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1.
J Nat Med ; 74(3): 525-532, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207025

RESUMO

Autophagy is a catabolic process that degrades dysfunctional proteins and organelles and plays critical roles in cancer development. Our preliminary screening identified that extracts of the fruits of Arctium lappa and the fruits of Forsythia suspensa notably suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and downregulated the autophagy. In this study, we explored the effect of arctigenin (ARG), a bioactive lignan in both extracts, on cell proliferation and autophagy-related proteins in HepG2 cells. ARG inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. Analysis of autophagy-related proteins demonstrated that ARG might block the autophagy that leads to sequestosome 1/p62 (p62) accumulation. The stage of inhibition in autophagy by ARG differed from those by the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ). ARG could also inhibit starvation-induced autophagy. Further analysis of apoptosis-related proteins indicated that ARG did not affect caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage, suggesting that the antiproliferative effect of ARG can occur independently of apoptosis. In summary, our study showed that ARG suppresses cell proliferation and inhibits autophagy, and might lead to the development of agents for autophagy research and cancer chemoprevention.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Arctium/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Forsythia/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Proteína Sequestossoma-1
2.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(3): 1374-1382, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016480

RESUMO

Arctigenin is a natural lignan that is found in burdock with anti­viral, ­oxidative, ­inflammatory and anti­tumor activities. In the current study, the effect of arctigenin on metastatic potential was examined in 4T­1 mouse triple­negative breast cancer cells. The results indicated that arctigenin inhibited cell motility and invasiveness, which was determined using wound healing and transwell invasion assays. Arctigenin suppressed matrix metalloprotease­9 (MMP­9) activity via gelatin zymography, and protein expression of cyclooxygenase­2 (COX­2) and MMP­3. Furthermore, arctigenin attenuated the mRNA expression of metastatic factors, including MMP­9, MMP­3 and COX­2. Based on these results, the effect of arctigenin on the mitogen­activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activating protein­1 (AP­1) signaling pathway was assessed in an attempt to identify the regulatory mechanism responsible for its anti­metastatic effects. Arctigenin was demonstrated to inhibit the phosphorylation of extracellular signal­regulated protein kinase (ERK) and c­Jun N­terminal kinase (JNK), and the nuclear translocations of the AP­1 subunits, c­Jun and c­Fos. In summary, the present study demonstrated that in 4T­1 mouse triple­negative breast cancer cells the anti­metastatic effect of arctigenin is mediated by the inhibition of MMP­9 activity and by the inhibition of the metastasis­enhancing factors MMP­9, MMP­3 and COX­2, due to the suppression of the MAPK/AP­1 signaling pathway. The results of the current study demonstrated that arctigenin exhibits a potential for preventing cell migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Arctium/química , Furanos/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(12): e1900401, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654480

RESUMO

The complement system participates in host defense by eliminating microorganisms and triggering inflammation. However, insufficient control or exacerbated complement activation contributes to inflammatory diseases. Since promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been identified in Arctium lappa L. extracts, this study aims to explore the effect of A. lappa extracts on the lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation. Four extracts were obtained by supercritical extraction using scCO2 with or without ethanol as co-solvent, at different temperatures and pressures (E1: 2.2 mg/mL, E2: 2.6 mg/mL and E3: 2.0 mg/mL, E4: 1.5 mg/mL). To evaluate the effect of A. lappa extracts on the LP activation, an ELISA assay using mannose binding lectin pathway of complement was carried out with C4 detection. All extracts showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the activation of complement by the LP. The following IC50 were observed for E1, E2, E3 and E4: 179.4 µg/mL, 74.69 µg/mL, 119.1 µg/mL and 72.19 µg/mL, respectively. Our results suggest that A. lappa extracts are potential candidates for the treatment of inflammatory disorders that are complement-related.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Arctium/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/agonistas , Lectinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Temperatura
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4523, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586053

RESUMO

Arctigenin (ATG) is a major component of Fructus Arctii, a traditional herbal remedy that reduced proteinuria in diabetic patients. However, whether ATG specifically provides renoprotection in DKD is not known. Here we report that ATG administration is sufficient to attenuate proteinuria and podocyte injury in mouse models of diabetes. Transcriptomic analysis of diabetic mouse glomeruli showed that cell adhesion and inflammation are two key pathways affected by ATG treatment, and mass spectrometry analysis identified protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) as one of the top ATG-interacting proteins in renal cells. Enhanced PP2A activity by ATG reduces p65 NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response and high glucose-induced migration in cultured podocytes via interaction with Drebrin-1. Importantly, podocyte-specific Pp2a deletion in mice exacerbates DKD injury and abrogates the ATG-mediated renoprotection. Collectively, our results demonstrate a renoprotective mechanism of ATG via PP2A activation and establish PP2A as a potential target for DKD progression.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Furanos/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Animais , Arctium/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Podócitos/patologia , Podócitos/ultraestrutura , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(11): 877-882, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271331

RESUMO

Problems related to weed management such as outbreaks of herbicide-resistant weeds have recently increased. An interesting approach to such problems is to use plant materials with phytotoxic activity. Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a biennial herb belonging to Asteraceae and is cultivated in several countries. The present study investigated the phytotoxic activity of burdock and its active substances. Extracts of both burdock leaves and roots inhibited the shoot and root growth of cress and barnyard grass, where the level of inhibition increased with increasing extract concentration. The leaf extracts had 2.0-2.5 times higher activity than the root extracts. Bioassay-guided separations of the leaf extracts led to isolation of a phytotoxic substance, onopordopicrin. Onopordopicrin significantly inhibited the shoot and root growth of cress and barnyard grass. The concentrations of the substance required for 50% growth inhibition were 0.27 and 0.26 mM for cress shoots and roots, respectively, and 1.86 and 0.35 mM for barnyard grass shoots and roots, respectively. The present results suggest that burdock leaves have high phytotoxic activity and onopordopicrin may play a major role in the activity. Burdock leaves may be a good resource for weed management.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Arctium/toxicidade , Herbicidas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Plantas Daninhas
6.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 363-368, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295042

RESUMO

Context: The dried fruits of Arctium lappa L. have been used in two forms in traditional Chinese medicine; crude and stir-heating Fructus Arctii. However, its processed product possesses better activity. Objective: In this study, the chemical constituents of both crude and processed Fructus Arctii and their antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Materials and methods: The seven main active components in crude and various processed Fructus Arctii were quantitatively determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to the actual amount in crude and five processed samples, seven single components were combined as multi-component combinations with six different proportions. The antiproliferative activities of these compatibility component groups were examined using the CCK-8 assay. Results: During the heating process, the proportion of the seven main components changed dynamically. The contents of 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA), and arctiin (ARC) declined, while the contents of 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA), 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-diCQA), and arctigenin (ARG) increased very significantly. Discussion and conclusions: The results also indicated that seven components in the processed samples had higher cytotoxic profiles against HL-60 cells than those in the crude sample. Therefore, the heating process may enhance the antitumor activity of Fructus Arctii by changing the proportion of active components.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/análogos & derivados , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Furanos , Glucosídeos , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Lignanas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados
7.
Phytother Res ; 33(9): 2213-2220, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232489

RESUMO

Diabetes is a metabolic disease highly widespread worldwide, and the most common form is the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A large number of synthetic drugs are currently available for the treatment of diabetes; however, they present various side effects and, for this reason, people are increasingly inclined to search natural alternative treatments. Among these, Arctium lappa (A. lappa) has interesting anti-diabetic activities, exerted by improving glucose homeostasis and reducing insulin-resistance. In addition, A. lappa exerts a marked antioxidant activity, an effect known to play a pivotal role in the treatment of T2DM. The purpose of this review is to analyse scientific evidence in order to evaluate the role of A. lappa and its bioactive compounds in management of T2DM. The literature search performed provided only in vitro and animal-based studies. No clinical studies have been conducted in order to investigate the effect of A. lappa on T2DM patients. However, available literature provides evidence for further clinical trials in order to confirm these claimed activities on humans.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Homeostase , Humanos
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 136: 115-122, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195041

RESUMO

Diabetic patients often have lipid metabolism disorders, which can lead to life-threatening complications. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of polysaccharides extracted from Arctium lappa L. on lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. We constructed a diabetes mellitus mouse model with streptozocin, and treated the rats with A. lappa L. polysaccharide. The body weight analysis showed that the weight of diabetic rats significantly decreased, but the weight of the rats in the polysaccharide treatment groups increased and the ratio of liver weight to body weight also appeared the well effect (tending to normal group). Serum biochemical analysis showed that total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), and the ratio of liver weight to body weight showed a downward trend. In addition, compared to TC/HDL, TG/HDL, and HDL/LDL, the relative content of HDL was increased. Meanwhile, we used Western blotting to detect changes in protein kinase C alpha (PKC-α), PKC-ß, P-selectin, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and phosphorylated NF-kB p65 in the liver. The results showed that the A. lappa L. polysaccharides regulated lipid metabolism through the PKC/NF-κB pathway in diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arctium/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 717-724, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129217

RESUMO

In this study, the purified water-soluble polysaccharide (ALP-1) from Arctium lappa was used to intervene lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophage and systemic inflammatory mice. Our results showed that ALP-1 could effectively accommodate the levels of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and serum of mice, including increased anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10) and down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α). Moreover, according to our data from 16 s high-throughput sequencing, as compared with LPS model group, the composition of gut microbiota in mice was ameliorated in ALP-1 treatment group. There were higher levels of several probiotics in the stools of ALP-1 treatment group, such as Lactobacillius, Alistipes, Odoribacter, and Phascolarctobacterium. Simultaneously, symbiotic bacteria like Bacteroides were inhibited by ALP-1. Besides, ALP-1 could significantly enhance the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in gut.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Arctium/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Água/química , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Células RAW 264.7 , Solubilidade
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 215: 119-129, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981336

RESUMO

A new pectin (ALP-2) was extracted from the roots of Arctium lappa L. with the molecular weight of 1.84 × 106 Da. ALP-2 was composed of rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose. Results of NMR revealed that the dominant linkage types of ALP-2 were →4-α-GalpA-6-OMe-(1→, →2-α-Rha-(1→, →5-α-Araf-(1→ and →3,6-ß-Galp-(1→. The ELISA results indicated ALP-2 was a typical pectin with HG chain and RG-I chain. The rheological experiments showed that ALP-2 fluid exhibited shear thinning behavior. The viscosity of ALP-2 was mainly affected by concentration, temperature, and pH. The ALP-2 fluid with elastic properties at high frequencies could be used as a thickener in the food industry. Moreover, ALP-2 with the dosages of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg exhibited strong anti-constipation activity in vivo. ALP-2 treated groups could improve small intestinal movement rate and increase the weight of feces significantly in constipation mice. Therefore, ALP-2 could be considered as the active component for functional food or therapeutic agent in constipation therapy.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Laxantes/química , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/uso terapêutico , Raízes de Plantas/química , Animais , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Laxantes/isolamento & purificação , Laxantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Pectinas/farmacologia , Reologia
11.
Life Sci ; 223: 194-201, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898648

RESUMO

AIMS: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in the development and progression of DN. Arctigenin (ATG), a lignan extract from Fructus Arctii, exhibits anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, anti-oxidative stress and immunomodulatory properties. The present research aimed to investigate whether ATG could protect against diabetes-related renal injury and inhibit ER stress in db/db mice. MAIN METHODS: Male db/db mice were randomly divided into two groups: DN group and ATG treatment group (DN + ATG). db/m mice were defined as the normal control group (NC). ATG was dissolved in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt solution and administered orally at a dose of 80 mg/kg to mice in the DN + ATG group once daily for 8 consecutive weeks. HK2 cells were used to determine the effects of ATG on ER stress and cell apoptosis in vitro. KEY FINDINGS: ATG administration significantly reduced blood glucose, urine albumin excretion, and urine albumin to creatinine ratio, and attenuated renal pathological injury when compared with untreated db/db mice. These changes were accompanied by decreased expression of both ER stress-related markers and caspase 12 level in the kidneys of db/db mice. In vitro, high glucose activated ER stress signal transduction pathway and induced cell apoptosis in HK2 cells, which were blocked by ATG. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that ATG exerts renoprotective effects on diabetes-related renal injury in db/db mice and cytoprotective effects on high glucose induced cell apoptosis and inhibits ER stress.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arctium/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Furanos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 213: 89-99, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879693

RESUMO

In this study, water-soluble polysaccharide from Arctium lappa was extracted, isolated and purified to be a fraction (ALP-1). Characterization of structure revealed that ALP-1 was a kind of fructan with a molecular weight of 5.12 × 103 Da. ALP-1 was composed of (2→ 1)-ß-d-fructofuranose backbone linked to a terminal of (2 → 1)-α-d-glucopyranose at the non-reducing end and a (2 → 6)-ß-d-fructofuranose branching. DSS-induced colitis mice were used to determine the inhibitory effects of ALP-1 on gut inflammation. Results indicated that ALP-1 could significantly ameliorate the dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) caused by colitis. Besides, as compared with model group, the abundance of Firmicutes, Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Lactobacillus were significantly increased with ALP-1 treatment. And ALP-1 could significantly inhibit the levels of Proteobacteria, Alcaligenaceae, Staphylococcusand and Bacteroidetes. Therefore, ALP-1 may be effective in protecting mice from DSS-induced colitis.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/química , Solubilidade , Água/química
13.
Phytomedicine ; 55: 229-237, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory actions of Polygonum cuspidatum, Angelica gigas, Sophora flavescens and Arctium fruit are well known. Nonetheless, effects of herbal combination (PASA) or its fermentation by microorganisms (F-PASA) on the allergic response remain unknown. PURPOSE: We investigated whether PASA or F-PASA could inhibit IgE/antigen complex (IgE/Ag)-mediated allergic responses. METHODS: To evaluate and compare anti-allergic actions of PASA and F-PASA, we performed cell viability, ß-hexosaminidase activity, ELISA assays for cytokines and eicosanoids, immunoblot analysis, HPLC analysis and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) models. RESULTS: F-PASA had stronger anti-degranulation actions (IC50, 510.9  µg/ml) than PASA (IC50, 1,261  µg/ml) without cytotoxicity until 2000  µg/ml in IgE/Ag-activated RBL-2H3 cells. Additionally, F-PASA inhibited formation of tumor necrosis factor-α (IC50, 147.4  µg/ml), interleukin-4 (IC50, 213.4  µg/ml), prostaglandin D2 (IC50, 42.40  µg/ml) and leukotriene C4 (IC50, 157.9  µg/ml). Moreover, F-PASA dose-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation and expression of proteins that are related to the FcεRI and arachidonate cascades. Consistent with in vitro studies, F-PASA from 25 to 100  mg/kg also suppressed IgE/Ag-induced PCA reaction more than PASA did in mice. In phytochemical analysis, using PASA and F-PASA, F-PASA showed a higher level of emodin-8-O-ß-d-glucoside, whereas the level of arctiin, an artigenin glycoside, was reduced compared with that using PASA. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that F-PASA, including both artigenin and emodin-8-O-ß-d-glucoside, possesses stronger anti-allergic properties. Therefore, F-PASA may be useful as a functional food or as a phytomedicine for allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Anafilaxia Cutânea Passiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Angelica/química , Animais , Arctium/química , Fallopia japonica/química , Fermentação , Masculino , Camundongos , Sophora/química
14.
Phytomedicine ; 55: 282-292, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arctiin is a main component from the fruits of Arctium lappa L., that can be prescribed for cold or flu in East Asian countries; it has also been found to exert chemopreventive actions against various tumor cells. HYPOTHESIS: In view of this evidence, we examined arctiin for its ability to trigger apoptosis and inhibit the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of arctiin on STAT3 signaling cascades and its regulated functional responses in MM cells. RESULTS: Arctiin effectively blocked the constitutive activation of STAT3 phosphorylation in the residue of tyrosine 705. Arctiin also abrogated the constitutive activation of Src phosphorylation and Janus-activated kinases (JAKs) 1/2. Furthermore, it was found that arctiin treatment clearly enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of protein tyrosine phosphatase ε (PTPε), and the silencing of PTPε caused a reversal of the arctiin-induced PTPε expression and the blockadge of STAT3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, arctiin could not repress IL-6-induced STAT3 activation in serum-starved U266 cells and when arctiin was incubated with a complete culture medium in RPMI 8226 and MM.1S cells. Arctiin suppressed cell proliferation, accumulated cells in the G2/M cell-cycle phase, and induced apoptosis within U266 cells, although the knockdown of PTPε prevented PARP cleavage and caspase-3 activation induced by the arctiin. In addition, arctiin exerted cytotoxicity in MM cells, but did not do so in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arctiin down-modulated diverse oncogenic gene products regulated by STAT3, although the induction of apoptosis by arctiin was abrogated upon transfection with pMXs-STAT3C in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Arctiin also potentiated bortezomib-induced antitumor effects in U266 cells. CONCLUSION: On the whole, our results indicate that arctiin is a potentially new inhibitor of constitutive STAT3 activation through the induction of PTPε in MM, cells and therefore has great value in treating various tumors sheltering constitutively activated STAT3.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tirosina/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Arctium/química , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 4 Semelhantes a Receptores/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 206: 811-819, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553388

RESUMO

In this study, a polysaccharide, BP, was produced by Bacillus subtilis using burdock oligofructose as a carbon source. The polysaccharide BP was isolated from burdock fermented through B. subtilis by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular weight of BP was determined to be 1.533 × 107 g/mol, and is composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose in the ratio of 1:0.12:17.16:0.69:1.10. Furthermore, BP is made up of a backbone structure of (1→6)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl residues substituted at the O-3 position with α-d-glucopyranosyl branches. In vitro, BP inhibited A549 cell proliferation and increased reactive oxygen species production, thus, promoting the apoptosis of cells. Moreover, BP up-regulated the expression of caspase-3 and the corresponding protein, indicating that it activates the caspase-3 pathway. These findings suggest that the potential of BP as a supplement or drug to treat cancer.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Glucanos/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Carboidratos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucanos/biossíntese , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 123: 531-538, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439439

RESUMO

Polysaccharides were extracted from the roots of Arctium lappa L. (ALPs) using response surface methodology with ultrasonication. A central composition design was used to optimize extraction parameters by maximizing the polysaccharide extraction yield. The modified optimal conditions were as follows: water to raw material ratio of 31 mL/g, ultrasonic power of 158 W, extraction time of 83 min, and extraction temperature of 50 °C. Furthermore, fractions of ALP40-1, ALP60-1, and ALP80-1 were obtained for chemical and antioxidant activity analyses after purification. Results indicated that the three fractions had a molecular weight of 218, 178, and 60 kDa, respectively, and were composed of mannose, glucose, fructose, and galactose. ALP60-1 exhibited strong scavenging activities on 1,1­diphenyl­2­picryhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals. These results demonstrate that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very effective method for extracting ALPs, and ALP60-1 is a potential novel natural antioxidant. However, further structure elucidation and in vivo experiments are required.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Arctium/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(19): 3862-3866, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453710

RESUMO

Fructus Arctii is a traditional Chinese medicine. The main counterfeit species are the seeds of Arctium tomentosum, Onopordum acanthium, Silybum marianum, Saussurea costus, Amorpha fruticosa. Traditional identification methods or molecular barcoding techniques can identify Fructus Arctii and its counterfeit species. However, the identification of the mixture of it and its spurious species is rarely reported. In this paper, we sequenced the ITS2 sequences of Fructus Arctii and 5 kinds of spurious species mix powder by high-throughput sequencing to identify the mixed powder species and providing new ideas for the identification of Fructus Arctii mix powder. The total DNA in mixed powder was extracted, and the ITS2 sequences in total DNA was amplified. Paired-end sequencing was performed on the DNA fragment of the community using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The sequence was analyzed by the software FLASH, QIIME and GraPhlAn etc. The results showed that the high quality ITS2 sequences of 39910 mix samples were obtained from the mixed samples, of which the total ITS2 sequence of the samples genus was 34 935. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the samples contained Fructus Arctii, A. tomentosum, O. acanthium, S. marianum, S. costus and A. fruticosa. Using ITS2 sequences as DNA barcodes, high-throughput sequencing technology can be used to detect the Fructus Arctii and its spurious specie in mixed powder, which can provide reference for the quality control, safe use of medicinal materials of Fructus Arctii and the identification of mixed powder of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Arctium/classificação , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Fabaceae , Frutas , Cardo-Mariano , Onopordum , Filogenia , Saussurea
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(34): 34247-34261, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291612

RESUMO

This study presents an efficient and facile method for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using aqueous extract of burdock root (BR), A. lappa, and their applications. The nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. AgNPs capped the BR extract (BR-AgNPs) possessed roughly spherical geometry with an average diameter of 21.3 nm while uneven geometry of AuNPs capped the BR extract (BR-AuNPs) showed multi shapes in average size of 24.7 nm. The BR-AgNPs strongly inhibited five tested microorganism strains. In particular, the nanoparticles showed excellent catalytic activity for the conversion of pollutants within wastewater. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol, methyl orange, and rhodamine B were respectively found 6.77 × 10-3, 3.70 × 10-3, and 6.07 × 10-3 s-1 for BR-AgNPs and 6.87 × 10-3, 6.07 × 10-3, and 7.07 × 10-3 s-1 for BR-AuNPs. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Arctium/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Compostos Azo/química , Catálise , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nitrofenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rodaminas/química , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 108: 403-407, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236849

RESUMO

Since antediluvian times, the scientific community has realized that natural compounds exhibit enormous potential for the treatment of terrible diseases, such as cancer. Despite a variety of effective bioactive molecules, effective therapies still need to be developed to treat cancer. Hence, it is necessary to study the interactions of natural molecules with their cellular targets. Arctigenin (ATG), a natural lignan compound extracted from Arctium lappa, inhibits the growth of various cancer cells, such as those of the stomach, lungs, liver, and colon, as well as leukocytes, and regulates numerous intracellular activities, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. The intention of this paper is to summarize and generally analyse the molecular pathways that are involved in the anticancer effects of ATG. In addition, the interactions of ATG with other drugs are also highlighted in this paper.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Furanos/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arctium/química , Humanos
20.
Andrologia ; 50(9): e13086, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003584

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to assess the antioxidant activity and also protective effects of Arctium lappa L. (AL) extract on ethanol-induced testicular injuries in rats. In addition, the total phenol and flavonoid contents of the methanolic extracts were analysed and the antioxidant activity of the extract was investigated. The studied extract possessed strong antioxidant activity (IC50 ; 0.113 ± 0.007 mg/ml) and exhibited more active than the ascorbic acid (IC50 ; 0.142 ± 0.002 mg/ml). The histological examinations revealed that the co-administration of ethanol and AL extract inhibits the testicular injuries, alterations in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed in ethanol-treated rats in comparison to the control group. The obtained results demonstrated strong pharmaceutical activities of AL and its potential capacity to be developed as a new health-care supplement against ROS-related substances.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Arctium/química , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Testiculares/prevenção & controle , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Flavonoides/análise , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Doenças Testiculares/induzido quimicamente , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
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