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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 64, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The peanut is one of the most important oil crops worldwide. Qualities and yields of peanut can be dramatically diminished by abiotic stresses particularly by drought. Therefore, it would be beneficial to gain a comprehensive understanding on peanut drought-responsive transcriptional regulatory activities, and hopefully to extract critical drought-tolerance-related molecular mechanism from it. RESULTS: In this study, two peanut Arachis hypogaea L. varieties, NH5 (tolerant) and FH18 (sensitive), which show significantly differential drought tolerance, were screened from 23 main commercial peanut cultivars and used for physiological characterization and transcriptomic analysis. NH5 leaves showed higher water and GSH contents, faster stomatal closure, and lower relative conductivity (REC) than FH18. Under the time-course of drought-treatments 0 h (CK), 4 h (DT1), 8 h (DT2) and 24 h (DT3), the number of down-regulated differential expressed genes (DEGs) increased with the progression of treatments indicating repressive impacts on transcriptomes by drought in both peanut varieties. CONCLUSIONS: Nevertheless, NH5 maintained more stable transcriptomic dynamics than FH18. Furthermore, annotations of identified DEGs implicate signal transduction, the elimination of reactive oxygen species, and the maintenance of cell osmotic potential which are key drought-tolerance-related pathways. Finally, evidences from the examination of ABA and SA components suggested that the fast stomatal closure in NH5 was likely mediated through SA rather than ABA signaling. In all, these results have provided us a comprehensive overview of peanut drought-responsive transcriptomic changes, which could serve as solid foundation for further identification of the molecular drought-tolerance mechanism in peanut and other oil crops.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Arachis/genética , Secas , Genes de Plantas , Arachis/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , RNA-Seq , Estresse Fisiológico
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 106(2): 385-392, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388830

RESUMO

This study aims to synthesize and characterize an economical and ecological adsorbent with high adsorption capacity. For this purpose, the peanut shells (Pistacia vera L.) were modified chemically. After the synthesis of activated carbon (AC), the optimum conditions for enrichment steps were performed using parameters: pH and contact time for uranium in the model solutions. The measurements were carried out by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). From the shapes of the BET isotherms, the AC obtained exhibits type I. The study indicated that the surface area and total pore volume of the AC were found to be 679.9 m2 g-1 and 0.31 cc g-1, respectively. The adsorption capacity was found to be 260 mg g-1. The optimum pH was found to be 6.0 for enrichment using the AC obtained by sulfuric acid as a chemical-modifier. The optimized method was applied to enrichment of U at ppb levels in the model solutions.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Urânio , Adsorção , Arachis , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Urânio/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 339: 127885, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866704

RESUMO

The current study develops an effective, convenient, low-cost, and environmentally friendly method for determining trans-resveratrol (TRA) in peanut oils, the unique proportion of peanut oil, by employing natural cotton fibers without any pretreatment as extraction sorbent and an in-syringe extraction device. The primary factors affecting the extraction recovery are optimized in detail. The condition of 200.0 mg of cotton fibers, six push-pull times, 2.0 mL of n-hexane as washing solvent and 2.0 mL of ethanol as desorption solvent is selected as the best. The linear range is demonstrated to be 10-1000 ng/g with a satisfactory correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9995), while the limit of detection is calculated as 2.47 ng/g. In addition, the recoveries of TRA are obtained in the range of 93.8-104.4% with RSDs less than 5.5%. Finally, the developed method is successfully applied to determine TRA concentrations in commercial peanut oils and other edible oils.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fibra de Algodão , Óleo de Amendoim/química , Resveratrol/análise , Adsorção , Arachis/metabolismo , Hexanos/química , Isomerismo , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resveratrol/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
4.
Food Chem ; 339: 127895, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866706

RESUMO

The epitopes of the major allergen of pine nut, Pin p 1, were analyzed using a peptide library and sera from patients with clinical allergy to pine nut in order to deepen into the allergenic characteristics of Pin p 1. Analyses of epitope similarities and epitopes location in a 3D-model were also performed. Results showed that three main regions of Pin p 1 containing 5 epitopes were recognized by patient sera IgE. The epitopes of Pin p 1 had important similarities with epitopes of allergenic 2S albumins from peanut (Ara h 2 and 6) and Brazil nut (Ber e 1). The epitopes of Pin p 1 were found in α-helices and coils in the 3D protein structure. Interestingly, all epitopes were found to be well-exposed in the protein surface, which suggests facile access for IgE-binding to the structure of Pin p 1 which is known to be highly resistant.


Assuntos
Albuminas 2S de Plantas/química , Alérgenos/química , Mapeamento de Epitopos/métodos , Epitopos/química , Pinus/metabolismo , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/imunologia , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arachis/imunologia , Arachis/metabolismo , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Noz/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Noz/patologia , Nozes/imunologia , Nozes/metabolismo , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Pinus/imunologia
5.
Food Chem ; 334: 127517, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711266

RESUMO

To facilitate selective breeding of polyphenol-rich peanuts, we looked for mass spectrometry-based proteomic evidence, investigating a subset of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed by the Australian peanut breeding program. To do this, we used label-free shotgun proteomics for protein and peptide quantitation, statistically analyzed normalized spectral abundance factors using R-package, as well as assayed important antioxidants. Results revealed statistically significant protein expression changes in 82 proteins classified between high or low polyphenols expressing RILs. Metabolic changes in polyphenol-rich RIL p27-362 point towards increased enzymatic breakdown of sugars and phenylalanine biosynthesis. The study revealed phenylpropanoid pathway overexpression resulting in increased polyphenols biosynthesis. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, by 73.4 fold was also observed. A strong metabolic correlation exists with the observed phenotypic traits. Peanut RIL p27-362 presents a superior nutritional composition with antioxidant-rich peanut phenotype and could yield commercial profits. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifierPXD015493.


Assuntos
Arachis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Proteômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Arachis/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Catalase/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Food Chem ; 334: 127581, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717687

RESUMO

A novel process, 'mechanical expression preserving shape integrity', was conceived to prepare low-fat peanuts in response to health-conscious consumer demands. The main purpose of this study was to preserve the taste, aroma, and oxidative stability of the defatted product. Results generated from a central composite rotatable design showed that highest consumer sensory scores were reached at low pressures (4-6 MPa). Free fatty acid, peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values were mostly affected by water content [W] and pressure [P] with high correlation coefficients (82% < R2 < 87%). Overall, lipid oxidation and flavor fade were associated with higher defatting ratios and greater physical damage. The latter plays a major role in increasing the surface area and facilitating the access of oxygen to the remaining oil, thus rendering the defatted product more prone to oxidation. However, oxidation was reduced significantly using a Response Surface Methodology to optimize conditions ([W] 12.2 ± 0.6%d.b., [P] 6 ± 0.3 MPa and time [t] 18.2 ± 0.6 min).


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Análise de Alimentos , Odorantes , Paladar , Compostos de Anilina/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 336: 127667, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758802

RESUMO

Proanthocyanidin (PAC) profiles of apples (a-PAC), cranberries (c-PAC), and peanut skins (p-PAC) were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Deconvolution of overlapping isotopic patterns indicated that in apples, only 5% of the PAC oligomers contain one or more A-type bonds, whereas in cranberries and peanut skins, 96% of the PAC oligomers contain one or more A-type bonds. MALDI-TOF MS data combined with multivariate analysis, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were used to differentiate and discriminate a-PAC, c-PAC, and p-PAC from one another. Mixtures of c-PAC with either a-PAC or p-PAC at different w/w ratios were evaluated by LDA modeling. The LDA model classified the training, testing, and validation sets with 99.4%, 100%, and 94.2% accuracy. Results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS and multivariate analysis are useful in determining authenticity of PAC from different sources and mixtures of PAC sources.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Proantocianidinas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Arachis/química , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Malus/química , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Proantocianidinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química
8.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(1): 61-68, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients treated with peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) may experience adverse reactions, particularly during up-dosing. OBJECTIVE: To develop the Side Effects of Peanut Oral Immunotherapy Diary (SEPOD), an electronic questionnaire assessing the daily side effects of peanut OIT in clinical trials. METHODS: Content and design of the SEPOD were informed by empirical literature review and meetings with 3 allergy-immunology experts. Interviews to confirm content and inform revisions were conducted in 24 pediatric patients with peanut allergy (14 treated with peanut OIT) aged 6 to 17 years; children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with their caregiver. RESULTS: The SEPOD was drafted after literature review and expert interviews; the initial measurement approach comprised 2 SEPOD versions, a patient-reported outcome (PRO) version for children aged 12 to 17 years, and a caregiver-administered PRO version for children aged 6 to 11 years with instructions for caregiver questionnaire administration. Pediatric patients were expected to respond independently on both versions. Patient interviews indicated that some younger children (ie, aged 6-8 years) had difficulty understanding questions, even when reading aloud; therefore, a caregiver-administered outcome version, identical in content to the caregiver-administered PRO version, was developed for this age group. The final electronic SEPOD covered 23 peanut OIT side effects within the following 7 domains: gastrointestinal, dermatologic, itching, nasal, and respiratory, swelling (eyelid or periorbital, lip, tongue, and throat), pain (tongue, mouth, and throat), and dizziness. CONCLUSION: This study yielded the SEPOD, a new clinical outcome assessment instrument with various methods of administration that can be used to assess the side effects of peanut OIT experienced by pediatric patients in a clinical trial setting.


Assuntos
Dessensibilização Imunológica/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/imunologia , Arachis/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Prova Pericial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/terapia
9.
Life Sci ; 266: 118908, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333048

RESUMO

It has been reported that B-type procyanidins can alleviate oxidative damage of prostatic cells, but there has been limited information on the similar role of A-type procyanidins. This study investigated the protective effect of procyanidin A-type dimers from peanut skin against H2O2-induced oxidative stress damage in prostate cancer DU145 cells. According to the UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis and comparison with standards, the fourth fraction of peanut skin procyanidin (PSP-4) was identified as procyanidin A-type dimers, namely, procyanidin A1 and A2. Results revealed that PSP-4 treatment prior H2O2 exposure increased cell activity and attenuated the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate. The H2O2-induced increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was remarkably inhibited by PSP-4. PSP-4 treatment enhanced the activity of catalase (CAT) and total super oxide dismutase (T-SOD) and restored glutathione (GSH) content, compared with the H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, the results indicated that PSP-4 protected DU145 cells by attenuating phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), by increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and by reducing the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 by cascade reactions. This study reveals that procyanidin A-type dimers from peanut skin have the potential function in preventing oxidative stress damage of prostatic cells.


Assuntos
Catequina/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oxidantes/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Apoptose , Arachis/química , Ciclo Celular , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Food Chem ; 339: 128072, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152867

RESUMO

The efficient magnetic adsorbent (Fe3O4@ATP) was prepared by precipitation through the dispersion of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the natural attapulgite (ATP) and then tested as an adsorbent for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) removal from contaminated oils. The adsorbent characterization results revealed that the Fe3O4 were incorporated into the ATP, affording the Fe3O4@ATP composite. This magnetic composite displayed a good ability to eliminate AFB1 from contaminated oils with a removal efficiency of 86.82% using a 0.3% dosage. The Fe3O4@ATP possessed paramagnetic character with a saturation magnetization of 50.86 emu/g, enabling its easy separation from the medium using an external magnet. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model and fitted the Freundlich isotherm well. Moreover, the thermodynamic studies showed that AFB1 adsorption onto Fe3O4@ATP was exothermic and spontaneous. The novelty of this study lies in the fabrication of magnetic composite adsorbents for AFB1 elimination from oils.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/isolamento & purificação , Arachis/química , Contaminação de Alimentos , Compostos de Magnésio/química , Imãs/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Compostos de Silício/química , Adsorção , Aflatoxina B1/química , Cinética , Termodinâmica
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108836, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065380

RESUMO

Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species that produce aflatoxins in stored peanuts under favourable conditions. This study aimed to describe the growth and aflatoxin production by two A. flavus strains isolated from imported raw peanuts and to model the effects of temperature and aw on their colony growth rate as a function of temperature and aw in Peanut Meal Extract Agar (PMEA). A full factorial design with seven aw levels (0.85-0.98 aw) and five temperature levels (20-40 °C) was used to investigate the growth and aflatoxin production. Colony diameter was measured daily for 28 days while AFB1 and total aflatoxin were determined on day 3, 7, 14, and 21. The maximum colony growth rate, µmax (mm/day) was estimated by using the primary model of Baranyi, and the µmax was then fitted to the secondary model; second-order polynomial and linear Arrhenius-Davey to describe the colony growth rate as a function of temperature and aw. The results indicated that both strains failed to grow at temperature of 20 °C with aw <0.94 and aw of 0.85 for all temperatures except 30 °C. The highest growth rate was observed at 30 °C, with 0.98 aw for both strains. The analysis of variance showed a significant effect of strain, temperature, and aw on the fungal growth and aflatoxin production (p < 0.05). Furthermore, both secondary models were in good agreement with the observed µmax. However, the polynomial model was found to be a better predictor of the experimental data. A similar pattern was observed in aflatoxin production but in a narrower range of temperature (25-35 °C) and aw (0.92-0.98 aw). The highest production of aflatoxins was observed on day 21 at 30 °C with the aw level of 0.98 for both strains. Overall, the current findings may help in improving the mycotoxin management and intervention strategies in peanuts, especially during storage.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/biossíntese , Arachis/microbiologia , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais , Água
13.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1467-1479, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055446

RESUMO

Degradation of the peanut cell wall is a critical step in the aqueous enzymatic extraction process to extract proteins and oil bodies. Viscozyme® L, a compound cell wall degrading enzyme, has been applied as an alternative to protease in the process of aqueous enzymatic extraction, but the mechanism of cell wall enzymolysis remains unclear. The present study aims to investigate the changes in cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin content of the peanut cell wall hydrolyzed by Viscozyme® L. The degree to which the main components of the peanut cell wall, such as trans-1, 2-cyclohexanediamine-N,N,N',N'-acetic acid-soluble pectin (CDTA-soluble pectin), Na2CO3-soluble pectin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, are degraded is closely related to the extraction of oil bodies and peanut protein at different solid-liquid ratio of powered peanut seed in distilled water, enzyme concentration, enzyme hydrolysis temperature, and enzyme hydrolysis time. The key sites of Viscozyme® L activity on cell wall polysaccharides were explored by comparing the changes in chemical bonds under different extraction conditions using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) absorption bands and principal component analysis (PCA). Viscozyme® L acted on the C-O stretching, C-C stretching, and CH2 symmetrical bending of cellulose, the C-O stretching and O-C-O asymmetrical bending of hemicellulose, and the C-O stretching and C-C stretching of pectin.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Parede Celular/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Complexos Multienzimáticos , Óleo de Amendoim/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Celulose/análise , Hidrólise , Pectinas/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Água
14.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1445-1453, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055450

RESUMO

Effects of comminution on peanut particle size and yield of peanut oil and protein were analyzed. Additionally, the emulsion properties (surface protein concentration, particle size, and ξ-potential) were compared. Moreover, different demulsification methods were used to investigate the emulsion stability. Results showed that the yield of peanut oil and protein was highest (87.23% and 82.05%, respectively) after dry comminution for 72 s. Upon wet comminution for 120 s, the yields of peanut oil and protein were 89.91% and 84.70%, respectively, which were both significantly higher than that obtained after dry comminution (p < 0.05). The surface protein concentration and ξ-potential of emulsion made by dry comminution (DCE) were 7.02 mg/m2 and 12.08 mV, respectively, and those of emulsion made by wet comminution (WCE) were 10.71 mg/m2 and 15.25 mV, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of DCE (p < 0.05). The volume average particle size of DCE was 3.41 µm, which was significantly higher than that of WCE (3.18 µm, p < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicated that WCE was more stable than DCE. Further, the demulsification rate of DCE was significantly higher than that of WCE when treated by freeze-thawing, pH, papain, and phospholipase A2 (p < 0.05). Demulsification effect of Alcalase 2.4L was the best among these five demulsification methods treated, and the demulsification rate of DCE reached 92.77%, which was slightly higher than that of WCE (92.67%), further illustrating the higher stability of WCE.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Óleo de Amendoim/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Emulsões , Congelamento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Papaína , Tamanho da Partícula , Óleo de Amendoim/análise , Fosfolipases A2 , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Subtilisinas
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20191364, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901677

RESUMO

The species of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae) are ordered into nine sections. The assignment of genome types in this genus has been based on cross-compatibility analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies. The latter has also allowed karyotypically establishing well-defined genomes and reassigning the genome of several species. However, most of these studies have been focused mainly on the sections Arachis and Rhizomatosae. To increase the knowledge about the chromosome diversity of the whole genus, here we performed a detailed karyotype characterization of representative species of most of the sections and genomes of Arachis. This characterization included chromosome morphology, CMA/DAPI chromosome banding, and chromosome marker localization (rDNAloci and one satDNA sequence) by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Based on the data obtained and other previously published data, we established the karyotype similarities by cluster analysis and defined eleven karyotype groups. The grouping was partly coincident with the traditional genome assignment, except for some groups and some individual species. Karyotype similarities among some genomes were also found. The main characteristics of each karyotype group of Arachis were summarized. Together, our results provide information that may be beneficial for future cytogenetic and evolutionary studies, and also contribute to the identification of interspecific hybrids.


Assuntos
Arachis , Genoma de Planta , Arachis/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Indóis , Cariótipo
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2349-2353, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743696

RESUMO

The complete nucleotide sequence of a new member of the family Potyviridae, which we propose to name "Arachis virus Y" (ArVY), is reported from forage peanut plants (Arachis pintoi) exhibiting virus-like symptoms. The ArVY positive-sense RNA genome is 9,213 nucleotides long and encodes a polyprotein with 2,947 amino acids that is predicted to be cleaved into 10 mature proteins. The complete single open reading frame (ORF) of ArVY shares 47% and 34% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity, respectively, with the closest related virus, soybean yellow shoot virus. Electron microscopic analysis revealed elongated viral particles typical of those found in plant cells infected with potyviruses.


Assuntos
Arachis/virologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Potyviridae/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Brasil , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Potyviridae/classificação , Potyviridae/isolamento & purificação , Potyviridae/ultraestrutura , Vírion/genética , Vírion/isolamento & purificação , Vírion/ultraestrutura
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745143

RESUMO

Stem rot, a devastating fungal disease of peanut, is caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. RNA-sequencing approaches have been used to unravel the mechanisms of resistance to stem rot in peanut over the course of fungal infection in resistant (NRCG-CS85) and susceptible (TG37A) genotypes under control conditions and during the course of infection. Out of about 290 million reads, nearly 251 million (92.22%) high-quality reads were obtained and aligned to the Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis genomes with the average mapping of 78.91% and 78.61%, respectively. In total, about 48.6% of genes were commonly regulated, while approximately 21.8% and 29.6% of uniquely regulated genes from A. duranensis and A. ipaensis genomes, respectively, were identified. Several annotated transcripts, such as receptor-like kinases, jasmonic acid pathway enzymes, and transcription factors (TFs), including WRKY, Zinc finger protein, and C2-H2 zinc finger, showed higher expression in resistant genotypes upon infection. These transcripts have a known role in channelizing the downstream of pathogen perception. The higher expression of WRKY transcripts might have induced the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) by the activation of the jasmonic acid defense signaling pathway. Furthermore, a set of 30 transcripts involved in the defense mechanisms were validated with quantitative real-time PCR. This study suggested PAMP-triggered immunity as a probable mechanism of resistance, while the jasmonic acid signaling pathway was identified as a possible defense mechanism in peanut. The information generated is of immense importance in developing more effective ways to combat the stem rot disease in peanut.


Assuntos
Agaricales/patogenicidade , Arachis/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Arachis/microbiologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Fosfato)/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Food Chem ; 332: 127413, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652410

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry-based methods coupled with stable isotope dilution have become effective and widely used methods for the detection and quantification of food allergens. Current methods target signature peptides resulting from proteolytic digestion of proteins of the allergenic ingredient. The choice of appropriate stable isotope-labelled internal standard is crucial, given the diversity of encountered food matrices which can affect sample preparation and analysis. We propose the use of concatemer, an artificial and stable isotope-labelled protein composed of several concatenated signature peptides as internal standard. With a comparative analysis of three matrices contaminated with four allergens (egg, milk, peanut, and hazelnut), the concatemer approach was found to offer advantages associated with the use of labelled proteins, ideal but unaffordable, and circumvent certain limitations of traditionally used synthetic peptides as internal standards. Although used in the proteomic field for more than a decade, concatemer strategy has not yet been applied for food analysis.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Arachis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corylus/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Marcação por Isótopo , Espectrometria de Massas , Leite/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/química , Proteômica/normas , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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