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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360680

RESUMO

Plants have evolutionarily established resistance responses to a variety of abiotic stress conditions, in which ABA mediates the integrated regulation of these stress responses. Numerous proteins function at the transcription level or at the protein level when contributing to controls of the ABA signaling process. Although osmotin is identified as a salt-inducible protein, its function in the abiotic stress response is yet to be elucidated. To examine the role of Arabidopsis OSMOTIN 34 (OSM34) in the ABA signaling pathway, a deletion mutant osm34 generated by a CRISPR/Cas9 system and the double mutant osm34 osml (osmotin 34-like) were analyzed for various ABA responses. Both osm34 and osm34 osml showed reduced levels of ABA responses in seeds and leaves. Moreover, proline level and expression of the proline biosynthesis gene P5CS1 was significantly reduced in osm34 osml. Interestingly, OSM34 binds to SKP2A, an F-Box protein whose transcription is induced by ABA. The protein stability of OSM34 was determined to be under the control of the 26S proteasome. In conclusion, our data suggest that OSM34 functions as a positive regulator in the generation of ABA responses and is under post-translational control.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutamato-5-Semialdeído Desidrogenase/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Prolina/análise , Proteólise
2.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(9): 1150-1162, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312531

RESUMO

Roots of different plant species are colonized by bacterial communities, that are distinct even when hosts share the same habitat. It remains unclear to what extent the host actively selects these communities and whether commensals are adapted to a specific plant species. To address this question, we assembled a sequence-indexed bacterial culture collection from roots and nodules of Lotus japonicus that contains representatives of most species previously identified using metagenomics. We analysed taxonomically paired synthetic communities from L. japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana in a multi-species gnotobiotic system and detected signatures of host preference among commensal bacteria in a community context, but not in mono-associations. Sequential inoculation experiments revealed priority effects during root microbiota assembly, where established communities are resilient to invasion by latecomers, and that host preference of commensal bacteria confers a competitive advantage in their cognate host. Our findings show that host preference in commensal bacteria from diverse taxonomic groups is associated with their invasiveness into standing root-associated communities.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Lotus/fisiologia , Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Lotus/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199294

RESUMO

Cold and freezing stresses severely affect plant growth, development, and survival rate. Some plant species have evolved a process known as cold acclimation, in which plants exposed to temperatures above 0 °C trigger biochemical and physiological changes to survive freezing. During this response, several signaling events are mediated by transducers, such as mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a key enzyme for the plant cell life under regular and stress conditions. Using wild type and mpk3 and mpk6 knock out mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, we explored the transcriptional, translational, and 14-3-3 protein regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity under the acclimation process. The kinetic analysis revealed a differential profiling of the H+-ATPase activity depending on the presence or absence of MPK3 or MPK6 under non-acclimated or acclimated conditions. Negative regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity was found to be exerted by MPK3 in non-acclimated conditions and by MPK6 in acclimated conditions, describing a novel form of regulation of this master ATPase. The MPK6 regulation involved changes in plasma membrane fluidity. Moreover, our results indicated that MPK6 is a critical regulator in the process of cold acclimation that leads to freezing tolerance and further survival.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Temperatura Baixa , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Congelamento , Cinética , Fluidez de Membrana , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Transcrição Genética
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 967-980, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197850

RESUMO

Soil salinization is a vital factor that restricts the efficient and sustainable development of global agriculture. Studies enlightened that the C2H2 zinc finger proteins (C2H2-ZFP) were involved in regulating the stress response in plants. However, knowledge of the C2H2-ZFP subfamily C1 (ZAT; Zinc finger of Arabidopsis thaliana) in cotton is still a mystery. In this study, 47, 45, 94, and 88 ZAT genes were obtained from diploid A2, D5 and tetraploid AD1, AD2 cotton genomes, respectively. The function of hybridization and allopolyploidy in the evolutionary linkage of allotetraploid cotton was explained by the family of ZAT gene in 4 species. Duplication of gene activities indicates that the family of ZAT gene of cotton evolution was under strong purifying selection. The integration of previous transcriptome data related to NaCl stress, strongly suggests the GhZAT34 and GhZAT79 may interact with salt resistance in upland cotton. The expression level of certain ZAT genes, higher seed germination rate of transgenic Arabidopsis and gene- silenced cotton revealed that both genes were involved in the salt tolerance of upland cotton. This study may pave the substantial understandings into the role of ZATs genes in plants as well as suggest appropriate candidate genes for breeding of cotton varieties against salinity tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Gossypium/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2 , Diploide , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Tetraploidia , Fatores de Transcrição/química
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200125

RESUMO

Plants face a more volatile environment than other organisms because of their immobility, and they have developed highly efficient mechanisms to adapt to stress conditions. Transcription factors, as an important part of the adaptation process, are activated by different signals and are responsible for the expression of stress-responsive genes. MYB transcription factors, as one of the most widespread transcription factor families in plants, participate in plant development and responses to stresses by combining with MYB cis-elements in promoters of target genes. MYB transcription factors have been extensively studied and have proven to be critical in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plants, including anthocyanins, flavonols, and lignin. Multiple studies have now shown that MYB proteins play diverse roles in the responses to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salt, and cold stresses. However, the regulatory mechanism of MYB proteins in abiotic stresses is still not well understood. In this review, we will focus mainly on the function of Arabidopsis MYB transcription factors in abiotic stresses, especially how MYB proteins participate in these stress responses. We also pay attention to how the MYB proteins are regulated in these processes at both the transcript and protein levels.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201662

RESUMO

Gene expression and phytohormone contents were measured in response to elevating ascorbate in the absence of other confounding stimuli such as high light and abiotic stresses. Young Arabidopsis plants were treated with 25 mM solutions of l-galactose pathway intermediates l-galactose (l-gal) or l-galactono-1,4-lactone (l-galL), as well as L-ascorbic acid (AsA), with 25 mM glucose used as control. Feeding increased rosette AsA 2- to 4-fold but there was little change in AsA biosynthetic gene transcripts. Of the ascorbate recycling genes, only Dehydroascorbate reductase 1 expression was increased. Some known regulatory genes displayed increased expression and included ANAC019, ANAC072, ATHB12, ZAT10 and ZAT12. Investigation of the ANAC019/ANAC072/ATHB12 gene regulatory network revealed a high proportion of ABA regulated genes. Measurement of a subset of jasmonate, ABA, auxin (IAA) and salicylic acid compounds revealed consistent increases in ABA (up to 4.2-fold) and phaseic acid (PA; up to 5-fold), and less consistently certain jasmonates, IAA, but no change in salicylic acid levels. Increased ABA is likely due to increased transcripts for the ABA biosynthetic gene NCED3. There were also smaller increases in transcripts for transcription factors ATHB7, ERD1, and ABF3. These results provide insights into how increasing AsA content can mediate increased abiotic stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ascorbato Oxidase/genética , Ascorbato Oxidase/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Galactose/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Ácidos Hexurônicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 291, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167462

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in plant growth and development. Although BR receptors have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, those in foxtail millet remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the BR signaling function of BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) is conserved between Arabidopsis and foxtail millet, a new model species for C4 and Panicoideae grasses. We identified four putative BR receptor genes in the foxtail millet genome: SiBRI1, SiBRI1-LIKE RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (SiBRL1), SiBRL2 and SiBRL3. Phylogenetic analysis was used to classify the BR receptors in dicots and monocots into three branches. Analysis of their expression patterns by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that these receptors were ubiquitously expressed in leaves, stems, dark-grown seedlings, roots and non-flowering spikelets. GFP fusion experiments verified that SiBRI1 localized to the cell membrane. We also explored the SiBRI1 function in Arabidopsis through complementation experiments. Ectopic overexpression of SiBRI1 in an Arabidopsis BR receptor loss-of-function mutant, bri1-116, mostly reversed the developmental defects of the mutant. When SiBRI1 was overexpressed in foxtail millet, the plants showed a drooping leaf phenotype and root development inhibition, lateral root initiation inhibition, and the expression of BR synthesis genes was inhibited. We further identified BRI1-interacting proteins by immunoprecipitation (IP)-mass spectrometry (MS). Our results not only demonstrate that SiBRI1 plays a conserved role in BR signaling in foxtail millet but also provide insight into the molecular mechanism of SiBRI1.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/fisiologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/fisiologia , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2329: 71-80, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085216

RESUMO

This chapter describes a method used to analyze the behavior of histone modifications in S phase in Arabidopsis using a whole-mount immunostaining technique. Previous studies have demonstrated that dramatic changes in local chromatin structure are required for the initiation and progression of DNA replication, and that histone modifications play an essential role in the determination of chromatin structure in S phase. Since euchromatic and heterochromatic regions are replicated in distinct S-phase stages, it is important to identify histone modifications at each stage. Here, we introduce a protocol for whole-mount immunostaining combined with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining, which enables the visualization of spatial patterns in histone modifications in the early and late S-phase nuclei of Arabidopsis roots.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Desoxiuridina/análogos & derivados , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Desoxiuridina/química , Epigênese Genética , Código das Histonas , Histonas/química , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia Confocal , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Fase S
9.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 462, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through vernalization, plants achieve flowering competence by sensing prolonged cold exposure (constant exposure approximately 2-5 °C). During this process, plants initiate defense responses to endure cold conditions. Here, we conducted transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis plants subjected to prolonged cold exposure (6 weeks) to explore the physiological dynamics of vernalization and uncover the relationship between vernalization and cold stress. RESULTS: Time-lag initiation of the two pathways and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed that vernalization is independent of cold acclimation. Moreover, WGCNA revealed three major networks involving ethylene and jasmonic acid response, cold acclimation, and chromatin modification in response to prolonged cold exposure. Finally, throughout vernalization, the cold stress response is regulated via an alternative splicing-mediated mechanism. CONCLUSION: These findings illustrate a comprehensive picture of cold stress- and vernalization-mediated global changes in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Temperatura Baixa , Aclimatação/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 268, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 suppressor 1 (BRS1) is a serine carboxypeptidase that mediates brassinosteroid signaling and participates in multiple developmental processes in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about the precise role of BRS1 in this context. RESULTS: In this study, we analyzed transcriptional and proteomic profiles of Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing BRS1 and found that this gene was involved in both cold stress responses and redox regulation. Further proteomic evidence showed that BRS1 regulated cell redox by indirectly interacting with cytosolic NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (cICDH). One novel alternative splice form of BRS1 was identified in over-expression mutants brs1-1D, which may confer a new role in plant development and stress responses. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of BRS1 in plant redox regulation and stress responses, which extends our understanding of extracellular serine carboxypeptidases.


Assuntos
Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Carboxipeptidases/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3426, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103516

RESUMO

Adaptive plasticity in stress responses is a key element of plant survival strategies. For instance, moderate heat stress (HS) primes a plant to acquire thermotolerance, which allows subsequent survival of more severe HS conditions. Acquired thermotolerance is actively maintained over several days (HS memory) and involves the sustained induction of memory-related genes. Here we show that FORGETTER3/ HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR A3 (FGT3/HSFA3) is specifically required for physiological HS memory and maintaining high memory-gene expression during the days following a HS exposure. HSFA3 mediates HS memory by direct transcriptional activation of memory-related genes after return to normal growth temperatures. HSFA3 binds HSFA2, and in vivo both proteins form heteromeric complexes with additional HSFs. Our results indicate that only complexes containing both HSFA2 and HSFA3 efficiently promote transcriptional memory by positively influencing histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) hyper-methylation. In summary, our work defines the major HSF complex controlling transcriptional memory and elucidates the in vivo dynamics of HSF complexes during somatic stress memory.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Epistasia Genética , Genes de Plantas , Loci Gênicos , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Cinética , Lisina/metabolismo , Metilação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3480, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108473

RESUMO

Acclimation to high temperature increases plants' tolerance of subsequent lethal high temperatures. Although epigenetic regulation of plant gene expression is well studied, how plants maintain a memory of environmental changes over time remains unclear. Here, we show that JUMONJI (JMJ) proteins, demethylases involved in histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), are necessary for Arabidopsis thaliana heat acclimation. Acclimation induces sustained H3K27me3 demethylation at HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN22 (HSP22) and HSP17.6C loci by JMJs, poising the HSP genes for subsequent activation. Upon sensing heat after a 3-day interval, JMJs directly reactivate these HSP genes. Finally, jmj mutants fail to maintain heat memory under fluctuating field temperature conditions. Our findings of an epigenetic memory mechanism involving histone demethylases may have implications for environmental adaptation of field plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Termotolerância/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Desmetilação , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Histonas/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Metilação , Mutação
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3656, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135347

RESUMO

Plants respond to high ambient temperature by implementing a suite of morphological changes collectively termed thermomorphogenesis. Here we show that the above and below ground tissue-response to high ambient temperature are mediated by distinct transcription factors. While the central hub transcription factor, PHYTOCHROME INTERCTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) regulates the above ground tissue response, the below ground root elongation is primarily regulated by ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5). Plants respond to high temperature by largely expressing distinct sets of genes in a tissue-specific manner. HY5 promotes root thermomorphogenesis via directly controlling the expression of many genes including the auxin and BR pathway genes. Strikingly, the above and below ground thermomorphogenesis is impaired in spaQ. Because SPA1 directly phosphorylates PIF4 and HY5, SPAs might control the stability of PIF4 and HY5 to regulate thermomorphogenesis in both tissues. These data collectively suggest that plants employ distinct combination of SPA-PIF4-HY5 module to regulate tissue-specific thermomorphogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Morfogênese/genética , Fosforilação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073070

RESUMO

Although recent studies suggest that the plant cytoskeleton is associated with plant stress responses, such as salt, cold, and drought, the molecular mechanism underlying microtubule function in plant salt stress response remains unclear. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis between control suspension-cultured cells (A0) and salt-adapted cells (A120) established from Arabidopsis root callus to investigate plant adaptation mechanisms to long-term salt stress. We identified 50 differentially expressed proteins (45 up- and 5 down-regulated proteins) in A120 cells compared with A0 cells. Gene ontology enrichment and protein network analyses indicated that differentially expressed proteins in A120 cells were strongly associated with cell structure-associated clusters, including cytoskeleton and cell wall biogenesis. Gene expression analysis revealed that expressions of cytoskeleton-related genes, such as FBA8, TUB3, TUB4, TUB7, TUB9, and ACT7, and a cell wall biogenesis-related gene, CCoAOMT1, were induced in salt-adapted A120 cells. Moreover, the loss-of-function mutant of Arabidopsis TUB9 gene, tub9, showed a hypersensitive phenotype to salt stress. Consistent overexpression of Arabidopsis TUB9 gene in rice transgenic plants enhanced tolerance to salt stress. Our results suggest that microtubules play crucial roles in plant adaptation and tolerance to salt stress. The modulation of microtubule-related gene expression can be an effective strategy for developing salt-tolerant crops.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis , Microtúbulos/fisiologia , Oryza , Tolerância ao Sal , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068347

RESUMO

To ensure global food security under the changing climate, there is a strong need for developing 'climate resilient crops' that can thrive and produce better yields under extreme environmental conditions such as drought, salinity, and high temperature. To enhance plant productivity under the adverse conditions, we constitutively overexpressed a bifunctional wax synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WSD1) gene, which plays a critical role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis stem and leaf tissues. The qRT-PCR analysis showed a strong upregulation of WSD1 transcripts by mannitol, NaCl, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, particularly in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots. Gas chromatography and electron microscopy analyses of Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing WSD1 showed higher deposition of epicuticular wax crystals and increased leaf and stem wax loading in WSD1 transgenics compared to wildtype (WT) plants. WSD1 transgenics exhibited enhanced tolerance to ABA, mannitol, drought and salinity, which suggested new physiological roles for WSD1 in stress response aside from its wax synthase activity. Transgenic plants were able to recover from drought and salinity better than the WT plants. Furthermore, transgenics showed reduced cuticular transpirational rates and cuticle permeability, as well as less chlorophyll leaching than the WT. The knowledge from Arabidopsis was translated to the oilseed crop Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. Similar to Arabidopsis, transgenic Camelina lines overexpressing WSD1 also showed enhanced tolerance to drought stress. Our results clearly show that the manipulation of cuticular waxes will be advantageous for enhancing plant productivity under a changing climate.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Ceras/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Ésteres/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ceras/química
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070080

RESUMO

In the last two decades, global environmental change has increased abiotic stress on plants and severely affected crops. For example, drought stress is a serious abiotic stress that rapidly and substantially alters the morphological, physiological, and molecular responses of plants. In Arabidopsis, several drought-responsive genes have been identified; however, the underlying molecular mechanism of drought tolerance in plants remains largely unclear. Here, we report that the "domain of unknown function" novel gene DUF569 (AT1G69890) positively regulates drought stress in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutant atduf569 showed significant sensitivity to drought stress, i.e., severe wilting at the rosette-leaf stage after water was withheld for 3 days. Importantly, the mutant plant did not recover after rewatering, unlike wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, atduf569 plants showed significantly lower abscisic acid accumulation under optimal and drought-stress conditions, as well as significantly higher electrolyte leakage when compared with WT Col-0 plants. Spectrophotometric analyses also indicated a significantly lower accumulation of polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in atduf569 mutant plants. Overall, our results suggest that novel DUF569 is a positive regulator of the response to drought in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Genes de Plantas , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Fenótipo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064673

RESUMO

Histone methylation plays an important regulatory role in the drought response of many plants, but its regulatory mechanism in the drought response of the tea plant remains poorly understood. Here, drought stress was shown to induce lower relative water content and significantly downregulate the methylations of histone H3K4 in the tea plant. Based on our previous analysis of the SET Domain Group (SDG) gene family, the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of CsSDG36 was cloned from the tea cultivar 'Fuding Dabaicha'. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of the CsSDG36 gene was 3138 bp, encoding 1045 amino acids and containing the conserved structural domains of PWWP, PHD, SET and PostSET. The CsSDG36 protein showed a close relationship to AtATX4 of the TRX subfamily, with a molecular weight of 118,249.89 Da, and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.87, belonging to a hydrophilic protein without a transmembrane domain, probably located on the nucleus. The expression of CsSDG36 was not detected in the wild type, while it was clearly detected in the over-expression lines of Arabidopsis. Compared with the wild type, the over-expression lines exhibited lower hyperosmotic resistance by accelerating plant water loss, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) pressure, and increasing leaf stomatal density. RNA-seq analysis suggested that the CsSDG36 overexpression caused the differential expression of genes related to chromatin assembly, microtubule assembly, and leaf stomatal development pathways. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the significant down-regulation of stomatal development-related genes (BASL, SBT1.2(SDD1), EPF2, TCX3, CHAL, TMM, SPCH, ERL1, and EPFL9) in the overexpression lines. This study provides a novel sight on the function of histone methyltransferase CsSDG36 under drought stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Chá/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Chá/química
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065034

RESUMO

Seed germination is a key step in the new life cycle of plants. In agriculture, we regard the rapid and consistent process of seed germination as one of the necessary conditions to measure the high quality and yield of crops. ENO2 is a key enzyme in glycolysis, which also plays an important role in plant growth and abiotic stress responses. In our study, we found that the time of seed germination in AtENO2 mutation (eno2-) was earlier than that of wild type (WT) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) were vital in seed germination. After deep sequencing of small RNA, we found 590 differentially expressed miRNAs in total, of which 87 were significantly differentially expressed miRNAs. By predicting the target genes of miRNAs and analyzing the GO annotation, we have counted 18 genes related to seed germination, including ARF family, TIR1, INVC, RR19, TUDOR2, GA3OX2, PXMT1, and TGA1. MiR9736-z, miR5059-z, ath-miR167a-5p, ath-miR167b, ath-miR5665, ath-miR866-3p, miR10186-z, miR8165-z, ath-miR857, ath-miR399b, ath-miR399c-3p, miR399-y, miR163-z, ath-miR393a-5p, and ath-miR393b-5p are the key miRNAs regulating seed germination-related genes. Through KEGG enrichment analysis, we found that phytohormone signal transduction pathways were significantly enriched, and these miRNAs mentioned above also participate in the regulation of the genes in plant hormone signal transduction pathways, thus affecting the synthesis of plant hormones and further affecting the process of seed germination. This study laid the foundation for further exploration of the AtENO2 regulation for seed germination.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Germinação , RNA de Plantas/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Sementes/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , MicroRNAs/genética , Sementes/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073675

RESUMO

Root system architecture (RSA) is an important developmental and agronomic trait that is regulated by various physical factors such as nutrients, water, microbes, gravity, and soil compaction as well as hormone-mediated pathways. Phytohormones act as internal mediators between soil and RSA to influence various events of root development, starting from organogenesis to the formation of higher order lateral roots (LRs) through diverse mechanisms. Apart from interaction with the external cues, root development also relies on the complex web of interaction among phytohormones to exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects to improve crop performance. However, there are considerable gaps in understanding the interaction of these hormonal networks during various aspects of root development. In this review, we elucidate the role of different hormones to modulate a common phenotypic output, such as RSA in Arabidopsis and crop plants, and discuss future perspectives to channel vast information on root development to modulate RSA components.


Assuntos
Organogênese Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Arabidopsis/anatomia & histologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Solo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066846

RESUMO

In plant-pathogen interactions, a proper light environment affects the establishment of defense responses in plants. In our previous experiments, we found that nonhost resistance (NHR) to Pyricularia oryzae Cav. in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (Arabidopsis), in diurnal conditions, varies with the inoculation time. Moreover, we indicated that the circadian clock plays an important role in regulating time-of-day differences in NHR to P. oryzae in Arabidopsis. However, the involvement of photoperiod in regulating NHR was still not understood. To determine the photoperiod role, we performed the experiments in continuous light and darkness during the early Arabidopsis-P. oryzae interaction. We found that the light period after the inoculation in the evening enhanced the resistance to penetration. However, the dark period after the inoculation in the morning suppressed the penetration resistance. Furthermore, the genetic analysis indicated that jasmonic acid, reactive oxygen species, and tryptophan-derived metabolite(s) contribute to the photoperiod regulation of NHR in Arabidopsis. The present results denote that photoperiod plays an important role in regulating time-of-day differences in NHR to P. oryzae in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fotoperíodo , Arabidopsis/genética , Escuridão , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Genes de Plantas , Mutação/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
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