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1.
Planta ; 254(4): 69, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498125

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Indole 3-hexanoic acid is a novel auxin and regulates plant growth and development. Auxin is a signaling molecule that influences most aspects of plant development. Although many small bioactive molecules have been developed as auxin analogues, naturally occurring auxin and the detailed mechanisms of its specific actions in plants remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, to screen auxin responses, we used a novel picolinate synthetic auxin, 3-indole hexanoic acid (IHA), which is similar in structure to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). IHA showed classical auxin activity in the regulation of root growth, gene expression, and PIN-FORMED abundance. Physiological and genetic analyses indicated that IHA may be perceived by the auxin receptor TIR1 and transported by the G-class ATP-binding cassette protein ABCG36 and its homolog ABCG37. Importantly, IHA was detected in planta and converted into IBA depending on the peroxisomal ß-oxidation. Together, these findings reveal a novel auxin pathway component and suggest possible undiscovered modes of auxin metabolism regulation in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Caproatos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Indóis , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 642, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA polymerase II plays critical roles in transcription in eukaryotic organisms. C-terminal Domain Phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1) regulates the phosphorylation state of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II subunit B1, which is critical in determining RNA polymerase II activity. CPL1 plays an important role in miRNA biogenesis, plant growth and stress responses. Although cpl1 mutant showes delayed-flowering phenotype, the molecular mechanism behind CPL1's role in floral transition is still unknown. RESULTS: To study the role of CPL1 during the floral transition, we first tested phenotypes of cpl1-3 mutant, which harbors a point-mutation. The cpl1-3 mutant contains a G-to-A transition in the second exon, which results in an amino acid substitution from Glu to Lys (E116K). Further analyses found that the mutated amino acid (Glu) was conserved in these species. As a result, we found that the cpl1-3 mutant experienced delayed flowering under both long- and short-day conditions, and CPL1 is involved in the vernalization pathway. Transcriptome analysis identified 109 genes differentially expressed in the cpl1 mutant, with 2 being involved in floral transition. Differential expression of the two flowering-related DEGs was further validated by qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Flowering genetic pathways analysis coupled with transciptomic analysis provides potential genes related to floral transition in the cpl1-3 mutant, and a framework for future studies of the molecular mechanisms behind CPL1's role in floral transition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Flores/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 408, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is a warm-season legume crop and belongs to the papilionoid subfamily of the Fabaceae family. China is the leading producer of mung bean in the world. Mung bean has significant economic and health benefits and is a promising species with broad adaptation ability and high tolerance to environmental stresses. OSCA (hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel) gene family members play an important role in the modulation of hypertonic stress, such as drought and salinity. However, genome-wide analysis of the OSCA gene family has not been conducted in mung bean. RESULTS: We identified a total of 13 OSCA genes in the mung bean genome and named them according to their homology with AtOSCAs. All the OSCAs were phylogenetically split into four clades. Phylogenetic relationship and synteny analyses showed that the VrOSCAs in mung bean and soybean shared a relatively conserved evolutionary history. In addition, three duplicated VrOSCA gene pairs were identified, and the duplicated VrOSCAs gene pairs mainly underwent purifying selection pressure during evolution. Protein domain, motif and transmembrane analyses indicated that most of the VrOSCAs shared similar structures with their homologs. The expression pattern showed that except for VrOSCA2.1, the other 12 VrOSCAs were upregulated under treatment with ABA, PEG and NaCl, among which VrOSCA1.4 showed the largest increased expression levels. The duplicated genes VrOSCA2.1/VrOSCA2.2 showed divergent expression, which might have resulted in functionalization during subsequent evolution. The expression profiles under ABA, PEG and NaCl stress revealed a functional divergence of VrOSCA genes, which agreed with the analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of VrOSCA genes. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the study provided a systematic analysis of the VrOSCA gene family in mung bean. Our results establish an important foundation for functional and evolutionary analysis of VrOSCAs and identify genes for further investigation of their ability to confer abiotic stress tolerance in mung bean.


Assuntos
Osmorregulação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vigna/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Oryza/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sintenia , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/genética
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 407, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) belongs to the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family, which is involved in inflorescence meristem development and represses flowering in several plant species. In the present study, four TFL1 genes were cloned from the mango (Mangifera indica L.) variety 'SiJiMi' and named MiTFL1-1, MiTFL1-2, MiTFL1-3 and MiTFL1-4. RESULTS: Sequence analysis showed that the encoded MiTFL1 proteins contained a conserved PEBP domain and belonged to the TFL1 group. Expression analysis showed that the MiTFL1 genes were expressed in not only vegetative organs but also reproductive organs and that the expression levels were related to floral development. Overexpression of the four MiTFL1 genes delayed flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. Additionally, MiTFL1-1 and MiTFL1-3 changed the flower morphology in some transgenic plants. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis showed that several stress-related proteins interacted with MiTFL1 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The four MiTFL1 genes exhibited a similar expression pattern, and overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in delayed flowering. Additionally, MiTFL1-1 and MiTFL1-3 overexpression affected floral organ development. Furthermore, the MiTFL1 proteins could interact with bHLH and 14-3-3 proteins. These results indicate that the MiTFL1 genes may play an important role in the flowering process in mango.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Mangifera/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 409, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The periderm is a protective barrier crucial for land plant survival, but little is known about genetic factors involved in its development and regulation. Using a transcriptomic approach in the cork oak (Q. suber) periderm, we previously identified an RS2-INTERACTING KH PROTEIN (RIK) homologue of unknown function containing a K homology (KH)-domain RNA-binding protein, as a regulatory candidate gene in the periderm. RESULTS: To gain insight into the function of RIK in the periderm, potato (S. tuberosum) tuber periderm was used as a model: the full-length coding sequence of RIK, hereafter referred to as StRIK, was isolated, the transcript profile analyzed and gene silencing in potato performed to analyze the silencing effects on periderm anatomy and transcriptome. The StRIK transcript accumulated in all vegetative tissues studied, including periderm and other suberized tissues such as root and also in wounded tissues. Downregulation of StRIK in potato by RNA interference (StRIK-RNAi) did not show any obvious effects on tuber periderm anatomy but, unlike Wild type, transgenic plants flowered. Global transcript profiling of the StRIK-RNAi periderm did show altered expression of genes associated with RNA metabolism, stress and signaling, mirroring the biological processes found enriched within the in silico co-expression network of the Arabidopsis orthologue. CONCLUSIONS: The ubiquitous expression of StRIK transcript, the flower associated phenotype and the differential expression of StRIK-RNAi periderm point out to a general regulatory role of StRIK in diverse plant developmental processes. The transcriptome analysis suggests that StRIK might play roles in RNA maturation and stress response in the periderm.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubérculos/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/anatomia & histologia , Tubérculos/citologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Solanum tuberosum/citologia
6.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2645-2657, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472285

RESUMO

Lysine acetylation is one of the major post-translational modifications and plays critical roles in regulating gene expression and protein function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are responsible for the removal of acetyl groups from the lysines of both histone and non-histone proteins. The RPD3 family is the most widely studied HDACs. This article summarizes the regulatory mechanisms of Arabidopsis RPD3 family in several growth and development processes, which provide a reference for studying the mechanisms of RPD3 family members in regulating plant development. Moreover, this review may provide ideas and clues for exploring the functions of other members of HDACs family.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Histonas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética
7.
Planta ; 254(4): 78, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536142

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: 51 MdbZIP genes were identified from the apple genome by bioinformatics methods. MhABF-OE improved tolerance to saline-alkali stress in Arabidopsis, indicating it is involved in positive regulation of saline-alkali stress response. Saline-alkali stress is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth all over the world. Members of the bZIP family play an important role in regulating gene expression in response to many kinds of biotic and abiotic stress, including salt stress. According to the transcriptome data, 51 MdbZIP genes responding to saline-alkali stress were identified in apple genome, and their gene structures, conserved protein motifs, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome localization, and promoter cis-acting elements were analyzed. Based on transcriptome data analysis, a MdbZIP family gene (MD15G1081800), which was highly expressed under stress, was selected to isolate and named as MhABF. Expression profile analysis by quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that the expression of MhABF in the leaves of Malus halliana was 10.6-fold higher than that of the control (0 days) after 2 days of stress. Then an MhABF gene was isolated from apple rootstock M. halliana. CaMV35S promoter drived MhABF gene expression vector was constructed to infect Arabidopsis with Agrobacterium-mediated infection. And overexpression MhABF gene plants were obtained. Compared with wild type, transgenic plants grew better under saline-alkali stress and the MhABF-OE lines showed higher chlorophyll content, POD, SOD and CAT activity, which indicated that they had strong resistance to stress. These results indicate that MhABF plays an important role in plant resistance to saline-alkali stress, which lays a foundation for further study on the functions in apple.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Malus , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 599, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental proof of gene function assignments in plants is based on mutant analyses. T-DNA insertion lines provided an invaluable resource of mutants and enabled systematic reverse genetics-based investigation of the functions of Arabidopsis thaliana genes during the last decades. RESULTS: We sequenced the genomes of 14 A. thaliana GABI-Kat T-DNA insertion lines, which eluded flanking sequence tag-based attempts to characterize their insertion loci, with Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) long reads. Complex T-DNA insertions were resolved and 11 previously unknown T-DNA loci identified, resulting in about 2 T-DNA insertions per line and suggesting that this number was previously underestimated. T-DNA mutagenesis caused fusions of chromosomes along with compensating translocations to keep the gene set complete throughout meiosis. Also, an inverted duplication of 800 kbp was detected. About 10 % of GABI-Kat lines might be affected by chromosomal rearrangements, some of which do not involve T-DNA. Local assembly of selected reads was shown to be a computationally effective method to resolve the structure of T-DNA insertion loci. We developed an automated workflow to support investigation of long read data from T-DNA insertion lines. All steps from DNA extraction to assembly of T-DNA loci can be completed within days. CONCLUSIONS: Long read sequencing was demonstrated to be an effective way to resolve complex T-DNA insertions and chromosome fusions. Many T-DNA insertions comprise not just a single T-DNA, but complex arrays of multiple T-DNAs. It is becoming obvious that T-DNA insertion alleles must be characterized by exact identification of both T-DNA::genome junctions to generate clear genotype-to-phenotype relations.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genômica , Mutagênese Insercional
9.
Planta ; 254(3): 54, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410495

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The expression of full-length cDNAs encoding lavender AGAMOUS-like (LaAG-like) and SEPALLATA3-like (LaSEP3-like) transcription factors induces early flowering and impacts the leaf morphology at a strong expression level in Arabidopsis. Lavandula angustifolia is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant due to its attractive flower structure, and as a source of valuable essential oils for use in cosmetics, alternative medicines, and culinary products. We recently employed RNA-Seq and transcript profiling to describe a number of transcription factors (TFs) that potentially control flower development in this plant. In this study, we investigated the roles of two TFs, LaAGAMOUS-like (LaAG-like) and LaSEPALLATA3-like (LaSEP3-like), that exhibited substantial homology to Arabidopsis thaliana floral development genes, AGAMOUS and SEPALLATA3, respectively, in flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We stably and constitutively expressed LaAG-like and LaSEP3-like cDNAs in separate Arabidopsis plants. All transgenic plants flowered earlier than the wild-type controls. However, plants that modestly overexpressed the gene were phenotypically normal, while those that strongly expressed the transgene developed curly leaves. We also assessed the expression of five endogenous flowering time regulating genes, from which high expression of Flowering Locus T (AtFT) mRNA in both LaAG-like (type-I and -II) and LaSEP3-like (type-I), and Leafy (AtLFY) mRNAs in LaSEP3-like (type-I) transgenic plants were detected, compared to wild-type controls. Our results suggest that with controlled expression, lavender AG-like and SEP3-like genes are potentially useful for the regulation of flowering time in commercial lavender species, and could be used for plant improvement studies through molecular genetics and targeted breeding programs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Lavandula , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lavandula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445457

RESUMO

Strigolactones (SLs) regulate plant shoot development by inhibiting axillary bud growth and branching. However, the role of SLs in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) shoot branching remains unknown. Here, we identified and isolated two wintersweet genes, CCD7 and CCD8, involved in the SL biosynthetic pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 were down-regulated in wintersweet during branching. When new shoots were formed, expression levels of CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 were almost the same as the control (un-decapitation). CpCCD7 was expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression in shoot tips and roots, while CpCCD8 showed the highest expression in roots. Both CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 localized to chloroplasts in Arabidopsis. CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 overexpression restored the phenotypes of branching mutant max3-9 and max4-1, respectively. CpCCD7 overexpression reduced the rosette branch number, whereas CpCCD8 overexpression lines showed no phenotypic differences compared with wild-type plants. Additionally, the expression of AtBRC1 was significantly up-regulated in transgenic lines, indicating that two CpCCD genes functioned similarly to the homologous genes of the Arabidopsis. Overall, our study demonstrates that CpCCD7 and CpCCD8 exhibit conserved functions in the CCD pathway, which controls shoot development in wintersweet. This research provides a molecular and theoretical basis for further understanding branch development in wintersweet.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Calycanthaceae/genética , Dioxigenases , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Calycanthaceae/enzimologia , Dioxigenases/biossíntese , Dioxigenases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4760, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362909

RESUMO

The MADS transcription factors (TF) are an ancient eukaryotic protein family. In plants, the family is divided into two main lineages. Here, we demonstrate that DNA binding in both lineages absolutely requires a short amino acid sequence C-terminal to the MADS domain (M domain) called the Intervening domain (I domain) that was previously defined only in type II lineage MADS. Structural elucidation of the MI domains from the floral regulator, SEPALLATA3 (SEP3), shows a conserved fold with the I domain acting to stabilise the M domain. Using the floral organ identity MADS TFs, SEP3, APETALA1 (AP1) and AGAMOUS (AG), domain swapping demonstrate that the I domain alters genome-wide DNA-binding specificity and dimerisation specificity. Introducing AG carrying the I domain of AP1 in the Arabidopsis ap1 mutant resulted in strong complementation and restoration of first and second whorl organs. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the I domain acts as an integral part of the DNA-binding domain and significantly contributes to the functional identity of the MADS TF.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/química , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Proteína AGAMOUS de Arabidopsis/química , Proteína AGAMOUS de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Yi Chuan ; 43(8): 723-736, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413013

RESUMO

After the seeds of the dicot model plant Arabidopsis germinate in the soil, the tip of the hypocotyl will form a specialized structure called apical hooks to protect the cotyledons and shoot apical meristems from the mechanical damage during the soil emerging process. The development process of the apical hook is divided into three stages: the apical hook formation, maintenance, and opening. In recent decades, studies have shown that different kinds of plant hormones and environmental signals play a vital role in the development of the apical hook. As the downstream of a variety of signals, the asymmetric distribution of auxin and the signal transduction pathways play a decisive role in the development of the apical hook. However, the detailed mechanism of the asymmetric signal transduction pathway of the cells on both sides of the apical hook is still unclear. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of the development of apical hook and further refine the role of auxin in the development of apical hook, and prospect for future research directions in this field.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Etilenos , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Meristema
13.
Planta ; 254(3): 58, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426887

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Arabidopsis AtPRP17, a homolog of yeast splicing factor gene PRP17, is expressed in siliques and embryos and functions in embryo development via regulating embryonic patterning. Yeast splicing factor PRP17/CDC40 is essential for cell growth through involvement in cell cycle regulation. Arabidopsis genome encodes a homolog of PRP17, AtPRP17; however, its function in Arabidopsis development is unknown. This study showed that AtPRP17 was highly expressed in siliques and embryos, and the protein was localized in the nucleus. The loss-of-function mutation of AtPRP17 led to shrunken seeds in Arabidopsis mature siliques. Further analysis revealed that the defective mature seeds of the mutant resulted from abnormal embryos with shriveled cotyledons, unequal cotyledons, swollen and shortened hypocotyls, or shortened radicles. During embryogenesis, mutant embryos showed delayed development and defective patterning of the apical and base domains, such as inhibited cotyledons and disorganized quiescent center cells and columella. Our results suggested that AtPRP17 functions in Arabidopsis embryo development via regulating embryonic patterning.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cotilédone/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Hipocótilo
14.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 632, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an important group of the multidrug efflux transporter family, the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family has a wide range of functions and is distributed in all kingdoms of living organisms. However, only two MATE genes in apple have been analyzed and genome-wide comprehensive analysis of MATE family is needed. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 66 MATE (MdMATE) candidates encoding putative MATE transporters were identified in the apple genome. These MdMATE genes were classified into four groups by phylogenetic analysis with MATE genes in Arabidopsis. Synteny analysis reveals that whole genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication events played a major role in the expansion of MATE gene family in apple. MdMATE genes show diverse expression patterns in different tissues/organs and developmental stages. Analysis of cis-regulatory elements in MdMATE promoter regions indicates that the function of MdMATE genes is mainly related to stress response. Besides, the changes of gene expression levels upon different pathogen infections reveal that MdMATE genes are involved in biotic stress response. CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we systematically identified MdMATE genes in apple genome using a set of bioinformatics approaches. Our comprehensive analysis provided valuable resources for improving disease resistance in apple and further functional characterization of MATE genes in other species.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Malus , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4944, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400629

RESUMO

Plants use nitrate, ammonium, and organic nitrogen in the soil as nitrogen sources. Since the elevated CO2 environment predicted for the near future will reduce nitrate utilization by C3 species, ammonium is attracting great interest. However, abundant ammonium nutrition impairs growth, i.e., ammonium toxicity, the primary cause of which remains to be determined. Here, we show that ammonium assimilation by GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE 2 (GLN2) localized in the plastid rather than ammonium accumulation is a primary cause for toxicity, which challenges the textbook knowledge. With exposure to toxic levels of ammonium, the shoot GLN2 reaction produced an abundance of protons within cells, thereby elevating shoot acidity and stimulating expression of acidic stress-responsive genes. Application of an alkaline ammonia solution to the ammonium medium efficiently alleviated the ammonium toxicity with a concomitant reduction in shoot acidity. Consequently, we conclude that a primary cause of ammonium toxicity is acidic stress.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/toxicidade , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/genética , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4979, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404804

RESUMO

Relative contributions of pre-existing vs de novo genomic variation to adaptation are poorly understood, especially in polyploid organisms. We assess this in high resolution using autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa, which repeatedly adapted to toxic serpentine soils that exhibit skewed elemental profiles. Leveraging a fivefold replicated serpentine invasion, we assess selection on SNPs and structural variants (TEs) in 78 resequenced individuals and discover significant parallelism in candidate genes involved in ion homeostasis. We further model parallel selection and infer repeated sweeps on a shared pool of variants in nearly all these loci, supporting theoretical expectations. A single striking exception is represented by TWO PORE CHANNEL 1, which exhibits convergent evolution from independent de novo mutations at an identical, otherwise conserved site at the calcium channel selectivity gate. Taken together, this suggests that polyploid populations can rapidly adapt to environmental extremes, calling on both pre-existing variation and novel polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Genoma de Planta , Poliploidia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/metabolismo , Solo/química
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 367, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TGACG-binding (TGA) family has 10 members that play vital roles in Arabidopsis thaliana defense responses and development. However, their involvement in controlling flowering time remains largely unknown and requires further investigation. RESULTS: To study the role of TGA7 during floral transition, we first investigated the tga7 mutant, which displayed a delayed-flowering phenotype under both long-day and short-day conditions. We then performed a flowering genetic pathway analysis and found that both autonomous and thermosensory pathways may affect TGA7 expression. Furthermore, to reveal the differential gene expression profiles between wild-type (WT) and tga7, cDNA libraries were generated for WT and tga7 mutant seedlings at 9 days after germination. For each library, deep-sequencing produced approximately 6.67 Gb of high-quality sequences, with the majority (84.55 %) of mRNAs being between 500 and 3,000 nt. In total, 325 differentially expressed genes were identified between WT and tga7 mutant seedlings. Among them, four genes were associated with flowering time control. The differential expression of these four flowering-related genes was further validated by qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Among these four differentially expressed genes associated with flowering time control, FLC and MAF5 may be mainly responsible for the delayed-flowering phenotype in tga7, as TGA7 expression was regulated by autonomous pathway genes. These results provide a framework for further studying the role of TGA7 in promoting flowering.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 369, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low temperature severely limits the growth, yield, and geographic distributions of soybean. Soybean plants respond to cold stress by reprogramming the expression of a series of cold-responsive genes. However, the intrinsic mechanism underlying cold-stress tolerance in soybean remains unclear. A. thaliana tolerant to chilling and freezing 1 (AtTCF1) is a regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) family protein and regulates freezing tolerance through an independent C-repeat binding transcription factor (CBF) signaling pathway. RESULTS: In this study, we identified a homologous gene of AtTCF1 in soybean (named GmTCF1a), which mediates plant tolerance to low temperature. Like AtTCF1, GmTCF1a contains five RCC1 domains and is located in the nucleus. GmTCF1a is strongly and specifically induced by cold stress. Interestingly, ectopic overexpression of GmTCF1a in Arabidopsis greatly increased plant survival rate and decreased electrolyte leakage under freezing stress. A cold-responsive gene, COR15a, was highly induced in the GmTCF1a-overexpressing transgenic lines. CONCLUSIONS: GmTCF1a responded specifically to cold stress, and ectopic expression of GmTCF1a enhanced cold tolerance and upregulated COR15a levels. These results indicate that GmTCF1a positively regulates cold tolerance in soybean and may provide novel insights into genetic improvement of cold tolerance in crops.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Genes de Plantas , Soja/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Soja/fisiologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360890

RESUMO

The thylakoid lumen houses proteins that are vital for photosynthetic electron transport, including water-splitting at photosystem (PS) II and shuttling of electrons from cytochrome b6f to PSI. Other lumen proteins maintain photosynthetic activity through biogenesis and turnover of PSII complexes. Although all lumen proteins are soluble, these known details have highlighted interactions of some lumen proteins with thylakoid membranes or thylakoid-intrinsic proteins. Meanwhile, the functional details of most lumen proteins, as well as their distribution between the soluble and membrane-associated lumen fractions, remain unknown. The current study isolated the soluble free lumen (FL) and membrane-associated lumen (MAL) fractions from Arabidopsis thaliana, and used gel- and mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods to analyze the contents of each proteome. These results identified 60 lumenal proteins, and clearly distinguished the difference between the FL and MAL proteomes. The most abundant proteins in the FL fraction were involved in PSII assembly and repair, while the MAL proteome was enriched in proteins that support the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Novel proteins, including a new PsbP domain-containing isoform, as well as several novel post-translational modifications and N-termini, are reported, and bi-dimensional separation of the lumen proteome identified several protein oligomers in the thylakoid lumen.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteoma , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Filogenia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica/métodos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445469

RESUMO

Abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic, AP) sites are ubiquitous DNA lesions arising from spontaneous base loss and excision of damaged bases. They may be processed either by AP endonucleases or AP lyases, but the relative roles of these two classes of enzymes are not well understood. We hypothesized that endonucleases and lyases may be differentially influenced by the sequence surrounding the AP site and/or the identity of the orphan base. To test this idea, we analysed the activity of plant and human AP endonucleases and AP lyases on DNA substrates containing an abasic site opposite either G or C in different sequence contexts. AP sites opposite G are common intermediates during the repair of deaminated cytosines, whereas AP sites opposite C frequently arise from oxidized guanines. We found that the major Arabidopsis AP endonuclease (ARP) exhibited a higher efficiency on AP sites opposite G. In contrast, the main plant AP lyase (FPG) showed a greater preference for AP sites opposite C. The major human AP endonuclease (APE1) preferred G as the orphan base, but only in some sequence contexts. We propose that plant AP endonucleases and AP lyases play complementary DNA repair functions on abasic sites arising at C:G pairs, neutralizing the potential mutagenic consequences of C deamination and G oxidation, respectively.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Pareamento de Bases , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , DNA Liase (Sítios Apurínicos ou Apirimidínicos)/metabolismo , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Sítios de Ligação , DNA Liase (Sítios Apurínicos ou Apirimidínicos)/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Humanos , Especificidade por Substrato
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