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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 463, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578140

RESUMO

Arboviruses infecting people primarily exist in urban transmission cycles involving urban mosquitoes in densely populated tropical regions. For dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses, sylvatic (forest) transmission cycles also exist in some regions and involve non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes. Here we review the investigation methods and available data on sylvatic cycles involving non-human primates and dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses in Africa, dengue viruses in Asia and yellow fever virus in the Americas. We also present current putative data that Mayaro, o'nyong'nyong, Oropouche, Spondweni and Lumbo viruses exist in sylvatic cycles.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , África , Américas , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/classificação , Ásia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Humanos
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 385-391, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559790

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arthropod-borne viruses are important causes of human morbidity worldwide. However, the available literatur and the epidemiological data concerning the importation to Poland of globally emerging arboviral infections, such as DENV, CHIKV, WNV, or ZIKV, are scarce. Only few seroepidemiologic studies concerning WNV in animals or humans in Poland have been published. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review paper is to summarize and present the current state of knowledge and the perspectives for research concerning the importation and the risk posed by the introduction to Poland of the four above-mentioned arboviral diseases. CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Climate change may facilitate the northward expansion of both the vectors for diseases previously unseen in Europe, as well as of the viruses themselves, resulting in autochthonous cases of diseases previously exclusively imported. Little is known about the importation of arboviral diseases to Poland because of the frequently asymptomatic or self-limiting course of the disease, lack of epidemiologic studies or effective disease reporting, as well as inadequate access to diagnostic methods. CONCLUSIONS: Further epidemiologic studies in Polish travellers are necessary in order to prevent importation or introduction of the above-mentioned viruses, and to act against potential problems related to blood transfusion or organ transplantation from infected donors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Arbovirus/fisiologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/sangue , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/imunologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Conhecimento , Polônia/epidemiologia
3.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 153(5): 205-212, sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183997

RESUMO

El incremento de los viajes internacionales, la creciente presencia de vectores transmisores de arbovirus en nuestro país, las alertas de fiebres hemorrágicas, como el actual brote de ébola en la R. D. del Congo y los casos autóctonos de fiebre hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo en nuestro país, ponen de nuevo en primer plano las enfermedades tropicales. El aislamiento de los casos sospechosos de enfermedades de alta transmisibilidad y letalidad ha de ser una prioridad (fiebres hemorrágicas, MERS-CoV). Al valorar al paciente, una cuidadosa historia clínica basada en los aspectos epidemiológicos de la zona de procedencia, las actividades realizadas, el tiempo de estancia en el mismo y el inicio de los síntomas nos ayudarán finalmente, si no al diagnóstico definitivo, sí al menos a descartar las enfermedades que signifiquen una amenaza para él. Por su frecuencia y gravedad la malaria debe ser descartada, sin olvidar las otras causas habituales de fiebre con las que el médico de urgencias debe estar familiarizado también


The increase in international travel, the growing presence of arbovirus vectors in our country, and notifications of haemorrhagic fever such as the current outbreak of Ebola in D.R. Congo and the cases of Crimea-Congo haemorrhagic fever in our country have again cast the spotlight on tropical diseases Isolating suspected cases of highly contagious and lethal diseases must be a priority (Haemorrhagic fever, MERS-CoV). Assessing the patient, taking a careful medical history based on epidemiological aspects of the area of origin, activities they have carried out, their length of stay in the area and the onset of symptoms, will eventually help us, if not to make a definitive diagnosis, at least to exclude diseases that pose a threat to these patients. Malaria should be ruled out because of its frequency, without forgetting other common causes of fever familiar to emergency doctors


Assuntos
Humanos , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Isolamento de Pacientes/tendências , Saúde do Viajante , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Febres Hemorrágicas Virais/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Meningite/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007375, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an endemic arbovirus in South American countries, where it is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of Mayaro fever. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, ocular pain, rash, myalgia, and debilitating and persistent polyarthralgia. Understanding the mechanisms associated with MAYV-induced arthritis is of great importance due to the potential for its emergence, urbanization and dispersion to other regions. METHODS: 15-day old Balb/c mice were infected by two distinct pathways, below the forelimb and in the rear footpad. Animals were observed for a period of 21 days. During this time, they were monitored every 24 hours for disease signs, such as weight loss and muscle weakness. Histological damage in the muscles and joints was evaluated 3, 7, 10, 15 and 20 days post-infection. The cytokine profile in serum and muscles during MAYV infection was evaluated by flow cytometry at different post-infection times. For pain analysis, the animals were submitted to the von Frey test and titre in different organs was evaluated throughout the study to obtain viral kinetics. FINDINGS: Infection by two distinct pathways, below the forelimb and in the rear footpad, resulted in a homogeneous viral spread and the development of acute disease in animals. Clinical signs were observed such as ruffled fur, hunched posture, eye irritation and slight gait alteration. In the physical test, both groups presented loss of resistance, which was associated with histopathological damage, including myositis, arthritis, tenosynovitis and periostitis. The immune response was characterized by a strong inflammatory response mediated by the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and INF-γ and chemokine MCP-1, followed by the action of IL-10 and IL-4 cytokines. INTERPRETATION: The results showed that Balb/c mice represent a promising model to study mechanisms involved in MAYV pathogenesis and for future antiviral testing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/fisiologia , Artrite/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Miosite/virologia , Animais , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 198, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 70 arboviruses have been identified in Australia and the transmission cycles of most are poorly understood. While there is an extensive list of arthropods from which these viruses have been recovered, far less is known about the non-human hosts that may be involved in the transmission cycles of these viruses and the relative roles of different mosquito species in cycles of transmission involving different hosts. Some of the highest rates of human infection with zoonotic arboviruses, such as Ross River (RRV) and Barmah Forest (BFV) viruses, occur in coastal regions of north-eastern Australia. METHODS: Engorged mosquitoes collected as a part of routine surveillance using CO2-baited light traps in the Rockhampton Region and the adjoining Shire of Livingstone in central Queensland, north-eastern Australia, were analysed for the source of their blood meal. A 457 or 623 nucleotide region of the cytochrome b gene in the blood was amplified by PCR and the amplicons sequenced. The origin of the blood was identified by comparing the sequences obtained with those in GenBank®. RESULTS: The most common hosts for the mosquitoes sampled were domestic cattle (26/54) and wild birds (14/54). Humans (2/54) were an infrequent host for this range of mosquitoes that are known to transmit arboviruses causing human disease, and in an area where infections with human pathogens like RRV and BFV are commonly recorded. The blood meals identified in the most abundant vector analysed, Culex annulirostris, were from 10 different vertebrate hosts. The notable detection of chimpanzee blood in two mosquitoes, presumably obtained from a nearby zoo, extends the known range of hosts for this species. Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. sitiens fed almost exclusively on a variety of bird species. CONCLUSIONS: While human-mosquito-human transmission of arboviruses like RRV can occur, this study highlights the potential importance of zoonotic cycles of transmission, including avian species, of arboviruses that are indigenous to Australia. Further studies on larger samples of blood-engorged mosquitoes are required to validate the trends observed herein. Moreover, serological and virological evidence that the hosts on which the mosquitoes are feeding are being infected with arboviruses of interest are required.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Culicidae/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Arbovirus/classificação , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Aves , Mordeduras e Picadas/parasitologia , Bovinos , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/virologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Pan troglodytes
6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217177, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107881

RESUMO

Human mobility in urban environments is a central part of urbanization and has determined the layout of how cities are projected, built and renovated. One of the most problematic issues of urbanization is how to properly dispose of used tires, considering the worldwide annual production of approximately 1.4 billion units every year. Despite the efforts to properly dispose of used tires, they still represent a major problem for public health, notably serving as potential breeding sites for vector mosquitoes. Miami-Dade County, Florida has been suffering from arbovirus outbreaks for decades, including dengue, West Nile and yellow fever viruses. The objective of this study was to survey tire shops inserted in the urban matrix across Miami-Dade County for the presence of vector mosquitoes. This study used a cross-sectional design to survey the production of vector mosquitoes at 12 tires shops. Mosquitoes were found in all but one of the tires shops surveyed. We collected a total of 1,110 mosquitoes comprising 528 adults and 582 immatures. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were abundantly found in both their immature and adult forms, constituting 99.99% of the mosquito samples collected. Aedes aegypti was the most abundant species recorded displaying the highest values in the Shannon and Simpson indices. The findings of this study demonstrate that vector mosquitoes, primarily Ae. aegypti, are being produced in tires shops in Miami indicating these habitats are highly favorable breeding environments for the production of vector mosquitoes and emphasizing the need to address how the abundance and presence of mosquitoes may vary seasonally in these environments.


Assuntos
Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/patogenicidade , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 265, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133059

RESUMO

Arboviruses represent a significant burden to public health and local economies due to their ability to cause unpredictable and widespread epidemics. To maximize early detection of arbovirus emergence in non-endemic areas, surveillance efforts should target areas where circulation is most likely. However, identifying such hotspots of potential emergence is a major challenge. The ecological conditions leading to arbovirus outbreaks are shaped by complex interactions between the virus, its vertebrate hosts, arthropod vector, and abiotic environment that are often poorly understood. Here, we systematically review the ecological risk factors associated with the circulation of six arboviruses that are of considerable concern to northwestern Europe. These include three mosquito-borne viruses (Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus) and three tick-borne viruses (Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and louping-ill virus). We consider both intrinsic (e.g. vector and reservoir host competence) and extrinsic (e.g. temperature, precipitation, host densities, land use) risk factors, identify current knowledge gaps, and discuss future directions. Our systematic review provides baseline information for the identification of regions and habitats that have suitable ecological conditions for endemic circulation, and therefore may be used to target early warning surveillance programs aimed at detecting multi-virus and/or arbovirus emergence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Arbovirus/classificação , Vetores Artrópodes/virologia , Vetores de Doenças , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/isolamento & purificação , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
8.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(2): 247-261, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129764

RESUMO

Eriophyoids affect crops around the globe directly or indirectly as virus vectors. Eriophyoid systematics initiated over a century ago, yet more than 90% of their fauna remain undescribed. Morphological identification is challenging because of a limited number of traits, cryptic speciation and complex life cycle reported for many species in the group. Nucleic acids extraction for mite identification is challenging due to their microscopic size with researchers using pooled samples leading to polymorphisms and inconclusive results. Identification of mite virus vectors is a tiresome task that could be simplified with a protocol that allows for the detection of viruses in the individual specimen. This communication describes an innovative, highly efficient extraction and detection pipeline. Direct Reverse Transcriptase - Polymerase Chain Reaction (Drt-PCR) assays were implemented in the molecular identification of eriophyoids and detection of viruses present in their bodies. The reverse transcription step allows for amplification from a single mite or egg, as in addition to the genomic DNA, it incorporates the abundant transcripts of targeted genes, whereas it also allows for the amplification of viruses. This communication provides an efficient, sensitive and cost-effective alternative that can be implemented in pest identification and detection as well as biological and ecological studies.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vetores Artrópodes/classificação , Vetores Artrópodes/virologia , Classificação/métodos , Ácaros/classificação , Ácaros/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Ácaros/anatomia & histologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 153, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last 50 years, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has experienced rapid population growth and urbanization. Urbanization is known to influence biodiversity, and there appears to be a link between the emergence of arboviruses and urban growth. Very little is known about the UAE mosquito species richness and dominant vectors. We performed a mosquito survey comparing peri-urban sites in Dubai and Al Ain to a protected, natural site in Fujairah emirate. We measured mosquito biodiversity and species composition, and screened mosquito pools for common arboviruses to measure arbovirus activity in the region. RESULTS: We report ten species of mosquitoes from the UAE, with highest species diversity in the natural site, a protected wadi near the eastern coast. The predominant mosquito was Culex perexiguus, and was associated with peri-urban habitats. The site with lowest mosquito species diversity but relatively high species richness was the peri-urban site of Al Ain Zoo, where we identified Bagaza virus and Barkedji virus, two flaviviruses, in pools of Cx. perexiguus. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased mosquito biodiversity was associated with increased levels of urbanization. The predominance of two species at peri-urban sites was related to the availability of their larval habitats. Arboviruses were associated with the presence of a single predominant mosquito species, Cx. perexiguus.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Culicidae , Animais , Arbovirus/classificação , Biodiversidade , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Urbanização
10.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832426

RESUMO

Bats are known to harbor and transmit many emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which are extremely pathogenic in humans but do not cause overt pathology in their bat reservoir hosts: henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra), filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg), and coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). Direct transmission cycles are often implicated in these outbreaks, with virus shed in bat feces, urine, and saliva. An additional mode of virus transmission between bats and humans requiring further exploration is the spread of disease via arthropod vectors. Despite the shared ecological niches that bats fill with many hematophagous arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, biting midges, etc.) known to play a role in the transmission of medically important arboviruses, knowledge surrounding the potential for bats to act as reservoirs for arboviruses is limited. To this end, a comprehensive literature review was undertaken examining the current understanding and potential for bats to act as reservoirs for viruses transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. Serosurveillance and viral isolation from either free-ranging or captive bats are described in relation to four arboviral groups (Bunyavirales, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Togaviridae). Further, ecological associations between bats and hematophagous viral vectors are characterized (e.g. bat bloodmeals in mosquitoes, ingestion of mosquitoes by bats, etc). Lastly, knowledge gaps related to hematophagous ectoparasites (bat bugs and bed bugs (Cimicidae) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae and Streblidae)), in addition to future directions for characterization of bat-vector-virus relationships are described.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/fisiologia , Vetores Artrópodes/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Dípteros/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Zika virus/fisiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 61, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a genus of small biting midges (also known as "no-see ums") that currently includes 1368 described species. They are proven or suspected vectors for important pathogens affecting animals such as bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Currently little information is available on the species of Culicoides present in Serbia. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine species diversity, host preference and the presence of BTV and SBV RNA in Culicoides from the Stara Planina Nature Park in south-eastern Serbia. RESULTS: In total 19,887 individual Culicoides were collected during three nights of trapping at two farm sites and pooled into six groups (Obsoletus group, Pulicaris group, "Others" group and further each group according to the blood-feeding status to freshly engorged and non-engorged). Species identification was done on subsamples of 592 individual Culicoides specimens by morphological and molecular methods (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and PCR/sequencing). At least 22 Culicoides species were detected. Four animal species (cow, sheep, goat and common blackbird) as well as humans were identified as hosts of Culicoides biting midges. The screening of 8291 Culicoides specimens in 99 pools for the presence of BTV and SBV RNA by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR were negative. CONCLUSIONS: The biodiversity of Culicoides species in the natural reserve Stara Planina was high with at least 22 species present. The presence of C. imicola Kieffer was not recorded in this area. Culicoides showed opportunistic feeding behaviour as determined by host preference. The absence of SBV and BTV viral RNA correlates with the absence of clinical disease in the field during the time of sampling. These data are the direct outcome of a training programme within the Institutional Partnership Project "AMSAR: Arbovirus monitoring, research and surveillance-capacity building on mosquitoes and biting midges" funded by the programme SCOPES of the Swiss National Science Foundation.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Ceratopogonidae/classificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Animais , Arbovirus/genética , Ceratopogonidae/fisiologia , Ceratopogonidae/virologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sérvia/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209993, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640927

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of viral encephalitis due to arbovirus infection of the Togaviridae and Flaviviridae families in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 500 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected between August 2012 and January 2013, from patients with symptoms of acute encephalitis were analyzed. Findings suggestive of viral encephalitis-elevations in cell concentration, glucose and total protein-were observed in 234 (46.8%) samples, designated as Group 1. The remaining 266 samples comprised Group 2. All samples were tested for Flaviviruses (dengue virus 1, 2, 3 and 4, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus), Alphavirus (NS5 region) and enterovirus by RT- PCR and for herpesviruses and enteroviruses using CLART-Entherpex. A presumptive viral etiological agent was detected in 26 samples (5.2%), 18 (8.0%) in Group 1 and 8 (3.0%) in Group 2. In Group 1 human herpesviruses were detected in 9 cases, enteroviruses in 7 cases, dengue viruses (DENV) in 2 CSFs and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) in one case. In Group 2 there were 3 CSFs positive for human herpesviruses, 2 for enteroviruses, 2 for DENV and 1 for SLEV. Detection of arboviruses, even though present in a minority of infected patients, identifies these viruses as a probable etiological agent of encephalitis. This is of special concern in regions where this class of viruses is endemic and has been linked to other recent epidemics.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Flaviviridae/isolamento & purificação , Togaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0006822, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne viruses-such as Zika, chikungunya, dengue fever, and yellow fever, among others-are of global importance. Although vaccine development for prevention of mosquito-borne arbovirus infections has been a focus, mitigation strategies continue to rely on vector control. However, vector control has failed to prevent recent epidemics and arrest expanding geographic distribution of key arboviruses, such as dengue. As a consequence, there has been increasing necessity to further optimize current strategies within integrated approaches and advance development of alternative, innovative strategies for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This review, intended as a general overview, is one of a series being generated by the Worldwide Insecticide resistance Network (WIN). The alternative strategies discussed reflect those that are currently under evaluation for public health value by the World Health Organization (WHO) and represent strategies of focus by globally recognized public health stakeholders as potential insecticide resistance (IR)-mitigating strategies. Conditions where these alternative strategies could offer greatest public health value in consideration of mitigating IR will be dependent on the anticipated mechanism of action. Arguably, the most pressing need for endorsement of the strategies described here will be the epidemiological evidence of a public health impact. CONCLUSIONS: As the burden of mosquito-borne arboviruses, predominately those transmitted by Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus, continues to grow at a global scale, new vector-control tools and integrated strategies will be required to meet public health demands. Decisions regarding implementation of alternative strategies will depend on key ecoepidemiological parameters that each is intended to optimally impact toward driving down arbovirus transmission.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/virologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/prevenção & controle , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/fisiologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/classificação , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
14.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(2): 195-202, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488454

RESUMO

In current sampling approaches, there exists a divergence between the surveillance of arthropod-borne and that of non-arthropod-borne viruses. It is commonly held that the collection of vector specimens applies only to arbovirus surveillance and that the surveillance of non-arboviruses must rely on traditional methods that involve the sampling of blood, faeces or saliva, or other examinations. The vector-based approach is a sampling method that has the ability to survey both arboviruses and non-arboviruses by distinguishing engorged vector specimens from entire vector samples. Accordingly, five arboviruses and three non-arboviruses were detected in a study using a vector-based approach conducted during 2012-2015. Hence, this report provides the first description of the Taiwanese vector species for the bovine arboviruses detected. The present investigations demonstrate that the vector-based approach applies not only to the surveillance of arboviruses, but also has potential as a possible tool for monitoring non-arboviruses on livestock farms in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Ceratopogonidae/virologia , Culicidae/virologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Bovinos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Taiwan
15.
Virology ; 527: 98-106, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476788

RESUMO

Viral infection was examined with pan-flavivirus and pan-alphavirus sets of primers in mosquitoes collected in four South American regions with confirmed pathogenic arbovirus circulation. Positive pools for flavivirus infection were sequenced and screened for specific arboviruses, which were not detected. However, NS5 gene sequencing showed that most sequences corresponded to the insect-specific Culex flavivirus. One sequence retrieved from an Aedes albopictus pool grouped with the insect-specific Aedes flavivirus and two Sabethes belisarioi pools were infected by a previously unknown flavivirus, tentatively named Sabethes flavivirus (SbFV). Phylogenetic inference placed SbFV as ancestral to a clade formed by Culiseta flavivirus, Mercadeo, and Calbertado. SbFV polyprotein showed an average aminoacidic identity of 51% in comparison to these flaviviruses. In vitro studies suggest that SbFV infects insect cells, but not vertebrate cells, therefore, we propose it as a new insect-specific flavivirus. These results highlight the wide distribution of insect-specific flaviviruses concomitant with the circulation of emergent arboviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Flavivirus/classificação , Flavivirus/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Filogenia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/classificação , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
16.
Acta Trop ; 190: 395-402, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552880

RESUMO

Arboviruses have become a major public health concern in Brazil, especially after Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) introduction, leading to massive epidemics. We conducted an investigation of arboviruses in patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days in Mato Grosso state (MT) during the period of ZIKV and CHIKV dissemination in Brazil. To achieve that, 453 human serum samples of patients suspected of Dengue (DENV), Yellow Fever (YFV), ZIKV or CHIKV collected in health units of 31 cities of MT were subjected to RT-PCR protocols for 10 flaviviruses, 5 alphaviruses and orthobunyaviruses from Simbu serogroup, nucleotide sequencing and viral isolation. Regarding flaviviruses, five (1.1%) patients were infected with DENV-1 genotype V, 22 (4.4%) with DENV-4 genotype II, 3 (0.7%) with YFV South American genotype II and five (1.1%) with ZIKV Asian genotype. The first human case of ZIKV in MT was detected in this study during August, 2015 in Tapurah. Alphaviruses were detected in 2 (0.4%) patients infected with CHIKV genotype ECSA, 1 (0.2%) with Madariaga (EEEV) lineage III and 34 (7.5%) with Mayaro (MAYV) genotype L. Four (11.4%) patients presented dual infections with DENV-1/ZIKV, DENV-1/DENV4, DENV-4/MAYV and ZIKV/MAYV. The majority - 13/34 positive for MAYV, one for Madariaga virus - are residents in Várzea Grande (VG), metropolitan region of Cuiabá, capital of MT. The first CHIKV infection in MT was detected in this study in Mirassol D'Oeste, during July, 2015. In addition, 20 (4.4%) patients were positive for OROV Segment S genotype IA. These results reinforce the variation in arboviruses frequency and distribution during outbreaks, highlinghing the importance of differential diagnosis to identify agents silently co-circulating with major health problem arboviruses.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Febre/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 642, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance system was set up at Barkedji, Senegal after the first outbreak of Rift valley fever in West Africa in 1988. This system was recently updated using more sampling methods and collecting in greater number of ponds and villages sites. METHODS: For the current study, mosquitoes were sampled biweekly between July and December 2012 and 2013 using CDC+CO2 light traps set at ground and canopy level, mosquito nets baited with goat, sheep, human or chicken, light traps baited with goat, sheep and chicken; bird-baited traps using pigeons or chickens placed either at the ground or canopy level. Collected mosquitoes were identified, pooled and screened for arboviruses. RESULTS: A total of 42,969 mosquitoes in 4,429 pools were processed for virus isolation. Ten virus species were identified among 103 virus isolates. West Nile virus (WNV; 31 isolates), Barkedji virus (BARV; 18), Sindbis virus (SINV; 13), Usutu virus (USUV; 12), Acado virus (ACAV; 8), Ndumu virus (NDUV; 9), Sanar virus (SANV; 7), Bagaza virus (BAGV; 3), Rift valley fever virus (RVFV; 1), and Yaounde virus (YAOV; 1) were isolated from 9 ponds (91 strains) and 7 villages (12 strains). Only 3 virus species (WNV, NDU and SINV) were isolated from villages. The largest numbers of isolates were collected in October (29.1% of total isolates) and November (50.5%). Viruses were isolated from 14 mosquito species including Cx. neavei (69.9% of the strains), Cx. antennatus (9.7%), and Ma. uniformis (4.8%). NDUV, ACAV, and SINV are herein reported for the first time in the Barkedji area. Isolation of ACAV and SANV from a pool of male Ma. uniformis and USUV and BARV from a pool of male Cx. neavei, are reported for the first time to our knowledge. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the Barkedji area is characterized by a high diversity of viruses of medical, veterinary and unknown importance. Arboviruses were first detected in July at the beginning of the rainy season and peaked in abundance in October and November. The Barkedji area, an enzootic focus of several potentially emerging arboviruses, should be surveilled annually to be prepared to deal with future disease emergence events.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Culicidae/virologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Columbidae/virologia , Culicidae/classificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Cabras/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Senegal/epidemiologia , Ovinos/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
18.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(5): 477-485, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419733

RESUMO

Arthropod-borne viruses (Arboviruses) are transmitted by arthropods such as Culicoides biting midges and cause abortion, stillbirth, and congenital malformation in ruminants, apparently leading to economic losses to farmers. To monitor the distribution of Culicoides and to determine their relationship with different environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, wind speed, and altitude of the farms) on 5 cattle farms, Culicoides were collected during summer season (May-September) in 2016 and 2017, and analyzed for identification of species and detection of arboviruses. About 35% of the Culicoides were collected in July and the collection rate increased with increase in temperature and humidity. The higher altitude where the farms were located, the more Culicoides were collected on inside than outside. In antigen test of Culicoides against 5 arboviruses, only Chuzan virus (CHUV) (2.63%) was detected in 2016. The Akabane virus (AKAV), CHUV, Ibaraki virus and Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) had a positive rate of less than 1.8% in 2017. In antigen test of bovine whole blood, AKAV (12.96%) and BEFV (0.96%) were positive in only one of the farms. As a result of serum neutralization test, antibodies against AKAV were generally measured in all the farms. These results suggest that vaccination before the season in which the Culicoides are active is probably best to prevent arbovirus infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Ceratopogonidae/virologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Altitude , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/prevenção & controle , Arbovirus/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Umidade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais
19.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207010, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403749

RESUMO

Viruses are important agents of emerging zoonoses and are a substantial public health issue. Among emerging viruses, an important group are arboviruses, which are characterized by being maintained in nature in cycles involving hematophagous arthropod vectors and a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Recently, bats have received increasing attention as an important source for the emergence of zoonoses and as possible viral reservoirs. Among the arboviruses, there are many representatives of the genera Flavivirus and Alphavirus, which are responsible for important epidemics such as Dengue virus, Zika virus and Chikungunya virus. Due to the importance of analyzing potential viral reservoirs for zoonosis control and expanding our knowledge of bat viruses, this study aimed to investigate the presence of viruses of the Alphavirus and Flavivirus genera in bats. We analyzed serum, liver, lungs and intestine from 103 bats sampled in northeast and southern Brazil via Nested-PCR and the hemagglutination inhibition test. All samples tested in this study were negative for arboviruses, suggesting that no active or past infection was present in the captured bats. These data indicate that the bats examined herein probably do not constitute a reservoir for these viruses in the studied areas. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of bats as reservoirs and sources of infection of these viral zoonoses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/patologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Zoonoses/patologia , Alphavirus/genética , Alphavirus/isolamento & purificação , Alphavirus/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Arbovirus/metabolismo , Brasil , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Flavivirus/genética , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Flavivirus/metabolismo , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Intestinos/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Zoonoses/virologia
20.
Nature ; 563(7732): 501-507, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429615

RESUMO

Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infect more than 400 million people each year with dangerous viral pathogens including dengue, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya. Progress in understanding the biology of mosquitoes and developing the tools to fight them has been slowed by the lack of a high-quality genome assembly. Here we combine diverse technologies to produce the markedly improved, fully re-annotated AaegL5 genome assembly, and demonstrate how it accelerates mosquito science. We anchored physical and cytogenetic maps, doubled the number of known chemosensory ionotropic receptors that guide mosquitoes to human hosts and egg-laying sites, provided further insight into the size and composition of the sex-determining M locus, and revealed copy-number variation among glutathione S-transferase genes that are important for insecticide resistance. Using high-resolution quantitative trait locus and population genomic analyses, we mapped new candidates for dengue vector competence and insecticide resistance. AaegL5 will catalyse new biological insights and intervention strategies to fight this deadly disease vector.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Genômica/normas , Controle de Insetos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Família Multigênica/genética , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Padrões de Referência , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética
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