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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125528, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648181

RESUMO

Simple, rapid, convenient, and economical surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate is developed for on-site evaluation of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in food matrix using handheld Raman Spectrometer. Self-assembly of gold nanobipyramids (Au NBPs) into the nanoholes of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template/pattern using 'drop-dry' approach provides a reliable pathway for the rapid fabrication of highly active and uniform SERS substrate. It shows enhanced and reproducible SERS signals towards the probe molecule, 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 10% and an average enhancement factor (EF) of 1 × 108. For practical application, the proposed method is demonstrated for the detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut extracts. The results show that the AFB1 in peanut extracts can be identified within 1 min, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µg/L. Compared with conventional ELISA based AFB1 analysis, our method is much more efficient (1 min versus >30 min).


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Arachis/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Arachis/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 558: 106-114, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585219

RESUMO

Green synthesis of nanoparticles is becoming increasingly popular as a simple and environmentally friendly method. In this study, iron-based nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) were successfully prepared using a peanut skin extract, where the peanut skin as an agricultural waste product was easy to obtain in large quantities, relatively inexpensive and also environmentally friendly. The average particle size of the produced Fe-NPs changed with their post-synthesis drying conditions. Under vacuum drying at 60 °C, the smallest average particle size obtained was 10.6 nm. The synthesized Fe-NPs had a core shell-like structure, in which the core was composed of Fe0, and the shell was a layered coating composed of biomolecules (e.g. anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic compounds, epicatechin), iron oxides, Fe coordination compounds and iron-carbon alloys. Thereafter Fe-NPs (2 g L-1) prepared under different drying conditions were evaluated for their ability to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions at pH of 4.7 and 25 °C. Fe-NPs obtained under vacuum drying at 60 °C performed the best, removing 100% of Cr(VI), from a 10 mg L-1 aqueous solution of Cr(VI) in just one min. Desorption and reuse experiments show that the desorption rate of Cr using 16 M hydrochloric acid and the recycling rate reached 70.2 and 59.9%, respectively. A potential mechanism for Fe NP synthesis involving the formation of intermediate complexes, an electron transfer reaction and adsorption of non-reducing organic macromolecules at the solid-liquid interfaces was proposed.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Cromo/química , Ferro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Química Verde
3.
Food Chem ; 302: 125186, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400700

RESUMO

Enzymatic processing could reduce the allergenicity of peanut proteins while may lose the functional properties. Transglutaminase (TGase) is an enzyme for improving the functional properties of proteins/hydrolysates. No studies have been conducted on peanut hydrolysates that are crosslinked with TGase. In this study, allergenicity and functional properties of peanut protein hydrolysate cross-linked by TGase were tested. Papain, ficin and bromelain were selected out of eight food-grade enzymes for the kinetic analysis of peanut protein hydrolysis that lead to high reduction rate (K) of the IgE-binding property. Peanuts hydrolyzed by the three selected enzymes (200 AzU/g) were used for IgE binding, TGase-crosslinking and functional property characterization. After hydrolysis, the IgE-binding properties of the peanut soluble extracts were decreased (by 85%-95%); and functional properties were also decreased as compared to intact peanut protein extracts. The TGase crosslinked hydrolysates had similar IgE-binding properties to the un-crosslinked hydrolysates, but with higher functional properties.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/metabolismo , Arachis/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Alérgenos/imunologia , Humanos , Hidrólise , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia
4.
Food Chem ; 304: 125428, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476548

RESUMO

To protect allergic patients and guarantee correct food labeling, robust, specific and sensitive detection methods are urgently needed. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods could overcome the limitations of current detection techniques. The first step in the development of an MS-based method is the identification of biomarkers, which are, in the case of food allergens, peptides. Here, we implemented a strategy to identify the most salient peptide biomarkers in peanuts. Processed peanut matrices were prepared and analyzed using an untargeted approach via high-resolution MS. More than 300 identified peptides were further filtered using selection criteria to strengthen the analytical performance of a future, routine quantitative method. The resulting 16 peptides are robust to food processing, specific to peanuts, and satisfy sequence-based criteria. The aspect of multiple protein isoforms is also considered in the selection tree, an aspect that is essential for a quantitative method's robustness but seldom, if ever, considered.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Arachis/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Peptídeos/análise
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 721-731, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important economic food crop highly appreciated worldwide. Although peanut cultivation has been expanding to dry regions, with water stress during growth stages, current genotypes are not adapted to drought. This study aimed to identify and quantify the full range of polyphenols in five peanut genotypes with different degrees of drought tolerance developed by Embrapa (Brazil) using ultra-high-definition accurate-mass liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-LTQ-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Fifty-eight polyphenols of the classes hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, flavonols and flavanones were identified and quantified using high mass accuracy data and confirmed by tandem mass spectrometric experiments. High-definition mass spectrometric analyses revealed nine phenolic compounds that have never been reported in peanuts before. Polyphenol assessment using multivariate analysis allowed identification of the level of similarities among the five peanut genotypes studied. CONCLUSION: Higher drought-tolerant genotypes exhibited higher content of flavonoids, which suggests a relationship between these compounds and drought tolerance traits. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Polifenóis/química , Arachis/genética , Arachis/metabolismo , Brasil , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Cumáricos , Secas , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Genótipo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 307: 125565, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630022

RESUMO

The effectiveness of some non-specific proteases in reducing raw peanut allergenicity was investigated. Peanut kernels were treated by Alcalase, papain, Neutrase and bromelain, respectively. The residues of major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 were determined by sandwich ELISA and SDS-PAGE, and the allergenicities of treated peanuts were compared to that of untreated peanuts by western blot. All tested proteases were effective in reducing Ara h 1, but their effectiveness in hydrolyzing Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 varied greatly. The maximal reductions of extractable Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 were 100%, 100% and 99.8%, respectively, achieved by Alcalase hydrolysis. Alcalase was more effective in overall allergenicity reduction; bromelain and Neutrase were the least effective in reducing Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, respectively. The hydrolysis of original allergens also produced some smaller peptides with strong IgE-binding.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/metabolismo , Arachis/química , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/prevenção & controle , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/análise , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/imunologia , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/metabolismo , Alérgenos/análise , Alérgenos/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/análise , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Antígenos de Plantas/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 308-314, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peanut is among the most common of food allergies, and one of its allergens is Ara h 2. A previous study revealed that this allergen was recognized by serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in over 90% of a peanut-allergic patient population. Enzymatic cross-linking is a popular processing method used to tailor food functionality, such as antigenicity. RESULT: The cross-linking reactions of Ara h 2 were catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and the relevant reaction sites were identified using mass spectrometry and StavroX software. Two pairs of intramolecular cross-linking peptides and two intermolecular cross-linking peptides were found. Intramolecular cross-linking was speculated to occur between ARG131 (amino acids 116-131) and TYR65 (amino acids 63-80) and between TYR60 (amino acids 56-62) and ARG92 (amino acids 92-102); the intermolecular cross-linking sites were ARG31 with TYR84 or TYR89 and TYR65 or TYR72 with ARG92 or ARG102 . Three out of four cross-linking peptides were found in α-helices, and destruction of this secondary structure resulted in a loose tertiary structure. Although seven linear allergen epitopes were involved in cross-linking, the IgE binding capacity of protein changed slightly, while its sensitization potential decreased in mouse model. CONCLUSION: Exploring the structural change of Ara h 2 after cross-linking is beneficial in further understanding the influence of structure on sensitization. This result indicated the future possibility of precision processing on structure of proteins to improve their properties. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Albuminas 2S de Plantas/química , Albuminas 2S de Plantas/imunologia , Catecol Oxidase/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arachis/química , Arachis/imunologia , Biocatálise , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/imunologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 426-438, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855429

RESUMO

Modern peanut contains fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) mutation, which is capable of producing high oleic acid for human health. However, the dynamic changes of the lipidome regarding fad2 remain elusive in peanut seed. In the present study, 547 lipid features were identified in high- and normal-oleic peanut seeds by utilizing the mass spectrometric approach. The fad2-induced differently expressed lipids (DELs) were polarly distributed at early and maturation stages during high-oleic acid (OA) seed development. Subsequently, integration of previously published proteomic data and lipidomic data revealed that 21 proteins and 149 DELs were annotated into the triacylglycerol assembly map, of which nine enzymes and 31 lipid species shared similar variation tendencies. Additionally, the variation tendencies of 17 acyl fatty acids were described in a hypothetical biosynthetic pathway. Collectively, the understanding of the lipid composition correlated with fad2 established a foundation for future high-OA peanut breeding based on lipidomic data.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Lipídeos/química , Ácido Oleico/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Arachis/genética , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arachis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mutação , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
9.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(2): 341-350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596253

RESUMO

Globally, peanut seeds are grown for oil production, peanut butter, confections, snacks and protein extenders, leaving the peanut by-products (skins, peanut hulls) as waste for disposal. Numerous studies have identified the value added attributes of peanut skins and/or peanut skin extracts as an antioxidant, functional food ingredient, animal production feed ingredient, and antimicrobial agent. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of the food and non-food uses of peanut skins and/or extracts, and new uses of this significant agricultural waste product produced in the peanut industry. An improved comprehensive knowledge and better understanding of the value added uses of peanut skins enables us to better define future food and non-food uses of this agricultural by-product.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Arachis , Animais , Alimento Funcional , Sementes
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134767, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726335

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the sorption of atrazine and nicosulfuron onto several experimentally produced biochars, as well as to understand the influence of biochar structure on sorption mechanisms. Nine biochars were generated by pyrolyzing peanut shell at 300, 450, or 600 °C and exposing samples to each of the several deashing treatments: none, water or HCl. The sorption of atrazine and nicosulfuron by the nine biochars were evaluated. Biochars were characterized via elemental analyzer, BET-N2 surface area, FTIR and XPS. Three kinetic models were used to fit the sorption kinetics data and both the Freundlich and dual-mode models described the sorption isotherms well. All the biochar samples exhibited high sorption affinity for both atrazine and nicosulfuron. The sorption mechanisms of the biochar included hydrophobic partition, π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions, H-bonding, and pore-filling mechanism, and these mechanisms were dependent on both the degree of biochar carbonization and the concentration of atrazine or nicosulfuron. Ash could bind to atrazine and nicosulfuron by specific interactions but played a negative role in the sorption, especially on high pyrolyzing temperature biochars. These results will facilitate the production of efficient and cheap adsorbents for reducing the risk of atrazine and nicosulfuron.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Piridinas/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Arachis , Atrazina
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(11): 3787-3794, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833692

RESUMO

To unravel functional leaf photosynthetic mechanisms underlying enhanced yield of sesame in sesame/peanut intercropping, a field experiment was carried out in 2017 and 2018 with four treatments including (1) three-row sesame intercropped with six-row peanut (IC 3:6), (2) two-row sesame intercropped with four-row peanut (IC 2:4), (3) sole cropped sesame (SS), and (4) sole cropped peanut (SP). We measured the parameters of gas exchange, characteristics of photosynthetic response curve to light and CO2, and characteristics of chlorophyll rapid fluorescence induction kinetic curves of the functional leaves of sesame. The results showed that the partial land equivalent ratio of intercropped sesame was greater than 1/3. The light saturation point (Isat), maxi-mum net photosynthetic rate (Pn max), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), triose phosphate utilization rate (TPU), maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vc max) were increased significantly under intercropping. Further, absorption energy flux per CS (ABS/CSo), trapping energy flux per CS (TRo/CSo), number of active reaction centers per CS (RC/CSm), and electron transport flux per CS (ETo/CSo) in intercropped treatments were enhanced compared to that under sesame monoculture. However, the ratio between variable fluorescence Fk to amplitude Fj-Fo (Wk) and ratio between variable fluorescence Fj to amplitude Fp-Fo (Vj) in functional leaves of intercropped sesame were significantly decreased. The efficiency of converting light energy into electricity of PS2 reaction center (Ψo), electron transfer efficiency from PS2 to end acceptor of PS1 (ΨRo), electron transfer efficiency of the electron transport chain (δR), PS1 photochemical activity, and the coordination between PS2 and PS1 in functional leaves of intercropped sesame were increased. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (Tr), Pn max, Jmax, Vc max, TPU, Ψo, ΨRo and δR were significantly higher in IC 3:6 than those in IC 2:4. We conclude that intercropping improves net photosynthetic rate and yield of sesame by increasing light absorption, electronic transmission, activity of PS2 donator/receptor sides, and CO2 fixation, with stronger effects in IC 3:6 than IC 2:4.


Assuntos
Arachis , Sesamum , Clorofila , Fluorescência , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta
12.
Yi Chuan ; 41(11): 1050-1059, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735707

RESUMO

High oleic (HO) peanut (Arachishypogaea L.) oils benefit human health and industrial production due to its superior nutritional composition and thermo-oxidative stability. However, HO peanut is sensitive to cold stress especially during germination, which limits its distribution in low temperature areas. To understand the molecular mechanism of cold responses in HO peanuts at germination stage, four HO peanut varieties with different cold tolerance were selected in field experiments to analyze their genome-wide gene regulation under low temperatures. High-throughput sequencing and transcriptome analysis revealed a total of 139 429 unigenes. Among these, 3520 common differentially expressed genes (DEG) were detected between two groups of cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive peanuts, and the number of up-regulated genes was greater than that of down-regulated genes in the cold-tolerant peanuts. Gene ontology analysis indicates that the number of DEGs involved in cell membrane metabolism and integrity as well as proteins located in the cell periphery were significantly higher in the cold-tolerant peanuts. KEGG pathway analysis suggests that plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction pathway play important roles in cold tolerance. Four cold-induced genes, TIC(TIME FOR COFFEE), ATX3(histone-lysine N-methyltransferase ATX3-like), AGO4(argonaute 4-like), FER(FERONIA-like receptor protein kinase), and three transcription factor genes, bHLH(bHLH49-like transcription factor), MYB(MYB-related protein 3R-1-like)and EREB(Ethylene-responsive element binding factor 6)were selected to verify the expression profile via real-time quantitative PCR detection. The expression of TIC, ATX3, AGO4, bHLH, MYB and EREB significantly increased within 3 hours after low temperature stress, while the expression of FER significantlyincreased after 12 hours, suggesting that these genes responded to low temperature stress during peanut germination. This work not only sheds light on the transcriptional regulation of HO peanut under low-temperature stress during germination but also provides data resources for screening candidate genes in improving peanuts stress resistance.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Germinação , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 504, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most important oilseed crops worldwide, however, its improvement is restricted by its narrow genetic base. The highly variable wild peanut species, especially within Sect. Arachis, may serve as a rich genetic source of favorable alleles to peanut improvement; Sect. Arachis is the biggest taxonomic section within genus Arachis and its members also include the cultivated peanut. In order to make good use of these wild resources, the genetic bases and the relationships of the Arachis species need first to be better understood. RESULTS: Here, in this study, we have sequenced and/or assembled twelve Arachis complete chloroplast (cp) genomes (eleven from Sect. Arachis). These cp genome sequences enriched the published Arachis cp genome data. From the twelve acquired cp genomes, substantial genetic variation (1368 SNDs, 311 indels) has been identified, which, together with 69 SSR loci that have been identified from the same data set, will provide powerful tools for future explorations. Phylogenetic analyses in our study have grouped the Sect. Arachis species into two major lineages (I & II), this result together with reports from many earlier studies show that lineage II is dominated by AA genome species that are mostly perennial, while lineage I includes species that have more diverse genome types and are mostly annual/biennial. Moreover, the cultivated peanuts and A. monticola that are the only tetraploid (AABB) species within Arachis are nested within the AA genome species-dominated lineage, this result together with the maternal inheritance of chloroplast indicate a maternal origin of the two tetraploid species from an AA genome species. CONCLUSION: In summary, we have acquired sequences of twelve complete Arachis cp genomes, which have not only helped us better understand how the cultivated peanut and its close wild relatives are related, but also provided us with rich genetic resources that may hold great potentials for future peanut breeding.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Alelos , Mutação INDEL , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal
14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4668-4681, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603200

RESUMO

Two sets of in vitro rumen fermentation experiments were conducted to determine effects of diets that included wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) and tannin-rich peanut skin (PS) on the in vitro digestibility, greenhouse gas (GHG) and other gas emissions, fermentation rate, and microbial changes. The objectives were to assess associative effects of various levels of PS or WDGS on the in vitro digestibility, GHG and other gas emissions, fermentation rate, and microbial changes in the rumen. All gases were collected using an ANKOM Gas Production system for methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) analyses. Cumulative ruminal gas production was determined using 250 mL ANKOM sampling bottles containing 50 mL of ruminal fluid (pH 5.8), 40 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.8), and 6 g of mixed diets after a maximum of 24 h of incubation. Fermenters were flushed with CO2 gas and held at 39 °C in a shaking incubator for 24 h. Triplicate quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were conducted to determine microbial diversity. When WDGS was supplied in the diet, in the absence of PS, cumulative CH4 production increased (P < 0.05) with 40% WDGS. In the presence of PS, production of CH4 was reduced but the reduction was less at 40% WDGS. In the presence of PS, ruminal lactate, succinate, and acetate/propionate (A/P) ratio tended to be less with a WDGS interaction (P < 0.01). In the presence of PS and with 40% WDGS, average populations of Bacteroidetes, total methanogens, Methanobrevibacter sp. AbM4, and total protozoa were less. The population of total methanogens (R2 = 0.57; P < 0.01), Firmicutes (R2 = 0.46: P < 0.05), and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio (R2 = 0.46; P < 0.03) were strongly correlated with ruminal CH4 production. Therefore, there was an associative effect of tannin-rich PS and WDGS, which suppressed methanogenesis both directly and indirectly by modifying populations of ruminal methanogens.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metano/metabolismo , Methanobrevibacter/isolamento & purificação , Taninos/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Bovinos/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Gases/metabolismo , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Masculino , Propionatos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia
15.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4625-4634, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588955

RESUMO

Livestock production systems are an essential agribusiness activity in Brazil, but a critical challenge of Brazilian farmers is to maintain the equilibrium of the ecosystem, using herbage resources efficiently with a minimum impact on the environment. Nitrogen (N) fertilization and the inclusion of forage legumes into tropical grass pastures are management strategies which increase the productivity and nutritive value of pastures and may also affect methane (CH4) production by ruminants. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of either fertilizing palisade grass pastures with N or including the forage peanut (Arachis pintoi) into grass pastures on enteric CH4 emission, microbial protein production in the rumen via purine derivatives in the urine, and N balance. Twenty-one nonlactating crossbred dairy heifers were used in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments. The treatments consisted of pastures of palisade grass without N fertilization (control), fertilized with urea (fertilized), and palisade grass mixed with forage peanut (mixed). Seven animals (replications) were used to evaluate dry matter intake, digestibility, CH4 emission, urea, purine derivatives, and volume of urine, and N ingestion and excretion. Four paddocks (replications) were used to measure herbage mass; morphological, botanical, and chemical composition of herbage; and herbage allowance. The CH4 emissions were determined using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. The efficiency of N utilization (ENU) was calculated using the N balance data. Crude protein (CP) concentration of herbage increased with fertilization or legumes inclusion (P < 0.0001) while neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration decreased (P = 0.0355). The leaf allowance was higher in the fertilized treatment (P = 0.0294). Only uric acid excretion increased with N fertilization (P = 0.0204). The ENU was not affected by fertilized or mixed compared to control and averaged 55% (P = 0.8945). The enteric CH4 production was similar between treatments and averaged 129 g/d (P = 0.3989). We concluded that the changes in chemical composition of herbage provided by N fertilization or the inclusion of the legume showed no reduction in enteric CH4 emissions, but the ENU was more significant than previous studies with palisade grass, suggesting that different management strategies might alter the ENU under grazing conditions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Arachis , Bovinos/fisiologia , Metano/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poaceae , Animais , Brasil , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fabaceae , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Valor Nutritivo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(43): 12026-12036, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589432

RESUMO

Peanut is an important legume providing products with nutrient dense including mineral nutrition. However, the genetic basis underlying the variations in the mineral composition in peanut is still unknown. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the concentrations of 13 mineral elements combined with coexpression network were performed using a diverse panel of 120 genotypes mainly selected from the U.S. peanut mini core collection. A total of 36 significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with five elemental concentrations were identified with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) from 18.35% to 27.56%, in which 24 QTLs were for boron (B), 2 QTLs for copper (Cu), 6 QTLs for sodium (Na), 3 QTLs for sulfur (S), and 1 QTL for zinc (Zn). A total of 110 nonredundant candidate causal genes identified were significantly associated with elemental accumulation, which included one high-priority overlap (HPO) candidate gene arahy.KQD4NT, an important elemental/metal transporter gene located on LGB04 with position 5,413,913-5,417,353.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Boro/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sódio/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arachis/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
17.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3226-3233, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573431

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of prescription fungicide programs, based upon Peanut Rx, to reduce combined effects of early leaf spot (ELS), caused by Passalora arachidicola (Cercospora arachidicola), and late leaf spot (LLS), caused by Nothopassalora personata (syn. Cercosporidium personatum), but the potential of Peanut Rx to predict each disease has never been formally evaluated. From 2010 to 2016, non-fungicide-treated peanut plots in Georgia and Florida were sampled to monitor the development of ELS and LLS. This resulted in 168 cases (unique combinations of Peanut Rx risk factors) with associated total leaf spot risk points ranging from 40 to 100. Defoliation ranged from 13.9 to 100%, and increased significantly with increasing total risk points (conditional R2 = 0.56; P < 0.001). Leaf spot onset (time in days after planting [DAP] when either leaf spot reached 1% lesion incidence), ELS onset, and LLS onset ranged from 29 to 140, 29 to 142, and 50 to 143 DAP, respectively, and decreased significantly with increasing risk points. Standardized AUDPC of ELS was significantly affected by risk points (conditional R2 = 0.53, P < 0.001), but not for LLS. After removing redundant Peanut Rx factors, planting date, rotation, historical leaf spot prevalence, cultivar, and field history were used as fixed effects in mixed effect regression models to evaluate their contribution to leaf spot, ELS or LLS prediction. Results from mixed effects regression confirmed that the selected Peanut Rx risk factors contributed to the variability of at least one measurement of development of combined or separate epidemics of ELS and LLS, but not all factors affected ELS and LLS equally. Historical leaf spot prevalence, a new potential preplant risk factor, was a consistent predictor of the dominant disease(s) observed in the field. Results presented here demonstrate that Peanut Rx is a very effective tool for predicting leaf spot onset regardless of which leaf spot is predominant, but also suggest that associated risk does not reflect the same development for each disease. These data will be useful for refining thresholds for differentiating high, moderate, and low risk fields, and reevaluating the timing of fungicide applications in reduced input programs with respect to disease onset.


Assuntos
Arachis , Ascomicetos , Agricultura , Arachis/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Florida , Fungicidas Industriais , Georgia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano
18.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(9): 1698-1706, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559751

RESUMO

Yuhua91 is a new peanut variety with high oleic acid content bred by Qingdao Agricultural University. The crossing was conducted with Luhua11 as female parent and with Kainong1715, an F435-type variety with high oleic acid content as male parent. The real F1 hybrids were screened by sequencing on PCR amplification products, and those homozygotes with bb genotype in F2 populations were screened by the same sequencing method as above. The content of oleic and linoleic acid was measured on the kernels harvested from F2 single plants by near infrared ray method, and those kernels whose content of oleic was above 80%, oleic and linoleic acid ratio was above 10.0 were obtained and planted into a row, with pedigree method for subsequent selection breeding. Yuhua91 has some characters of small pod, light and obvious pod texture, 148.06 g per 100 pods, 63.31 g per 100 kernels, 75.15% shelling percentage, long elliptic seed kernel, pink seed coat, without crack, white endotesta. Its content of protein, oil, oleic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid was 26.57%, 52.72%, 80.40%, 2.50% and 5.57% respectively. Yuhua91 has other characters of strong seedlings, compact pod areas, and moderate resistance to leaf spot disease and bacterial wilt. Average pod yield is 215.79 kg per Mu, 15.27% higher than the control variety Huayu20. Average seed kernels yield is 157.33 kg per Mu, 21.64% higher than the control variety Huayu20. Yuhua 91 has been registered on department of agriculture in 2018, and the registration No. is GPD peanut (2018) 370210, fit for growing in Shandong Province.


Assuntos
Arachis , Ácido Oleico , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes
19.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2812-2819, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546282

RESUMO

This study was aimed to assess the effect of membrane structure on the stability of peanut oil bodies extracted by enzyme-assisted extraction. The influence of pH, NaCl concentration, and temperature on the physicochemical properties of peanut oil bodies was characterized using ζ-potential and particle size. The results indicated that the peanut oil bodies had strong stability (ζ-potential, >20 mV) at pH values away from the isoelectric point (pH 4.8), at a low salt concentration (NaCl concentration, <10 mM), and in a certain temperature range (35 to 55 °C). The stable structure of the oil body was closely related to its structure. Phospholipids, along with membrane proteins, were major components of the oil body membrane. Therefore, the phospholipid composition and content were measured and the types of membrane proteins of the oil bodies were identified. The results showed that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine were major components of the oil body phospholipids. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the oil bodies contained both intrinsic proteins and extrinsic proteins, which might play an important role in the stability of oil bodies during enzyme-assisted extraction processing.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Óleo de Amendoim/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533215

RESUMO

Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential for plant growth and are the primary limiting nutrient elements. The loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural systems can cause the eutrophication of natural water bodies. In this paper, a field simulated rainfall experiment was conducted in a typical small watershed of the Danjiang River to study the nutrient loss process of nitrogen and phosphorus in slope croplands subjected to different crops and tillage measures. The characteristics of the runoff process and nutrient migration of different slope treatments were studied, which were the bare-land (BL, as the control), peanut monoculture (PL), corn monoculture (CL), bare land (upper slope) mixed with peanut monoculture (lower slope) (BP), corn and peanut intercropping (TCP), corn and soybean intercropping (TCS), downslope ridge cultivation (BS) slope, and straw-mulched (SC), respectively. The results showed that the runoff of CL, SC, TCS, BS, BP, PL and TCP slope types were 93%, 75%, 51%, 39%, 28%, 12%, and 6% of the those of the bare land, respectively. The total nitrogen concentration in runoff on different slope types decreased in the order of BP > PL > BS > SC > TCP > BL > CL > TCS. The BL was characterized with the highest NRL-TN (the loss of total nitrogen per unit area), with the value of 1.188 kg/hm2, while those of the TCP is the smallest with the value of 0.073 kg/hm2. The total phosphorus concentration in runoff decreasd in the order of BS > BP > PL > BL > TCP > SC > CL > TCS. The PRL-TP (the loss of total phosphorus per unit area) of BL is the largest (0.016 kg/hm2), while those of TCP is the smallest (0.001 kg/hm2). These indicate that the loss of nitrogen is much higer than that of phosphorus. The loss of nitrogen in runoff is dominated by nitrate nitrogen, which accounts for 54.4%-78.9% of TN. Slope croplands in the water source area should adopt the tillage measures of TCP and PL.These measures can reduce 85% of the runoff of nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the bare land. The results may assist in agricultural non-point source pollution control and help promote improved management of the water environment in the Danjiang River's water source area.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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