation. These findings not only define a critical role of CaM-IQM-mediated Ca2+ signaling in callus and lateral root formation, but also provide insight into the interplay of Ca2+ signaling and auxin actions during plant regeneration and development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Sinalização do Cálcio , Organogênese Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 185: 101-111, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667317

RESUMO

Uranium, a heavy metal and primordial radionuclide, is present in surface waters and soils both naturally and due to industrial activities. Uranium is known to be toxic to plants and its uptake and toxicity can be influenced by multiple factors such as pH and the presence of different ions. However, the precise role of the different ions in uranium uptake is not yet known. Here we investigated whether calcium influences uranium uptake and toxicity in the terrestrial plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To this end, A. thaliana plants were exposed to different calcium and uranium concentrations and furthermore, calcium channels were blocked using the calcium channel blocker lanthanum chloride (LaCl3). Fresh weight, relative growth rate, concentration of nutrients and uranium and gene expression of oxidative stress-related genes and calcium transporters were determined in roots and shoots. Calcium affected plant growth and oxidative stress in both control (no uranium) and uranium-exposed plants. In shoots, this was influenced by the total calcium concentration, but not by the different tested uranium concentrations. Uranium in turn did influence calcium uptake and distribution. Uranium-exposed plants grown in a medium with a higher calcium concentration showed an increase in gene expression of NADPH oxidases RBOHC and RBOHE and calcium transporter CAX7 after uranium exposure. In roots, these calcium-dependent responses in gene expression were not observed. This indicates that calcium indeed affects uranium toxicity, but only in shoots. In addition, a clear influence of uranium and LaCl3 (separately and combined) on the expression of calcium transporters was observed.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Cálcio , Urânio , Antiporters/genética , Antiporters/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cálcio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lantânio/farmacologia , NADPH Oxidases/genética , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Urânio/toxicidade
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2122582119, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733265

RESUMO

Plants use photoperiodism to activate flowering in response to a particular daylength. In rice, flowering is accelerated in short-day conditions, and even a brief exposure to light during the dark period (night-break) is sufficient to delay flowering. Although many of the genes involved in controlling flowering in rice have been uncovered, how the long- and short-day flowering pathways are integrated, and the mechanism of photoperiod perception is not understood. While many of the signaling components controlling photoperiod-activated flowering are conserved between Arabidopsis and rice, flowering in these two systems is activated by opposite photoperiods. Here we establish that photoperiodism in rice is controlled by the evening complex (EC). We show that mutants in the EC genes LUX ARRYTHMO (LUX) and EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) paralogs abolish rice flowering. We also show that the EC directly binds and suppresses the expression of flowering repressors, including PRR37 and Ghd7. We further demonstrate that light acts via phyB to cause a rapid and sustained posttranslational modification of ELF3-1. Our results suggest a mechanism by which the EC is able to control both long- and short-day flowering pathways.


Assuntos
Flores , Oryza , Fotoperíodo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Luz , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(25): e2201761119, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709319

RESUMO

The BABY BOOM (BBM) AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL) AP2/ERF domain transcription factor is a major regulator of plant cell totipotency, as it induces asexual embryo formation when ectopically expressed. Surprisingly, only limited information is available on the role of BBM during zygotic embryogenesis. Here we reexamined BBM expression and function in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) using reporter analysis and newly developed CRISPR mutants. BBM was expressed in the embryo from the zygote stage and also in the maternal (nucellus) and filial (endosperm) seed tissues. Analysis of CRISPR mutant alleles for BBM (bbm-cr) and the redundantly acting AIL gene PLETHORA2 (PLT2) (plt2-cr) uncovered individual roles for these genes in the timing of embryo progression. We also identified redundant roles for BBM and PLT2 in endosperm proliferation and cellularization and the maintenance of zygotic embryo development. Finally, we show that ectopic BBM expression in the egg cell of Arabidopsis and the dicot crops Brassica napus and Solanum lycopersicon is sufficient to bypass the fertilization requirement for embryo development. Together these results highlight roles for BBM and PLT2 in seed development and demonstrate the utility of BBM genes for engineering asexual embryo development in dicot species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Endosperma , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 63(7): 955-966, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560171

RESUMO

As the most abundant RNA modification, pseudouridylation has been shown to play critical roles in Escherichia coli, yeast and humans. However, its function in plants is still unclear. Here, we characterized leaf curly and small 1 (FCS1), which encodes a pseudouridine synthase in Arabidopsis. fcs1 mutants exhibited severe defects in plant growth, such as delayed development and reduced fertility, and were significantly smaller than the wild type at different developmental stages. FCS1 protein is localized in the mitochondrion. The absence of FCS1 significantly reduces pseudouridylation of mitochondrial 26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) at the U1692 site, which sits in the peptidyl transferase center. This affection of mitochondrial 26S rRNA may lead to the disruption of mitochondrial translation in the fcs1-1 mutant, causing high accumulation of transcripts but low production of proteins. Dysfunctional mitochondria with abnormal structures were also observed in the fcs1-1 mutant. Overall, our results suggest that FCS1-mediated pseudouridylation of mitochondrial 26S rRNA is required for mitochondrial translation, which is critical for maintaining mitochondrial function and plant development.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Transferases Intramoleculares , Mitocôndrias , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transferases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Pseudouridina/química , Pseudouridina/metabolismo , RNA Mitocondrial/genética , RNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo
15.
Planta ; 255(4): 90, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318532

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The entire process of embryo development is under the tight control of various transcription factors. Together with other proteins, they act in a combinatorial manner and control distinct events during embryo development. Seed development is a complex process that proceeds through sequences of events regulated by the interplay of various genes, prominent among them being the transcription factors (TFs). The members of WOX, HD-ZIP III, ARF, and CUC families have a preferential role in embryonic patterning. While WOX TFs are required for initiating body axis, HD-ZIP III TFs and CUCs establish bilateral symmetry and SAM. And ARF5 performs a major role during embryonic root, ground tissue, and vasculature development. TFs such as LEC1, ABI3, FUS3, and LEC2 (LAFL) are considered the master regulators of seed maturation. Furthermore, several new TFs involved in seed storage reserves and dormancy have been identified in the last few years. Their association with those master regulators has been established in the model plant Arabidopsis. Also, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay coupled with transcriptomics, genome-wide target genes of these master regulators have recently been proposed. Many seed-specific genes, including those encoding oleosins and albumins, have appeared as the direct target of LAFL. Also, several other TFs act downstream of LAFL TFs and perform their function during maturation. In this review, the function of different TFs in different phases of early embryogenesis and maturation is discussed in detail, including information about their genetic and molecular interactors and target genes. Such knowledge can further be leveraged to understand and manipulate the regulatory mechanisms involved in seed development. In addition, the genomics approaches and their utilization to identify TFs aiming to study embryo development are discussed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Science ; 376(6588): 70-73, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357912

RESUMO

Genes encode information that determines an organism's fitness. Yet we know little about whether genes of one species influence the persistence of interacting species in an ecological community. Here, we experimentally tested the effect of three plant defense genes on the persistence of an insect food web and found that a single allele at a single gene promoted coexistence by increasing plant growth rate, which in turn increased the intrinsic growth rates of species across multiple trophic levels. Our discovery of a "keystone gene" illustrates the need to bridge between biological scales, from genes to ecosystems, to understand community persistence.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Cadeia Alimentar , Genes de Plantas , Herbivoria , Insetos , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Frequência do Gene , Mutação com Perda de Função
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269589

RESUMO

In terrestrial plants a basal innate immune system, pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), has evolved to limit infection by diverse microbes. The remodeling of actin cytoskeletal arrays is now recognized as a key hallmark event during the rapid host cellular responses to pathogen attack. Several actin binding proteins have been demonstrated to fine tune the dynamics of actin filaments during this process. However, the upstream signals that stimulate actin remodeling during PTI signaling remain poorly characterized. Two second messengers, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphatidic acid (PA), are elevated following pathogen perception or microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) treatment, and the timing of signaling fluxes roughly correlates with actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Here, we combined genetic analysis, chemical complementation experiments, and quantitative live-cell imaging experiments to test the role of these second messengers in actin remodeling and to order the signaling events during plant immunity. We demonstrated that PHOSPHOLIPASE Dß (PLDß) isoforms are necessary to elicit actin accumulation in response to flg22-associated PTI. Further, bacterial growth experiments and MAMP-induced apoplastic ROS production measurements revealed that PLDß-generated PA acts upstream of ROS signaling to trigger actin remodeling through inhibition of CAPPING PROTEIN (CP) activity. Collectively, our results provide compelling evidence that PLDß/PA functions upstream of RBOHD-mediated ROS production to elicit actin rearrangements during the innate immune response in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Fosfatídicos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Imunidade Inata , NADPH Oxidases/genética , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Fosfolipase D/genética , Fosfolipase D/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Gene ; 823: 146358, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202731

RESUMO

Glutathione (GSH) is a multifunctional essential biothiol, and its metabolism is important for plant against toxic metals and metalloids. γ-Glutamylcysteine (γ-EC), which is catalyzed by γ-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS), is a rate-limiting intermediate in GSH synthesis. Here, a γ-ECS gene (Vsγ-ECS) from Vicia sativa was cloned, and its function in modulating Cd tolerance was studied. Vsγ-ECS is a chloroplast localization protein, and the expression of Vsγ-ECS was upregulated by Cd stress in root of V. sativa. Heterologous expression of Vsγ-ECS (35S::Vsγ-ECS) in Arabidopsis enhanced the Cd tolerance of plants through improved primary root length, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and low degree of oxidation associated with reduced H2O2 and lipid peroxidation. However, the Cd accumulation of Arabidopsis had no effect on Vsγ-ECS overexpression. Further analysis showed that the increased Cd tolerance in 35S::Vsγ-ECS was mainly due to the capacity of increasing GSH synthesis that improved Cd chelation by GSH and phytochelatins (PCs) and alleviated the oxidative stress caused by Cd stress. In summary, a γ-ECS was characterized from V. sativa, and it demonstrated a property for increasing GSH and PC synthesis to protect plants from Cd poisoning.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Vicia sativa/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Resistência a Medicamentos , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vicia sativa/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263928, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148336

RESUMO

Transcriptional regulator PEAPOD (PPD) and its binding partners comprise a complex that is conserved throughout many core eudicot plants with regard to protein domain sequence and the function of controlling organ size and shape. Orthologues of PPD also exist in the basal angiosperm Amborella trichopoda, various gymnosperm species, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii and several monocot genera, although until now it was not known if these are functional sequences. Here we report constitutive expression of orthologues from species representing diverse taxa of plant phylogeny in the Arabidopsis Δppd mutant. PPD orthologues from S. moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies, A. trichopoda, monocot Musa acuminata, and dicot Trifolium repens were able to complement the mutant and return it to the wild-type phenotype, demonstrating the conserved functionality of PPD throughout vascular plants. In addition, analysis of bryophyte genomes revealed potential PPD orthologues in model liverwort and moss species, suggesting a more primitive lineage for this conserved regulator. The Poaceae (grasses) lack the genes for the PPD module and the reason for loss of the complex from this economically significant family is unclear, given that grasses were the last of the flowering plants to evolve. Bioinformatic analyses identified putative PPD orthologues in close relatives of the Poaceae, indicating that the explanation for absence of PPD in the grasses may be more complex than previously considered. Understanding the mechanisms which led to loss of PPD from the grasses will provide insight into evolution of the Poaceae.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Selaginellaceae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263985, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35171969

RESUMO

Rosette morphology across Arabidopsis accessions exhibits considerable variation. Here we report a high-throughput phenotyping approach based on automatic image analysis to quantify rosette shape and dissect the underlying genetic architecture. Shape measurements of the rosettes in a core set of Recombinant Inbred Lines from an advanced mapping population (Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross or MAGIC) derived from inter-crossing 19 natural accessions. Image acquisition and analysis was scaled to extract geometric descriptors from time stamped images of growing rosettes. Shape analyses revealed heritable morphological variation at early juvenile stages and QTL mapping resulted in over 116 chromosomal regions associated with trait variation within the population. Many QTL linked to variation in shape were located near genes related to hormonal signalling and signal transduction pathways while others are involved in shade avoidance and transition to flowering. Our results suggest rosette shape arises from modular integration of sub-organ morphologies and can be considered a functional trait subjected to selective pressures of subsequent morphological traits. On an applied aspect, QTLs found will be candidates for further research on plant architecture.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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