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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4804, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376671

RESUMO

Plants respond to warm temperature by increased elongation growth of organs to enhance cooling capacity. Phytohormones, such as auxin and brassinosteroids, regulate this growth process. However, our view on the players involved in warm temperature-mediated growth remains fragmentary. Here, we show that warm temperature leads to an increased expression of JOXs and ST2A, genes controlling jasmonate catabolism. This leads to an elevated 12HSO4-JA level and consequently to a reduced level of bioactive jasmonates. Ultimately this results in more JAZ proteins, which facilitates plant growth under warm temperature conditions. Taken together, understanding the conserved role of jasmonate signalling during thermomorphogenesis contributes to ensuring food security under a changing climate.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Temperatura , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360938

RESUMO

During seed germination, desiccation tolerance is lost in the radicle with progressing radicle protrusion and seedling establishment. This process is accompanied by comprehensive changes in the metabolome and proteome. Germination of Arabidopsis seeds was investigated over 72 h with special focus on the heat-stable proteome including late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins together with changes in primary metabolites. Six metabolites in dry seeds known to be important for seed longevity decreased during germination and seedling establishment, while all other metabolites increased simultaneously with activation of growth and development. Thermo-stable proteins were associated with a multitude of biological processes. In the heat-stable proteome, a relatively similar proportion of fully ordered and fully intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) was discovered. Highly disordered proteins were found to be associated with functional categories development, protein, RNA and stress. As expected, the majority of LEA proteins decreased during germination and seedling establishment. However, four germination-specific dehydrins were identified, not present in dry seeds. A network analysis of proteins, metabolites and amino acids generated during the course of germination revealed a highly connected LEA protein network.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis , Germinação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura Alta
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 367, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TGACG-binding (TGA) family has 10 members that play vital roles in Arabidopsis thaliana defense responses and development. However, their involvement in controlling flowering time remains largely unknown and requires further investigation. RESULTS: To study the role of TGA7 during floral transition, we first investigated the tga7 mutant, which displayed a delayed-flowering phenotype under both long-day and short-day conditions. We then performed a flowering genetic pathway analysis and found that both autonomous and thermosensory pathways may affect TGA7 expression. Furthermore, to reveal the differential gene expression profiles between wild-type (WT) and tga7, cDNA libraries were generated for WT and tga7 mutant seedlings at 9 days after germination. For each library, deep-sequencing produced approximately 6.67 Gb of high-quality sequences, with the majority (84.55 %) of mRNAs being between 500 and 3,000 nt. In total, 325 differentially expressed genes were identified between WT and tga7 mutant seedlings. Among them, four genes were associated with flowering time control. The differential expression of these four flowering-related genes was further validated by qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Among these four differentially expressed genes associated with flowering time control, FLC and MAF5 may be mainly responsible for the delayed-flowering phenotype in tga7, as TGA7 expression was regulated by autonomous pathway genes. These results provide a framework for further studying the role of TGA7 in promoting flowering.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360673

RESUMO

Auxin is a key regulator of plant development affecting the formation and maturation of reproductive structures. The apoplastic route of auxin transport engages influx and efflux facilitators from the PIN, AUX and ABCB families. The polar localization of these proteins and constant recycling from the plasma membrane to endosomes is dependent on Rab-mediated vesicular traffic. Rab proteins are anchored to membranes via posttranslational addition of two geranylgeranyl moieties by the Rab Geranylgeranyl Transferase enzyme (RGT), which consists of RGTA, RGTB and REP subunits. Here, we present data showing that seed development in the rgtb1 mutant, with decreased vesicular transport capacity, is disturbed. Both pre- and post-fertilization events are affected, leading to a decrease in seed yield. Pollen tube recognition at the stigma and its guidance to the micropyle is compromised and the seed coat forms incorrectly. Excess auxin in the sporophytic tissues of the ovule in the rgtb1 plants leads to an increased tendency of autonomous endosperm formation in unfertilized ovules and influences embryo development in a maternal sporophytic manner. The results show the importance of vesicular traffic for sexual reproduction in flowering plants, and highlight RGTB1 as a key component of sporophytic-filial signaling.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Sementes/enzimologia , Transdução de Sinais , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Mutação , Tubo Polínico/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360759

RESUMO

Salt and osmotic stress are the main abiotic stress factors affecting plant root growth and architecture. We investigated the effect of salt (100 mM NaCl) and osmotic (200 mM mannitol) stress on the auxin metabolome by UHPLC-MS/MS, auxin distribution by confocal microscopy, and transcript levels of selected genes by qRT-PCR in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) and DR5rev::GFP (DR5) line. During long-term stress (13 days), a stability of the auxin metabolome and a tendency to increase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were observed, especially during salt stress. Short-term stress (3 h) caused significant changes in the auxin metabolome, especially NaCl treatment resulted in a significant reduction of IAA. The data derived from auxin profiling were consistent with gene expressions showing the most striking changes in the transcripts of YUC, GH3, and UGT transcripts, suggesting disruption of auxin biosynthesis, but especially in the processes of amide and ester conjugation. These data were consistent with the auxin distribution observed in the DR5 line. Moreover, NaCl treatment caused a redistribution of auxin signals from the quiescent center and the inner layers of the root cap to the epidermal and cortical cells of the root elongation zone. The distribution of PIN proteins was also disrupted by salt stress; in particular, PIN2 was suppressed, even after 5 min of treatment. Based on our results, the DR5 line was more sensitive to the applied stresses than Col-0, although both lines showed similar trends in root morphology, as well as transcriptome and metabolome parameters under stress conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
6.
Science ; 373(6554): 586-590, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326243

RESUMO

In animals, PIEZOs are plasma membrane-localized cation channels involved in diverse mechanosensory processes. We investigated PIEZO function in tip-growing cells in the moss Physcomitrium patens and the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana PpPIEZO1 and PpPIEZO2 redundantly contribute to the normal growth, size, and cytoplasmic calcium oscillations of caulonemal cells. Both PpPIEZO1 and PpPIEZO2 localized to vacuolar membranes. Loss-of-function, gain-of-function, and overexpression mutants revealed that moss PIEZO homologs promote increased complexity of vacuolar membranes through tubulation, internalization, and/or fission. Arabidopsis PIEZO1 also localized to the tonoplast and is required for vacuole tubulation in the tips of pollen tubes. We propose that in plant cells the tonoplast has more freedom of movement than the plasma membrane, making it a more effective location for mechanosensory proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Bryopsida/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vacúolos/ultraestrutura , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Bryopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bryopsida/ultraestrutura , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Tubo Polínico/ultraestrutura , Vacúolos/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4194, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234144

RESUMO

Photomorphogenesis, light-mediated development, is an essential feature of all terrestrial plants. While chloroplast development and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling are known players in photomorphogenesis, proteins that regulate both pathways have yet to be identified. Here we report that DE-ETIOLATION IN THE DARK AND YELLOWING IN THE LIGHT (DAY), a membrane protein containing DnaJ-like domain, plays a dual-role in photomorphogenesis by stabilizing the BR receptor, BRI1, as well as a key enzyme in chlorophyll biosynthesis, POR. DAY localizes to both the endomembrane and chloroplasts via its first transmembrane domain and chloroplast transit peptide, respectively, and interacts with BRI1 and POR in their respective subcellular compartments. Using genetic analysis, we show that DAY acts independently on BR signaling and chlorophyll biogenesis. Collectively, this work uncovers DAY as a factor that simultaneously regulates BR signaling and chloroplast development, revealing a key regulator of photomorphogenesis that acts across cell compartments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/isolamento & purificação , Luz , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Morfogênese/efeitos da radiação , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 340, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TLPs (Tubby-like proteins) are widespread in eukaryotes and highly conserved in plants and animals. TLP is involved in many biological processes, such as growth, development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, while the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In this paper we characterized the biological function of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Tubby-like protein 8 (CsTLP8) in Arabidopsis. RESULTS: In cucumber, the expression of the tubby-like protein CsTLP8 was induced by NaCl treatment, but reduced by PEG (Polyethylene Glycol) and ABA (Abscisic Acid) treatment. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation activity analysis revealed that CsTLP8 possessed two characteristics of classical transcription factors: nuclear localization and trans-activation activity. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed interactions of CsTLP8 with CsSKP1a and CsSKP1c, suggesting that CsTLP8 might function as a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligase. The growth activity of yeast with ectopically expressed CsTLP8 was lower than the control under NaCl and mannitol treatments. Under osmotic and salt stresses, overexpression of CsTLP8 inhibited seed germination and the growth of Arabidopsis seedlings, increased the content of MDA (Malondialdehyde), and decreased the activities of SOD (Superoxide Dismutase), POD (Peroxidase) and CAT (Catalase) in Arabidopsis seedlings. Overexpression of CsTLP8 also increased the sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and ABA-mediated stomatal closure. CONCLUSION: Under osmotic stress, CsTLP8 might inhibit seed germination and seedling growth by affecting antioxidant enzymes activities. CsTLP8 acts as a negative regulator in osmotic stress and its effects may be related to ABA.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Germinação , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes , Transdução de Sinais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/embriologia , Cloreto de Sódio , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4321, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262040

RESUMO

Symmetry establishment is a critical process in the development of multicellular organs and requires careful coordination of polarity axes while cells actively divide within tissues. Formation of the apical style in the Arabidopsis gynoecium involves a bilateral-to-radial symmetry transition, a stepwise process underpinned by the dynamic distribution of the plant morphogen auxin. Here we show that SPATULA (SPT) and the HECATE (HEC) bHLH proteins mediate the final step in the style radialisation process and synergistically control the expression of adaxial-identity genes, HOMEOBOX ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 3 (HAT3) and ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 4 (ATHB4). HAT3/ATHB4 module drives radialisation of the apical style by promoting basal-to-apical auxin flow and via a negative feedback mechanism that finetune auxin distribution through repression of SPT expression and cytokinin sensitivity. Thus, this work reveals the molecular basis of axes-coordination and hormonal cross-talk during the sequential steps of symmetry transition in the Arabidopsis style.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Transporte Biológico , Citocininas/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205973

RESUMO

The Arabidopsis AtCRK5 protein kinase is involved in the establishment of the proper auxin gradient in many developmental processes. Among others, the Atcrk5-1 mutant was reported to exhibit a delayed gravitropic response via compromised PIN2-mediated auxin transport at the root tip. Here, we report that this phenotype correlates with lower superoxide anion (O2•-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels but a higher nitric oxide (NO) content in the mutant root tips in comparison to the wild type (AtCol-0). The oxidative stress inducer paraquat (PQ) triggering formation of O2•- (and consequently, H2O2) was able to rescue the gravitropic response of Atcrk5-1 roots. The direct application of H2O2 had the same effect. Under gravistimulation, correct auxin distribution was restored (at least partially) by PQ or H2O2 treatment in the mutant root tips. In agreement, the redistribution of the PIN2 auxin efflux carrier was similar in the gravistimulated PQ-treated mutant and untreated wild type roots. It was also found that PQ-treatment decreased the endogenous NO level at the root tip to normal levels. Furthermore, the mutant phenotype could be reverted by direct manipulation of the endogenous NO level using an NO scavenger (cPTIO). The potential involvement of AtCRK5 protein kinase in the control of auxin-ROS-NO-PIN2-auxin regulatory loop is discussed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte Biológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravitação , Gravitropismo/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Paraquat/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299231

RESUMO

Concurrent suboptimal supply of several nutrients requires the coordination of nutrient-specific transcriptional, phenotypic, and metabolic changes in plants in order to optimize growth and development in most agricultural and natural ecosystems. Phosphate (Pi) and iron (Fe) deficiency induce overlapping but mostly opposing transcriptional and root growth responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. On the metabolite level, Pi deficiency negatively modulates Fe deficiency-induced coumarin accumulation, which is controlled by Fe as well as Pi deficiency response regulators. Here, we report the impact of Fe availability on seedling growth under Pi limiting conditions and on Pi deficiency-induced accumulation of amino acids and organic acids, which play important roles in Pi use efficiency. Fe deficiency in Pi replete conditions hardly changed growth and metabolite profiles in roots and shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana, but partially rescued growth under conditions of Pi starvation and severely modulated Pi deficiency-induced metabolic adjustments. Analysis of T-DNA insertion lines revealed the concerted coordination of metabolic profiles by regulators of Fe (FIT, bHLH104, BRUTUS, PYE) as well as of Pi (SPX1, PHR1, PHL1, bHLH32) starvation responses. The results show the interdependency of Pi and Fe availability and the interplay between Pi and Fe starvation signaling on the generation of plant metabolite profiles.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ferro/deficiência , Fosfatos/deficiência , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299210

RESUMO

Conjugation of phytohormones with glucose is a means of modulating their activities, which can be rapidly reversed by the action of ß-glucosidases. Evaluation of previously characterized recombinant rice ß-glucosidases found that nearly all could hydrolyze abscisic acid glucose ester (ABA-GE). Os4BGlu12 and Os4BGlu13, which are known to act on other phytohormones, had the highest activity. We expressed Os4BGlu12, Os4BGlu13 and other members of a highly similar rice chromosome 4 gene cluster (Os4BGlu9, Os4BGlu10 and Os4BGlu11) in transgenic Arabidopsis. Extracts of transgenic lines expressing each of the five genes had higher ß-glucosidase activities on ABA-GE and gibberellin A4 glucose ester (GA4-GE). The ß-glucosidase expression lines exhibited longer root and shoot lengths than control plants in response to salt and drought stress. Fusions of each of these proteins with green fluorescent protein localized near the plasma membrane and in the apoplast in tobacco leaf epithelial cells. The action of these extracellular ß-glucosidases on multiple phytohormones suggests they may modulate the interactions between these phytohormones.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ésteres/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/química , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Hidrólise , Família Multigênica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299214

RESUMO

Localized delivery of plasma-membrane and cell-wall components is a crucial process for plant cell growth. One of the regulators of secretory-vesicle targeting is the exocyst tethering complex. The exocyst mediates first interaction between transport vesicles and the target membrane before their fusion is performed by SNARE proteins. In land plants, genes encoding the EXO70 exocyst subunit underwent an extreme proliferation with 23 paralogs present in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome. These paralogs often acquired specialized functions during evolution. Here, we analyzed functional divergence of selected EXO70 paralogs in Arabidopsis. Performing a systematic cross-complementation analysis of exo70a1 and exo70b1 mutants, we found that EXO70A1 was functionally substituted only by its closest paralog, EXO70A2. In contrast, none of the EXO70 isoforms tested were able to substitute EXO70B1, including its closest relative, EXO70B2, pointing to a unique function of this isoform. The presented results document a high degree of functional specialization within the EXO70 gene family in land plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Exocitose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Vesículas Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 835, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215844

RESUMO

Plants grown in spaceflight exhibited differential methylation responses and this is important because plants are sessile, they are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental pressures and respond to them in many ways. We previously showed that the Arabidopsis genome exhibited lower methylation level after spaceflight for 60 h in orbit. Here, using the offspring of the seedlings grown in microgravity environment in the SJ-10 satellite for 11 days and returned to Earth, we systematically studied the potential effects of spaceflight on DNA methylation, transcriptome, and phenotype in the offspring. Whole-genome methylation analysis in the first generation of offspring (F1) showed that, although there was no significant difference in methylation level as had previously been observed in the parent plants, some residual imprints of DNA methylation differences were detected. Combined DNA methylation and RNA-sequencing analysis indicated that expression of many pathways, such as the abscisic acid-activated pathway, protein phosphorylation, and nitrate signaling pathway, etc. were enriched in the F1 population. As some phenotypic differences still existed in the F2 generation, it was suggested that these epigenetic DNA methylation modifications were partially retained, resulting in phenotypic differences in the offspring. Furthermore, some of the spaceflight-induced heritable differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were retained. Changes in epigenetic modifications caused by spaceflight affected the growth of two future seed generations. Altogether, our research is helpful in better understanding the adaptation mechanism of plants to the spaceflight environment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Metilação de DNA , Plântula/genética , Voo Espacial , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Fenótipo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Science ; 373(6551): 192-197, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244409

RESUMO

Throughout development, plant meristems regularly produce organs in defined spiral, opposite, or whorl patterns. Cauliflowers present an unusual organ arrangement with a multitude of spirals nested over a wide range of scales. How such a fractal, self-similar organization emerges from developmental mechanisms has remained elusive. Combining experimental analyses in an Arabidopsis thaliana cauliflower-like mutant with modeling, we found that curd self-similarity arises because the meristems fail to form flowers but keep the "memory" of their transient passage in a floral state. Additional mutations affecting meristem growth can induce the production of conical structures reminiscent of the conspicuous fractal Romanesco shape. This study reveals how fractal-like forms may emerge from the combination of key, defined perturbations of floral developmental programs and growth dynamics.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/anatomia & histologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica/anatomia & histologia , Brassica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fractais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Inflorescência/anatomia & histologia , Inflorescência/genética , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201246

RESUMO

Disordered plant chaperones play key roles in helping plants survive in harsh conditions, and they are indispensable for seeds to remain viable. Aside from well-known and thoroughly characterized globular chaperone proteins, there are a number of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) that can also serve as highly effective protecting agents in the cells. One of the largest groups of disordered chaperones is the group of dehydrins, proteins that are expressed at high levels under different abiotic stress conditions, such as drought, high temperature, or osmotic stress. Dehydrins are characterized by the presence of different conserved sequence motifs that also serve as the basis for their categorization. Despite their accepted importance, the exact role and relevance of the conserved regions have not yet been formally addressed. Here, we explored the involvement of each conserved segment in the protective function of the intrinsically disordered stress protein (IDSP) A. thaliana's Early Response to Dehydration (ERD14). We show that segments that are directly involved in partner binding, and others that are not, are equally necessary for proper function and that cellular protection emerges from the balanced interplay of different regions of ERD14.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201713

RESUMO

Exogenous application of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to plant surfaces has emerged as a promising method for regulation of essential genes in plant pathogens and for plant disease protection. Yet, regulation of plant endogenous genes via external RNA treatments has not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, we targeted the genes of chalcone synthase (CHS), the key enzyme in the flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, and two transcriptional factors, MYBL2 and ANAC032, negatively regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Direct foliar application of AtCHS-specific dsRNAs and siRNAs resulted in an efficient downregulation of the AtCHS gene and suppressed anthocyanin accumulation in A. thaliana under anthocyanin biosynthesis-modulating conditions. Targeting the AtMYBL2 and AtANAC032 genes by foliar dsRNA treatments markedly reduced their mRNA levels and led to a pronounced upregulation of the AtCHS gene. The content of anthocyanins was increased after treatment with AtMYBL2-dsRNA. Laser scanning microscopy showed a passage of Cy3-labeled AtCHS-dsRNA into the A. thaliana leaf vessels, leaf parenchyma cells, and stomata, indicating the dsRNA uptake and spreading into leaf tissues and plant individual cells. Together, these data show that exogenous dsRNAs were capable of downregulating Arabidopsis genes and induced relevant biochemical changes, which may have applications in plant biotechnology and gene functional studies.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Transcrição Genética
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305903

RESUMO

In a perspective entitled 'From plant survival under severe stress to anti-viral human defense' we raised and justified the hypothesis that transcript level profiles of justified target genes established from in vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) induction in plants as a reference compared to virus-induced profiles can identify differential virus signatures that link to harmful reprogramming. A standard profile of selected genes named 'ReprogVirus' was proposed for in vitro-scanning of early virus-induced reprogramming in critical primary infected cells/tissues as target trait. For data collection, the 'ReprogVirus platform' was initiated. This initiative aims to identify in a common effort across scientific boundaries critical virus footprints from diverse virus origins and variants as a basis for anti-viral strategy design. This approach is open for validation and extension. In the present study, we initiated validation by experimental transcriptome data available in public domain combined with advancing plant wet lab research. We compared plant-adapted transcriptomes according to 'RegroVirus' complemented by alternative oxidase (AOX) genes during de novo programming under SE-inducing conditions with in vitro corona virus-induced transcriptome profiles. This approach enabled identifying a major complex trait for early de novo programming during SARS-CoV-2 infection, called 'CoV-MAC-TED'. It consists of unbalanced ROS/RNS levels, which are connected to increased aerobic fermentation that links to alpha-tubulin-based cell restructuration and progression of cell cycle. We conclude that anti-viral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies need to rigorously target 'CoV-MAC-TED' in primary infected nose and mouth cells through prophylactic and very early therapeutic strategies. We also discuss potential strategies in the view of the beneficial role of AOX for resilient behavior in plants. Furthermore, following the general observation that ROS/RNS equilibration/redox homeostasis is of utmost importance at the very beginning of viral infection, we highlight that 'de-stressing' disease and social handling should be seen as essential part of anti-viral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Acetilserotonina O-Metiltransferasa/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclo Celular/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Daucus carota/genética , Daucus carota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299311

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential membrane proteins involved in seed maturation and germination, stomata movement, photosynthesis, and regulation of plant flowering processes. Pitaya flowers are open at night and wither at daybreak, which shows an obvious circadian rhythm. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of AQPs in Hylocereus undantus was conducted to screen key genes associated with flowering processes. A total of 33 HuAQP genes were identified from the H. undantus genome. The 33 HuAQPs were grouped into four subfamilies: 10 PIPs, 13 TIPs, 8 NIPs, and 2 SIPs, which were distributed on 9 out of 11 pitaya chromosomes (Chr) (except for Chr7 and Chr10). Results from expression profiles showed that HuNIP6;1 may be involved in pitaya's floral opening. HuNIP6;1 was localized exclusively in the cell membrane. Overexpression of HuNIP6;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana significantly promoted early flowering through regulating negative flowering regulators of MJM30, COL9, and PRR5, suggesting that HuNIP6;1 plays key roles in regulating flowering time. The present study provides the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in pitaya and valuable information for utilization of HuAQPs.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/genética , Cactaceae/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ritmo Circadiano , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 320, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217224

RESUMO

N-terminal acetylation (NTA) is a highly abundant protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) in eukaryotes. However, the plant NATs and their biological functions have been poorly explored. Here we reveal that loss of function of CKRC3 and NBC-1, the auxiliary subunit (Naa25) and catalytic subunit (Naa20) of Arabidopsis NatB, respectively, led to defects in skotomorphogenesis and triple responses of ethylene. Proteome profiling and WB test revealed that the 1-amincyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO, catalyzing the last step of ethylene biosynthesis pathway) activity was significantly down-regulated in natb mutants, leading to reduced endogenous ethylene content. The defective phenotypes could be fully rescued by application of exogenous ethylene, but less by its precursor ACC. The present results reveal a previously unknown regulation mechanism at the co-translational protein level for ethylene homeostasis, in which the NatB-mediated NTA of ACOs render them an intracellular stability to maintain ethylene homeostasis for normal growth and responses.


Assuntos
Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Homeostase , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal B/metabolismo , Acetilação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Biocatálise , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Morfogênese , Mutação/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
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