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1.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 22(3): 188-193, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660711

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With increasing prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) globally and the greater risk of potential reactions occurring due to the leading role of nuts in food products, PA has become a significant public health concern over the past decade, affecting up to 5 million of the US adult population. This review details updates and advances in prevalence, diagnosis, and immunotherapies that have occurred over the past year. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic and diagnostic advances remain at the forefront of research and have continued to push the food allergy (FA) field forward to provide a promising role in the detection and treatment of PA. The FA field has researched significant advances in peanut immunotherapy, biomarker diagnosis, and quality of life (QoL) improvement. SUMMARY: Given the burden and consequences for individuals with PA, these advances delivered in clinical practice can significantly improve the QoL of individuals with PA and their caregivers. Ongoing studies will continue to investigate long-term outcome measures of desensitisation and effective management plans tailored to the families' needs.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Adulto , Arachis , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e056925, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical studies supported by immunological data indicate early life intervention strategies to be promising in reducing the growing global burden of food allergies. The events that predispose to food allergy, including the induction of allergen-specific immune responses, appear to be initiated early in development. Early exposure to food allergens in utero and via breast milk is likely to be important in initiating oral tolerance. We aim to determine the effectiveness of higher maternal food allergen consumption during pregnancy and lactation on infant food allergy outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multisite, parallel, two-arm (1:1 allocation), single-blinded (outcome assessors, statistical analyst and investigators), randomised controlled trial. Pregnant women (<23 weeks' gestation) whose (unborn) infants have at least two biological family members (mother, father or siblings) with medically diagnosed allergic disease are eligible to participate. After obtaining written informed consent, pregnant women are randomised to either a high egg and peanut diet (at least 6 eggs and 60 peanuts per week) or standard (low) egg and peanut diet (no more than 3 eggs and 30 peanuts per week). The women are asked to follow their allocated diet from <23 weeks' gestation to 4 months' lactation. The primary outcome is food challenge proven IgE-mediated egg and/or peanut allergy in the infants at 12 months of age. Key secondary outcomes include infant sensitisation to egg and/or peanut and infant eczema. Our target sample size is 2136 women. Analyses will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis according to a pre-specified statistical analysis plan. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted from the Women's and Children's Health Network Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number HREC/18/WCHN/42). Trial results will be presented at scientific conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618000937213.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Ovo , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Alérgenos , Arachis , Austrália , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Lactente , Lactação , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Saúde da Mulher
3.
Food Chem ; 392: 133208, 2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659698

RESUMO

This study investigated the immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding capacity, structure, and physicochemical properties of raw crushed peanut (RCP) after fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus natto along with autoclaved pretreatment. SDS-PAGE showed the disappearance of partial protein (>45 kDa) in autoclaved peanuts (ACP) and fermented autoclaved peanuts with L. plantarum (LP), and of majority protein (>14.4 kDa) in fermented autoclaved peanuts with B. natto (BN) or a mixture of L. plantarum and B. natto (LPBN). Structural analysis revealed protein-aggregation and protein-unfolding in autoclaved and fermented peanuts, respectively. Indirect ELISA demonstrated that the IgE binding capacities in ACP, LP, BN and LPBN were reduced by 11.3%, 20.6%, 78.7% and 90.2%, respectively, compared to RCP. LPBN showed the lowest IgE binding capacity due to the highest masking and destruction of epitopes and exhibited the desirable physicochemical properties simultaneously. Mixed strain fermentation has the potential to produce hypoallergenic peanut products.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum , Alimentos de Soja , Arachis , Bacillus subtilis , Fermentação , Imunoglobulina E
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9967, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705653

RESUMO

Roots and rhizomes can play an important role in nutrient cycling, however, few studies have investigated how their decomposition pattern is affected by defoliation and time of the year. This 2-year study evaluated root-rhizome composition and decomposition of a warm-season rhizomatous perennial legume [rhizoma peanut (RP; Arachis glabrata Benth.)] under continuous stocking or when defoliated by clipping every 56 days. A 168-days incubation trial was performed to determine disappearance of biomass and N and changes in acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent insoluble N (ADIN), and C:N ratio. Additionally, three 56-days incubations were performed each year to evaluate the disappearance coefficient (B0) and relative decay rate (k). There were no treatment differences in any response for the 168-days incubation. After 168 days, 21 and 60% of initial biomass and initial N remained, respectively. Relative decay rate for OM and N were 0.0088 and 0.0035 g g-1 day-1, respectively. Carbon-to-N ratio decreased from 29 at day 0 to 17 at day 168. Concentration of ADIN increased from 6.9 to 19.3 g kg-1, plateauing at day 79. The B0 and k for remaining OM and N were greater in late than early season and could be explained by greater N concentration and lesser C:N ratio. Rapid decomposition, difference in C:N ratio from day 0 to 168, and the increase in ADIN concentration during incubation indicate large amounts of root-rhizome-soluble C at initiation of incubation. These data indicate that RP root-rhizome turnover is more responsive to season than defoliation frequency.


Assuntos
Arachis , Fabaceae , Biomassa , Carbono , Detergentes
5.
Food Chem ; 391: 133277, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623281

RESUMO

Aflatoxins (AFs) contaminate agricultural products in a wide range of ways during their harvesting, storage and transport. Therefore, the detection of AFs has certain practical significance. Herein, a dispersive micro solid phase extraction (D-µSPE) technology was constructed based on 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIM][PF6]) fabricated ZnO nanoflowers for AFs extraction from food matrix before HPLC procedure. The key parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied. Under optimal experimental conditions, the method showed excellent linearity with high correlation coefficients (≥0.994). LOD and LOQ were 0.034 and 0.114 µg/kg for AFB1, 0.024 and 0.082 µg/kg for AFB2, 0.067 and 0.226 µg/kg for AFG1 and 0.025 and 0.084 µg/kg for AFG2. The recovery of actual samples spiked with analytes (at 5, 15 and 20 µg/kg) were from 93.8 to 105.1%. Overall, an accurate AFs analysis method was developed and could be applied to the determination of AFs in various food and agricultural products.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Líquidos Iônicos , Óxido de Zinco , Aflatoxinas/análise , Arachis , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Triticum
6.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33(5): e13778, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35616889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut and tree nut allergies are common in childhood and often severe in nature. The clinical picture shows a wide variety of symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution of clinical symptoms and severity during oral food challenges (OFC) in children. METHODS: Analysis of 1.013 prospectively recorded, positive OFCs with peanut (n = 607), hazelnut (n = 266), walnut (n = 97), and cashew (n = 43). Symptoms were categorized as immediate-type skin, gastrointestinal, upper and lower respiratory, cardiovascular symptoms, and eczema exacerbation. Symptom severity and treatment were recorded. RESULTS: Skin symptoms presented in 78%, followed by gastrointestinal (47%), upper (42%), and lower respiratory symptoms (32%). Cardiovascular symptoms presented in 6%. In three-quarter of the reactions, more than one organ was involved. Importantly, severe reactions occurred at every dose level. Peanut- and cashew-allergic patients had a higher relative risk of gastrointestinal symptoms compared with hazelnut- and walnut-allergic patients. Patients without vomiting had a 1.7 times higher risk developing immediate-type skin and/or lower respiratory symptoms. Three-quarter of the patients ever had eczema but worsening presented in only 10.5% of the OFCs. In patients with multiple food allergies, organs involved, eliciting dose and severity differed between allergens. CONCLUSION: Although comparisons between allergen groups with different clinical history, severity, comorbidities and laboratory data are difficult and might contain bias, our data confirm the high allergenic potential of peanut and tree nuts. The rare occurrence of eczema worsening emphasizes that avoidance diets of peanuts and tree nuts to cure eczema seem to be unnecessary and may hamper tolerance maintenance.


Assuntos
Eczema , Juglans , Hipersensibilidade a Noz , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Alérgenos , Arachis , Criança , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Noz/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Noz/epidemiologia , Nozes , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7464, 2022 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523841

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated immunoreactivity of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) oil using the silkworm (Bombyx mori) model. The peanut oil induced melanin formation when injected to the silkworm hemocoel. We then purified the active substance and identified the triacylglycerols (TAGs) as the responsible molecule for the melanin-forming effect of peanut oil. Also, the peanut TAGs induced the muscle contraction of the silkworm (i.e., cleavage of the insect cytokine BmPP) and the TNF-α production by cultured mouse macrophage cells. The muscle contraction activity of the peanut TAGs was reduced by saponification reaction, indicating that the TAG (not the degraded fatty acids) moiety is responsible for the activity. The muscle contraction effects of other TAGs of olive, lard, and beef oil were comparable with that of peanut TAGs. Nevertheless, for the melanin formation, the effect of peanut TAGs was outstanding. The fatty acid composition of peanut TAGs was distinct from that of olive TAGs. These results suggest that TAGs are immunoreactive and induces cytokines both in insect and mammalian immune systems. Also, the differential effects of peanut and olive TAGs for the melanin formation may suggest that TAGs with different fatty acid compositions are distinguished by the immune system.


Assuntos
Arachis , Melaninas , Animais , Arachis/metabolismo , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Insetos/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óleo de Amendoim/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 2): 155867, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568172

RESUMO

With continuous recognition of green, organic and pollution-free products, the organic fertilizer plays an increasingly important role in agricultural production. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an efficient and environmentally friendly biomass treatment technology that can achieve value-added utilization of solid wastes. This study evaluated the potential of two typical agricultural and forestry wastes (corn cob and peanut residue) in preparing as solid organic fertilizers through HTC. The effects of reaction temperature, residence time, and the raw material composition on hydrochar yield, total nutrient content (TNC), nitrogen recovery, and nutrient elements transformation in HTC were investigated. Corn cob was proven to be not an ideal raw material for the preparation of organic fertilizers because of the low TNC and the high C/N ratio of its hydrochar. On the contrary, peanut residue was suitable for preparing organic fertilizers due to its high TNC and appropriate C/N ratio. The co-HTC of corn cob and peanut residue could further improve the N recovery rate from 8.52% (for peanut residue only) to 19.51% due to the synergistic effect between them. Under the optimal hydrothermal conditions of 240 °C, 120 min, and mixing ratio of 1:1, the hydrochar yield was as high as 27.86%, and the C/N value (11.98) and TNC (6.331%) were both appropriate as fertilizer. Furthermore, the potential migration and transformation paths of nutrients including N, P, K and metal elements in the co-HTC were analyzed. The thermodynamic conditions and raw materials composition significantly affect the migration and transformation of N, P and K between solid and liquid. N dissolved into process water (mainly ammonia) would migrate into hydrochar and bio-oil with increasing of reaction temperature. P was fixed in hydrochar through precipitation and adsorption reaction with metal ions. Further, adjusting pH or adding metal salts can promote the fixation of N and P in solid.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Zea mays , Arachis , Carbono/química , Nutrientes , Temperatura
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1673: 463101, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525193

RESUMO

In the present work, a type of biochar materials derived from carbonizing peanut shells were obtained and employed as the adsorbents of pipette-tip solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) for the enrichment and determination of six endocrine-disrupting phenols (EDPs) in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). Abundant aliphatic and aromatic carbon structures and functional groups from polar heteroatoms (N, O, S) were distributed in the low-cost and eco-friendly peanut shells-derived biochar materials and were favorable for the enrichment of target EDPs. Moreover, the theoretical calculation based on density functional theory (DFT) proved that the effective enrichment of EDPs in aqueous samples benefited from the effective adsorption on the peanut shells-derived biochar materials. The experimental factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated, including adsorbent amount, aspirating/dispensing cycles, the type of elution solvent and elution times, salt addition, sample solution pH and type and volume of washing solvent. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed PT-SPE method exhibited good linear relationship (R2 > 0.993) in the range of 0.5-400 µg/L and low limits of detections (LODs) from 0.25 to 2.5 µg/L, as well as good precision and accuracy with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.3%-13.2% and recoveries of 83.5%-117.1%. Finally, the biochars-based miniaturized pretreatment method was employed for the determination of six EDPs in bottled water, milk, tea beverage and disposal plastic bag soaked solution with recoveries from 77.5% to 116.5%.


Assuntos
Leite , Fenóis , Animais , Arachis , Carvão Vegetal , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Leite/química , Fenóis/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solventes/análise , Água/análise
10.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(3): 226-233, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524355

RESUMO

Background: Peanut component tests (PCT) have become important in the evaluation of peanut allergy. There remains a paucity of research across the United States in investigating the utility of PCT in clinical practice in conjunction with current standards of care. Objective: The primary aims were to evaluate the performance and sensitization patterns of PCT in clinical practice when first available at our institution. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 184 children with PCT and oral food challenge (OFC) results between 2012 and 2017. Simple logistic regression models assessed the associations between PCT and OFC outcomes. Receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed, and a predicted probability curve was derived for Ara h2. Results: The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age at OFC was 4 years (2-7 years), and 111 patients (60%) were boys. Ara h 2 was the most commonly sensitized PCT. Sixty-one patients (33%) reacted at OFC. Ara h 2 specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) ≥ 0.35 kUA/L was associated with increased odds of reacting at OFC (odds ratio 5.91 95% confidence interval, 2.93-11.89; p < 0.001); however, 19 patients (37%) positive for Ara h 2 did not react. Ara h 2 sIgE of 0.49 kUA/L and 4.58 kUA/L were associated with 50% and 90% probability, respectively, of reacting at OFC. Among those sensitized only to Ara h 8 or 9 (n = 21), 86% had no reaction. There was no statistically significant association with polysensitization to Ara h 1, 2, and 3, and peanut OFC outcome. Conclusion: Although the Ara h 2 sIgE value was associated with clinical reactivity, a significant proportion of the patients sensitized to Ara h 2 tolerated peanut. OFC remains an important tool in the evaluation of peanut allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Albuminas 2S de Plantas , Alérgenos , Antígenos de Plantas , Arachis , Chicago , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 238: 113580, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512475

RESUMO

Peanut stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is a serious soil-borne disease and poses a threat to the peanut production. The antibiotic fungicide tetramycin has a broad antifungal spectrum against multiple pathogens and possess low environmental risks. In current study, a total of 250 isolates collected from Huanghuai peanut-growing region of China (Henan, Shandong and Hebei Province) were used to establish the baseline sensitivity of S. rolfsii to tetramycin. The baseline sensitivity curve was unimodal and distributed from 0.01 to 0.36 mg/L, with a mean EC50 (50% effective concentration) value of 0.11 ± 0.06 mg/L. Tetramycin also had strong inhibitory activity on the formation and germination of sclerotia. There was no significant correlation of S. rolfsii sensitivity to tetramycin and other commonly used SDHI (succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor), QoI (quinone outside respiration inhibitor) and DMI (demethylation inhibitor) fungicides. Moreover, tetramycin significantly increased the cell membrane permeability and reduced the oxalate acid content. Greenhouse experiments showed that tetramycin has both protective and curative efficacy against S. rolfsii, while protective efficacy was higher than curative efficacy. Anyhow, the bioactivity of tetramycin is similar (curative efficacy) or higher (protective efficacy) than the control fungicide validamycin. In terms of application method, root drench may be more suitable for tetramycin than spraying, because root drench of tetramycin obtained a higher efficacy. These results indicated that tetramycin may be a potential alternative fungicide for the efficient control of peanut stem rot.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Fungicidas Industriais , Arachis , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Macrolídeos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
12.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566204

RESUMO

Umami peptides are naturally found in various foods and have been proven to be essential components contributing to food taste. Defatted peanut powder hydrolysate produced by a multiprotease (Flavorzyme, Alcalase, and Protamex) was found to elicit an umami taste and umami-enhancing effect. The taste profiles, hydrolysis efficiency, amino acids, molecular weight distribution, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and separation fractions obtained by ultrafiltration were evaluated. The results showed that peanut protein was extensively hydrolyzed to give mainly (up to 96.84%) free amino acids and peptides with low molecular weights (<1000 Da). Furthermore, ß-sheets were the major secondary structure. Fractions of 1-3000 Da and <1000 Da prominently contributed to the umami taste and umami enhancement. To obtain umami-enhancing peptides, these two fractions were further purified by gel filtration chromatography, followed by sensory evaluation. These peptides were identified as ADSYRLP, DPLKY, EAFRVL, EFHNR, and SDLYVR by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and had estimated thresholds of 0.107, 0.164, 0.134, 0.148, and 0.132 mmol/L, respectively. According to the results of this work, defatted peanut powder hydrolysate had an umami taste and umami-enhancing effect, and is a potential excellent umami peptide precursor material for the food industry.


Assuntos
Arachis , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Aminoácidos/química , Arachis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Peptídeos/química , Pós , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Paladar
13.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566387

RESUMO

Polysaccharide-protein conjugates can improve the functional properties and expand the application field. The emulsifying, thermal properties of WSG-PPI conjugates and WSG-SPI conjugates were improved, compared to WSG, PPI and SPI. The Maillard reaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Circular dichroism (CD) exhibited that the structure of the conjugates was more expanded. Cryo-SEM and AFM demonstrated that the WSG, WSG-PPI and WSG-SPI conjugates had a morphology of a chain. When the conjugates were added as fat substitutes to low-fat sausage, the cooking yield, hardness and chewiness increased. The objective of this research was to study the emulsifying property, thermal property and structural changes of ß-glucan-peanut protein isolate (WSG-PPI) conjugates and ß-glucan-soy protein isolate (WSG-SPI) conjugates prepared through wet-heated Maillard reaction, and their effect on the texture of low-fat sausage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Soja , beta-Glucanas , Arachis , Emulsões/química , Glucanos , Proteínas de Soja/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563370

RESUMO

Plant-food allergy is an increasing problem, with nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) triggering mild/severe reactions. Pru p 3 is the major sensitizer in LTP food allergy (FA). However, in vivo and in vitro diagnosis is hampered by the need for differentiating between asymptomatic sensitization and allergy with clinical relevance. The basophil activation test (BAT) is an ex vivo method able to identify specific IgE related to the allergic response. Thus, we aimed to establish the value of BAT in a precise diagnosis of LTP-allergic patients. Ninety-two individuals with peach allergy sensitized to LTP, Pru p 3, were finally included, and 40.2% of them had symptoms to peanut (n = 37). In addition, 16 healthy subjects were recruited. BAT was performed with Pru p 3 and Ara h 9 (peanut LTP) at seven ten-fold concentrations, and was evaluated by flow cytometry, measuring the percentage of CD63 (%CD63+) and CD203c (%CD203chigh) cells, basophil allergen threshold sensitivity (CD-Sens), and area under the dose-response curve (AUC). Significant changes in BAT parameters (%CD63+ and %CD203chigh) were found between the controls and patients. However, comparisons for %CD63+, %CD203chigh, AUC, and CD-Sens showed similar levels among patients with different symptoms. An optimal cut-off was established from ROC curves, showing a significant positive percentage of BAT in patients compared to controls and great values of sensitivity (>87.5%) and specificity (>85%). In addition, BAT showed differences in LTP-allergic patients tolerant to peanut using its corresponding LTP, Ara h 9. BAT can be used as a potential diagnostic tool for identifying LTP allergy and for differentiating peanut tolerance, although neither reactivity nor sensitivity can distinguish the severity of the clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Teste de Degranulação Basófila , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Arachis , Teste de Degranulação Basófila/métodos , Basófilos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268154, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560044

RESUMO

Sugar transporter proteins (STPs) are membrane proteins required for sugar transport throughout cellular membranes. They plays an imperative role in sugar transmission across the plant and determinants of crop yield. However, the analysis of these important STPs Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters (SWEET) family in legumes is still not well-documented and remains unclear. Therefore, the in-silico analysis of STPs has been performed to unravel their cellular, molecular, and structural composition in legume species. This study conducted a systematic search for STPs in Cajanus cajan using the Blastp algorithm to understand its molecular basis. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of 155 identified SWEET proteins across 12 legumes species, namely (Cajanus cajan, Glycine max, Vigna radiate, Vigna angularis, Medicago truncatula, Lupinus angustifolius, Glycine soja, Spatholobus suberectus, Cicer arietinum, Arachis ipaensis, Arachis hypogaea, Arachis duranensis). The amino acid composition and motif analysis revealed that SWEET proteins are rich in essential amino acids such as leucine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and serine while less profuse in glutamine, tryptophan, cysteine, and histidine. A total of four main conserved motifs of SWEET proteins are also highly abundant in these amino acids. The present study deciphered the details on primary physicochemical properties, secondary, tertiary structure, and phylogenetic analysis of SWEETs protein. Majorities of SWEET proteins (72.26%) are in stable form with an average instability index of 36.5%, and it comprises a higher fraction of positively charged amino acid Arg + Lys residues. Secondary structure analysis shown that these proteins are richer in alpha-helix (40%) than extended strand (30%) and random coil (25%), respectively. Furthermore, to infer their mechanism at a structural and functional level which play an essential roles in growth, development, and stress responses. This study will be useful to examine photosynthetic productivity, embryo sugar content, seed quality, and yield enhancement in Fabaceae for a sustainable source of essential amino acids and carbon source.


Assuntos
Cajanus , Fabaceae , Medicago truncatula , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Arachis/metabolismo , Cajanus/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Medicago truncatula/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares
16.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0264674, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617270

RESUMO

Dendritic cells are important mediators in the early presentation of antigen and regulation of the differentiation of T cells. Peanut oral immunotherapy (POIT) results in desensitization in most peanut allergic individuals (responders), but not in others due to allergic reactions (non-responders). Delineation of early immunologic changes contributing to desensitization would help clarify the POIT mechanism of action. We analyzed dendritic cells in 15 pediatric subjects (5-12 years) undergoing a phase 1 single-center POIT study. We examined dendritic cells at baseline, 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-weeks after initiation of POIT and responders of therapy were compared to non-responders and healthy controls. The distribution frequency of myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) from peripheral blood samples were measured in vitro. A general linear mixed model was used, and included fixed effects for cohort (responder, non-responder, or healthy control), time (0-, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-weeks), and the cohort-time interaction term. P-values were adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing using Tukey's method. We observed that POIT responders had reduced TNFa producing myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) compared to non-responders. Additionally, non-responders had increased OX40L expressing mDCs at 18-weeks compared to responders. In conclusion, our findings suggest that a reduced pro-inflammatory phenotype in DCs could potentially serve as a predictor of early outcome and success of POIT desensitization.


Assuntos
Arachis , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Criança , Células Dendríticas , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/terapia , Fenótipo
17.
Food Chem ; 389: 132986, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569245

RESUMO

The aim was to develop a fluorescent multiplex array for simultaneously measuring regulated food allergens using specific allergen protein molecules from peanut, tree nut, cow's milk, egg, soy, fish, shellfish, sesame, mustard and celery. Microspheres coupled to specific monoclonal antibodies were used for allergen detection, with purified allergens as reference standards.Standard curves for 17 allergens covered a 5-log dynamic range. Intra- and inter-assay acceptance criteria were within 70-130% recovery and a CV of ≤15%. Food reference materials contained high levels of their respective major allergens (2000-175,000 µg/g), Similar high allergen levels were found in 10 selected foods analysed using a 9-plex array. Egg, milk, peanut, hazelnut and walnut allergens were detectable in chocolate bars with incurred allergens at 3, 10, 30, and 100 ppm. The multiplex array is an efficient tool for measuring specific food allergens, with applications for risk assessment and standardization of therapeutic products for food allergy.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Alérgenos/análise , Animais , Arachis , Bovinos , Corantes/análise , Feminino , Leite/química
18.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 403, 2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35624420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a grain legume crop that originated from South America and is now grown around the world. Peanut growth habit affects the variety's adaptability, planting patterns, mechanized harvesting, disease resistance, and yield. The objective of this study was to map the quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with peanut growth habit-related traits by combining the genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) and bulked segregant analysis sequencing (BSA-seq) methods. RESULTS: GWAS was performed with 17,223 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 103 accessions of the U.S. mini core collection genotyped using an Affymetrix version 2.0 SNP array. With a total of 12,342 high-quality polymorphic SNPs, the 90 suggestive and significant SNPs associated with lateral branch angle (LBA), main stem height (MSH), lateral branch height (LBL), extent radius (ER), and the index of plant type (IOPT) were identified. These SNPs were distributed among 15 chromosomes. A total of 597 associated candidate genes may have important roles in biological processes, hormone signaling, growth, and development. BSA-seq coupled with specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) method was used to find the association with LBA, an important trait of the peanut growth habit. A 4.08 Mb genomic region on B05 was associated with LBA. Based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distance, we narrowed down and confirmed the region within the 160 kb region (144,193,467-144,513,467) on B05. Four candidate genes in this region were involved in plant growth. The expression levels of Araip.E64SW detected by qRT-PCR showed significant difference between 'Jihua 5' and 'M130'. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the SNP (AX-147,251,085 and AX-144,353,467) associated with LBA by GWAS was overlapped with the results in BSA-seq through combined analysis of GWAS and BSA-seq. Based on LD decay distance, the genome range related to LBA on B05 was shortened to 144,193,467-144,513,467. Three candidate genes related to F-box family proteins (Araip.E64SW, Araip.YG1LK, and Araip.JJ6RA) and one candidate gene related to PPP family proteins (Araip.YU281) may be involved in plant growth and development in this genome region. The expression analysis revealed that Araip.E64SW was involved in peanut growth habits. These candidate genes will provide molecular targets in marker-assisted selection for peanut growth habits.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biológicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Arachis/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Hábitos
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(5)2022 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627225

RESUMO

Lateral branch angle (LBA), or branch habit, is one of the most important agronomic traits in peanut. To date, the underlying molecular mechanisms of LBA have not been elucidated in peanut. To acquire the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to LBA, a TI population was constructed through the hybridization of a bunch-type peanut variety Tifrunner and prostrate-type Ipadur. We report the identification of DEGs related to LBA by sequencing two RNA pools, which were composed of 45 F3 lines showing an extreme opposite bunch and prostrate phenotype. We propose to name this approach Bulk RNA-sequencing (BR-seq) as applied to several plant species. Through BR-seq analysis, a total of 3083 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 13 gravitropism-related DEGs, 22 plant hormone-related DEGs, and 55 transcription factors-encoding DEGs. Furthermore, we also identified commonly expressed alternatively spliced (AS) transcripts, of which skipped exon (SE) and retained intron (RI) were most abundant in the prostrate and bunch-type peanut. AS isoforms between prostrate and bunch peanut highlighted important clues to further understand the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of branch angle regulation. Our findings provide not only important insights into the landscape of the regulatory pathway involved in branch angle formation but also present practical information for peanut molecular breeding in the future.


Assuntos
Arachis , Transcriptoma , Arachis/genética , Arachis/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628135

RESUMO

Auxin response factors (ARFs) play important roles in plant growth and development; however, research in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is still lacking. Here, 63, 30, and 30 AhARF genes were identified from an allotetraploid peanut cultivar and two diploid ancestors (A. duranensis and A. ipaensis). Phylogenetic tree and gene structure analysis showed that most AhARFs were highly similar to those in the ancestors. By scanning the whole-genome for ARF-recognized cis-elements, we obtained a potential target gene pool of AhARFs, and the further cluster analysis and comparative analysis showed that numerous members were closely related to root development. Furthermore, we comprehensively analyzed the relationship between the root morphology and the expression levels of AhARFs in 11 peanut varieties. The results showed that the expression levels of AhARF14/26/45 were positively correlated with root length, root surface area, and root tip number, suggesting an important regulatory role of these genes in root architecture and potential application values in peanut breeding.


Assuntos
Arachis , Fabaceae , Arachis/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal
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