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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 678-685, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858793

RESUMO

Elaeis guineensis is a tropical oil crop and has the highest oil yield per unit area. Palm oil has high palmitic acid content and is also rich in vitamins, including vitamin E. We conducted genome-wide association studies in a diversity panel of 161 E. guineensis accessions to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked with vitamin E and validated candidate genes in these marker-associated intervals. Based on the SNPs reported in our previous research, 47 SNP markers were detected to be significantly associated with the variation of tocopherol and tocotrienol content at a cutoff P value of 6.3 × 10-7. A total of 656 candidate genes in the flanking regions of the 47 SNPs were identified, followed by pathway enrichment analysis. Of these candidate genes, EgHGGT (homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase) involved in the biosynthesis of tocotrienols had a higher expression level in the mesocarp compared to other tissues. Expression of the EgHGGT gene was positively correlated with the variation in α-tocotrienol content. Induced overexpression of the gene in Arabidopsis caused a significant increase in vitamin E content and production of α-tocotrienols compared to wild Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Vitamina E/biossíntese , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Arecaceae/enzimologia , Arecaceae/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 470, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Legitimacy in breeding and commercial crop production depends on optimised protocols to ensure purity of crosses and correct field planting of material. In oil palm, the presence of three fruit forms permits these assumptions to be tested, although only after field planting. The presence of incorrect fruit forms in a cross is a clear sign of illegitimacy. Given that tenera forms produce 30% more oil for the same weight of fruit as dura, the presence of low levels of dura contamination can have major effect during the economic lifespan of an oil palm, which is around 25 years. We evaluated two methods for legitimacy test 1) The use of SHELL markers to the gene that determines the shell-thickness trait 2) The use of SNP markers, to determine the legitimacy of the cross. RESULTS: Our results indicate that the SHELL markers can theoretically reduce the major losses due to dura contamination of tenera planting material. However, these markers cannot distinguish illegitimate tenera, which reduces the value of having bred elite tenera for commercial planting and in the breeding programme, where fruit form is of limited utility, and incorrect identity could lead to significant problems. We propose an optimised approach using SNPs for routine quality control. CONCLUSIONS: Both dura and tenera contamination can be identified and removed at or before the nursery stage. An optimised legitimacy assay using SNP markers coupled with a suitable sampling scheme is now ready to be deployed as a standard control for seed production and breeding in oil palm. The same approach will also be an effective solution for other perennial crops, such as coconut and date palm.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arecaceae/genética , Genoma de Planta , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marcadores Genéticos , Óleo de Palmeira , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 363, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heat treatment is widely used to break dormancy for seed germination and phytohormones could be deeply involved. However, effect of heat treatment on phytohormone related genes/proteins/metabolites and possible relationship with dormancy release remains unclear in oil palm. In this study, oil palm seeds were heat-treated at 39 °C for 60 days according to the method for commercial production. The embryos of seeds during heat treatment (0 d, 15 d, 30 d, 45 d and 60 d) and of germinated seeds (70 d and 75 d) were selected to discover the mechanisms involved in oil palm seed germination. RNA-seq and iTRAQ were applied to investigate DEGs and DEPs related to seed germination; qPCR and western blot were used as validation accordingly; endogenous phytohormones were determined by LC-MS/MS and exogenous phytohormones were also applied to validate their effects on seed germination. RESULTS: RNA-seq results showed that plant hormone signal transduction was one of the most important pathways and eight phytohormones involved, while six of them (ABA, GA, ET, CTK, IAA and JA) were also identified by iTRAQ. Both RNA-seq and iTRAQ results showed that the expression of ABA decreased after heat treatment, which was further validated by qPCR and western blot. Furthermore, changes in endogenous phytohormones showed that ABA decreased rapidly to about 9% of the control at 30 d and then stayed at very low levels until germination; GA and CTK increased while IAA was not affected by heat treatment. Besides, exogenous ABA treatments (10, 100, 1000 mg/L) showed that the germination rate decreased to 63, 42 and 16% of the control, respectively, suggesting that ABA suppress seed germination and the inhibition effect increase with higher concentration; while the germination rates of exogenous GA and IAA treatments barely changed among different concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Phytohormones are deeply involved in oil palm seed germination and ABA acts as an inhibitor. Heat treatment can eliminate endogenous ABA and break dormancy, while GA and CTK may also involve in dormancy release. At least 30 days of heat treatment might be necessary. This study provided informative perspectives on oil palm seed germination, which could be also applicable in other palm species.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Germinação/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Sementes/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(12): 2682-2697, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318434

RESUMO

Howea palms are viewed as one of the most clear-cut cases of speciation in sympatry. The sister species Howea belmoreana and H. forsteriana are endemic to the oceanic Lord Howe Island, Australia, where they have overlapping distributions and are reproductively isolated mainly by flowering time differences. However, the potential role of introgression from Australian mainland relatives had not previously been investigated, a process that has recently put other examples of sympatric speciation into question. Furthermore, the drivers of flowering time-based reproductive isolation remain unclear. We sequenced an RNA-seq data set that comprehensively sampled Howea and their closest mainland relatives (Linospadix, Laccospadix), and collected detailed soil chemistry data on Lord Howe Island to evaluate whether secondary gene flow had taken place and to examine the role of soil preference in speciation. D-statistics analyses strongly support a scenario whereby ancestral Howea hybridized frequently with its mainland relatives, but this only occurred prior to speciation. Expression analysis, population genetic and phylogenetic tests of selection, identified several flowering time genes with evidence of adaptive divergence between the Howea species. We found expression plasticity in flowering time genes in response to soil chemistry as well as adaptive expression and sequence divergence in genes pleiotropically linked to soil adaptation and flowering time. Ancestral hybridization may have provided the genetic diversity that promoted their subsequent adaptive divergence and speciation, a process that may be common for rapid ecological speciation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Arecaceae/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Simpatria , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Hibridização Genética , New South Wales , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Solo , Transcriptoma
5.
Planta ; 250(4): 1229-1246, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222493

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The plastomes of Astrocaryum murumuru and A. aculeatum revealed a lineage-specific structural feature originated by flip-flop recombination, non-synonymous substitutions in conserved genes and several molecular markers. Astrocaryum murumuru Mart. and A. aculeatum G.Mey. are two palm species of Amazon forest that are economically important as source of food, oil and raw material for several applications. Genetic studies aiming to establish strategies for conservation and domestication of both species are still in the beginning given that the exploitation is mostly by extractive activity. The identification and characterization of molecular markers are essential to assess the genetic diversity of natural populations of both species. Therefore, we sequenced and characterized in detail the plastome of both species. We compared both species and identified 32 polymorphic SSR loci, 150 SNPs, 46 indels and eight hotspots of nucleotide diversity. Additionally, we reported a specific RNA editing site found in the ccsA gene, which is exclusive to A. murumuru. Moreover, the structural analysis in the plastomes of both species revealed a 4.6-kb inversion encompassing a set of genes involved in chlororespiration and plastid translation. This 4.6-kb inversion is a lineage-specific structural feature of the genus Astrocaryum originated by flip-flop recombination between two short inverted repeats. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analysis using whole plastomes of 39 Arecaceae species placed the Astrocaryum species sister to Acrocomia within the tribe Cocoseae. Finally, our data indicated substantial changes in the plastome structure and sequence of both species of the genus Astrocaryum, bringing new molecular markers, several structural and evolving features, which can be applied in several areas such as genetic, evolution, breeding, phylogeny and conservation strategies for both species.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Edição de RNA , Recombinação Genética
6.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(8): 2377-2393, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167834

RESUMO

We report the first whole genome sequence (WGS) assembly and annotation of a dwarf coconut variety, 'Catigan Green Dwarf' (CATD). The genome sequence was generated using the PacBio SMRT sequencing platform at 15X coverage of the expected genome size of 2.15 Gbp, which was corrected with assembled 50X Illumina paired-end MiSeq reads of the same genome. The draft genome was improved through Chicago sequencing to generate a scaffold assembly that results in a total genome size of 2.1 Gbp consisting of 7,998 scaffolds with N50 of 570,487 bp. The final assembly covers around 97.6% of the estimated genome size of coconut 'CATD' based on homozygous k-mer peak analysis. A total of 34,958 high-confidence gene models were predicted and functionally associated to various economically important traits, such as pest/disease resistance, drought tolerance, coconut oil biosynthesis, and putative transcription factors. The assembled genome was used to infer the evolutionary relationship within the palm family based on genomic variations and synteny of coding gene sequences. Data show that at least three (3) rounds of whole genome duplication occurred and are commonly shared by these members of the Arecaceae family. A total of 7,139 unique SSR markers were designed to be used as a resource in marker-based breeding. In addition, we discovered 58,503 variants in coconut by aligning the Hainan Tall (HAT) WGS reads to the non-repetitive regions of the assembled CATD genome. The gene markers and genome-wide SSR markers established here will facilitate the development of varieties with resilience to climate change, resistance to pests and diseases, and improved oil yield and quality.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/classificação , Arecaceae/genética , Cocos/classificação , Cocos/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Arecaceae/parasitologia , Cocos/metabolismo , Cocos/parasitologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(5): 1501-1511, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028709

RESUMO

Mechanisms of genome evolution are fundamental to our understanding of adaptation and the generation and maintenance of biodiversity, yet genome dynamics are still poorly characterized in many clades. Strong correlations between variation in genomic attributes and species diversity across the plant tree of life suggest that polyploidy or other mechanisms of genome size change confer selective advantages due to the introduction of genomic novelty. Palms (order Arecales, family Arecaceae) are diverse, widespread, and dominant in tropical ecosystems, yet little is known about genome evolution in this ecologically and economically important clade. Here, we take a phylogenetic comparative approach to investigate palm genome dynamics using genomic and transcriptomic data in combination with a recent, densely sampled, phylogenetic tree. We find conclusive evidence of a paleopolyploid event shared by the ancestor of palms but not with the sister clade, Dasypogonales. We find evidence of incremental chromosome number change in the palms as opposed to one of recurrent polyploidy. We find strong phylogenetic signal in chromosome number, but no signal in genome size, and further no correlation between the two when correcting for phylogenetic relationships. Palms thus add to a growing number of diverse, ecologically successful clades with evidence of whole-genome duplication, sister to a species-poor clade with no evidence of such an event. Disentangling the causes of genome size variation in palms moves us closer to understanding the genomic conditions facilitating adaptive radiation and ecological dominance in an evolutionarily successful, emblematic tropical clade.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Evolução Biológica , Genoma de Planta , Poliploidia , Cromossomos de Plantas , Tamanho do Genoma
8.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213591, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856213

RESUMO

To investigate limiters of photosynthate assimilation in the carbon-source limited crop, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), we measured differential metabolite, gene expression and the gas exchange in leaves in an open field for palms with distinct mesocarp oil content. We observed higher concentrations of glucose 1-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, sucrose 6-phosphate, and sucrose in high-oil content palms with the greatest difference being at 11:00 (p-value ≤0.05) immediately after the period of low morning light intensity. Three important photosynthetic genes were identified using differentially expressed gene analysis (DEGs) and were found to be significantly enriched through Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment: chlorophyll a-b binding protein (CAB-13), photosystem I (PSI), and Ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR), particularly for sampling points at non-peak light (11:00 and 19:00), ranging from 3.3-fold (PSI) and 5.6-fold (FNR) to 10.3-fold (CAB-13). Subsequent gas exchange measurements further supported increased carbon assimilation through higher level of internal CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) in high-oil content palms. The selection for higher expression of key photosynthesis genes together with CO2 assimilation under low light is likely to be important for crop improvement, in particular at full maturity and under high density planting regimes where light competition exists between palms.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Óleo de Palmeira/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(1): 479-488, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600458

RESUMO

The root (wilt) disease caused by phytoplasma (Ca. Phytoplasma) is one of the major and destructive occurs in coconut gardens of Southern India. As this organism could not be cultured in vitro, the early detection in the palm is very much challenging. Hence, proper early diagnosis and inoculum assessment relay mostly on the molecular techniques namely nested and quantitative PCR (qPCR). So, the present study qPCR assay conjugated with TaqMan® probe was developed which is a rapid, sensitive method to detect the phytoplasma. For the study, samples from different parts of infected coconut palms viz., spindle leaflets, roots and the insect vector-leaf hopper (Proutista moesta) were collected and assessed by targeting 16S rRNA gene. Further, nested PCR has been carried out using p1/p7 and fU5/rU3 primers and resulted in the amplification product size of 890 bp. From this amplified product, specifically a target of 69 bp from the 16S rRNA gene region has been detected through primers conjugated with Taqman probe in a step one instrument. The results indicated that the concentration of phytoplasma was more in spindle leaflets (8.9 × 105 g of tissue) followed by roots (7.4 × 105 g of tissue). Thus, a qPCR approach for detection and quantification of coconut phytoplasma was more advantageous than other PCR methods in terms of sensitivity and also reduced risk of cross contamination in the samples. Early diagnosis and quantification will pave way for the healthy coconut saplings selection and management under field conditions.


Assuntos
Cocos/microbiologia , Phytoplasma/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Arecaceae/genética , Cocos/genética , Primers do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Índia , Filogenia , Phytoplasma/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(1): 221-234, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240120

RESUMO

Understanding the genetics of biological diversification across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales is a vibrant field of research for molecular ecologists as rapid advances in sequencing technologies promise to overcome former limitations. In palms, an emblematic, economically and ecologically important plant family with high diversity in the tropics, studies of diversification at the population and species levels are still hampered by a lack of genomic markers suitable for the genotyping of large numbers of recently diverged taxa. To fill this gap, we used a whole genome sequencing approach to develop target sequencing for molecular markers in 4,184 genome regions, including 4,051 genes and 133 non-genic putatively neutral regions. These markers were chosen to cover a wide range of evolutionary rates allowing future studies at the family, genus, species and population levels. Special emphasis was given to the avoidance of copy number variation during marker selection. In addition, a set of 149 well-known sequence regions previously used as phylogenetic markers by the palm biological research community were included in the target regions, to open the possibility to combine and jointly analyse already available data sets with genomic data to be produced with this new toolkit. The bait set was effective for species belonging to all three palm sub-families tested (Arecoideae, Ceroxyloideae and Coryphoideae), with high mapping rates, specificity and efficiency. The number of high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected at both the sub-family and population levels facilitates efficient analyses of genomic diversity across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/classificação , Arecaceae/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Tree Physiol ; 39(3): 356-371, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137626

RESUMO

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is the highest oil-yielding crop in the plant kingdom and accumulates 90% of palm oil in the mesocarp. However, the regulatory mechanisms of lipid and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in oil palm are just beginning to be understood, and more studies are needed, especially in the understanding of small noncoding RNA (ncRNA) and mRNA. Based on the deep sequencing of small noncoding RNAs and the degradome in five developmental mesocarp stages, 452 microRNAs (miRNAs), including 170 conserved known-miRNAs (kn-miRNAs) and 282 novel-miRNA (nov-miRNAs), were identified. After predicting the targets of those miRNAs to 37 FA synthesis-related genes, we found that 22 kn-miRNAs and 14 nov-miRNAs might be involved in FA metabolism pathways. Among them, eg-miR156c, eg-miR397, eg-miR444b and nov-miR129 regulated FA synthesis in plastids and the transport of FA-ACP from plastids to the endoplasmic reticulum by targeting acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 9 (LACS9), LACS4 and enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR), respectively. Nov-miR138 and nov-miR59 targeted glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), and nov-miR274 targeted phosphatidate phosphatase 1 (PAP1). Both target genes are involved in triacylglycerol synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum. Eg-miR156e and eg-miR156j played pivotal roles by targeting ß-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 12 (KCS12), and nov-miR201 targets very-long-chain enoyl-CoA reductase (ECR). Several miRNAs were also predicted to indirectly regulate FA synthesis and lipid metabolism through the squamosa promoter-binding protein-like gene (SPL), NAC and MYB transcription factors. As a whole, indications of a complex and extensive miRNA-mRNA regulatory network associated with FA metabolism in the mesocarp of the oil palm is presented. The results help to broaden the knowledge of potential mechanisms that might be regulated by miRNAs through modulation of the expression of FA-related target gene metabolism in the oil palm.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Arecaceae/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
Planta ; 249(2): 333-350, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194535

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Predominant gene isoforms and expression bias in lipid metabolism pathways are highly conserved between oil-producing Arecaceae crop species coconut and oil palm, but diverge in non-oil-producing species date palm. Coconut (Cocos nucifera), African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) are three major crop species in the Arecaceae family for which genome sequences have recently become available. Coconut and African oil palm both store oil in their endosperms, while date palm fruits contain very little oil. We analyzed fatty acid composition in three coconut tissues (leaf, endosperm and embryo) and in two African oil palm tissues (leaf and mesocarp), and identified 806, 840 and 848 lipid-related genes in 22 lipid metabolism pathways from the coconut, African oil palm and date palm genomes, respectively. The majority of lipid-related genes were highly homologous and retained in homologous segments between the three species. Genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to fatty acid had a five-to-sixfold higher expression in the coconut endosperm and oil palm mesocarp than in the leaf or embryo tissues based on Fragments Per Kilobase of transcript per Million mapped reads values. A close evolutionary relationship between predominant gene isoforms and high conservation of gene expression bias in the lipid and carbohydrate gene metabolism pathways was observed for the two oil-producing species coconut and oil palm, differing from that of date palm, a non-oil-producing species. Our results elucidate the similarities and differences in lipid metabolism between the three major Arecaceae crop species, providing important information for physiology studies as well as breeding for fatty acid composition and oil content in these crops.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/metabolismo , Cocos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Phoeniceae/metabolismo , Arecaceae/genética , Cocos/genética , Endosperma/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Phoeniceae/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/química , Homologia de Sequência , Transcriptoma
13.
Plant Reprod ; 32(2): 167-179, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467592

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Transcriptomes generated by laser capture microdissected abnormal staminodes revealed adoption of carpel programming during organ initiation with decreased expression of numerousHSPs,EgDEF1, EgGLO1but increasedLEAFYexpression. The abnormal mantled phenotype in oil palm involves a feminization of the male staminodes into pseudocarpels in pistillate inflorescences. Previous studies on oil palm flowering utilized entire inflorescences or spikelets, which comprised not only the male and female floral organs, but the surrounding tissues as well. Laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing was conducted to investigate the specific transcriptomes of male and female floral organs from normal and mantled female inflorescences. A higher number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in abnormal versus normal male organs compared with abnormal versus normal female organs. In addition, the abnormal male organ transcriptome closely mimics the transcriptome of abnormal female organ. While the transcriptome of abnormal female organ was relatively similar to the normal female organ, a substantial amount of female DEGs encode HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN genes (HSPs). A similar high amount (20%) of male DEGs encode HSPs as well. As these genes exhibited decreased expression in abnormal floral organs, mantled floral organ development may be associated with lower stress indicators. Stamen identity genes EgDEF1 and EgGLO1 were the main floral regulatory genes with decreased expression in abnormal male organs or pseudocarpel initials. Expression of several floral transcription factors was elevated in pseudocarpel initials, notably LEAFY, FIL and DL orthologs, substantiating the carpel specification programming of abnormal staminodes. Specific transcriptomes thus obtained through this approach revealed a host of differentially regulated genes in pseudocarpel initials compared to normal male staminodes.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Inflorescência/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
14.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 133: 67-81, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594734

RESUMO

Tribe Euterpeae is an economically and ecologically important group of Neotropical palms (Arecaceae). Some species are hyperdominant in the Neotropics, and many constitute a good source of revenue. To reconstruct the biogeographical history and diversification of the Euterpeae, we inferred a robust dated molecular phylogenetic hypothesis including 82% of the species sequenced for five DNA regions (trnD-trnT, CISP4, WRKY6, RPB2, and PHYB). Ancestral range was estimated using all models available in BioGeoBEARS and Binary State Speciation and Extinction analysis was used to evaluate the association of biome and inflorescence type with diversification rates. All intergeneric relationships were resolved providing insight on the taxonomic controversy of Jessenia, Euterpe and Prestoea. Three widely distributed Neotropical species were non-monophyletic, inviting a revision of species circumscriptions. The Euterpeae started its diversification in the mid Eocene (40 Mya), with most species-level divergence events occurring in the last 10 million years. Four colonization events from Central to South America were inferred. Different diversification rates were associated with biomes. Lowland rainforest was inferred as the ancestral biome of Euterpeae, attesting to the importance of lowland adapted lineages on the assembly of the montane flora. The two-fold higher speciation rate for montane taxa (compared with lowland rainforest taxa) was contemporaneous to the Andean orogenic uplift. The specialized beetle pollination of Oenocarpus with its hippuriform (horsetail shape) inflorescence was not associated with diversification rates in Euterpeae.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/classificação , Arecaceae/genética , América Central , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Floresta Úmida , América do Sul
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 276, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The macaúba palm is a novel feedstock for oil production suitable for multiple uses, including as biodiesel and in the food and cosmetic industries. As an efficient alternative, the macaúba palm has limited genomic resources, particularly expressed sequence tag (EST) markers. We report a comprehensive set of validated EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers by using transcriptome sequencing, its application in genetic diversity analysis and cross transferability in other palm trees with environmental and economic importance. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 418 EST-SSRs were identified to be unique for one transcript and region; 232 EST-SSRs were selected, with trinucleotide repeats being the most frequent motif, representing 380 (90.9%), followed by composited (4.5%), di- (3.6%), and hexanucleotides (3.6%). A total of 145 EST-SSRs (62.5%) were validated for consistent amplification in seventeen macaúba palm samples, and 100 were determined to be polymorphic with PIC values ranging from 0.25 to 0.77. Genetic diversity analysis was performed with the 20 most informative EST-SSR markers showing a distinct separation of the different groups of macaúba palm. Additionally, these 145 markers were transferred in six other palm species resulting in transferability rates of 99% (144) in Acrocomia intumescens, 98% (143) in Acrocomia totai, 80.7% (117 EST-EST) in African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) samples, 70% (102) in the juçara palm (Euterpe edulis) and 71.7% (104) in the hat palm (Sabal causiarum). Analysis of genetic distance showed a high separation in accordance with geographic location, establishing distinct groups by genera. CONCLUSIONS: The EST markers identified in our study are a valuable resource and provide a genomic tool for genetic mapping and further genetic studies, as well as evaluation of co-location between QTLs and functionally associated markers.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
16.
Protein J ; 37(6): 473-499, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367348

RESUMO

Proteomics technologies were first applied in the oil palm research back in 2008. Since proteins are the gene products that are directly correspond to phenotypic traits, proteomic tools hold a strong advantage above other molecular tools to comprehend the biological and molecular mechanisms in the oil palm system. These emerging technologies have been used as non-overlapping tools to link genome-wide transcriptomics and metabolomics-based studies to enhance the oil palm yield and quality through sustainable plant breeding. Many efforts have also been made using the proteomics technologies to address the oil palm's Ganoderma disease; the cause and management. At present, the high-throughput screening technologies are being applied to identify potential biomarkers involved in metabolism and cellular development through determination of protein expression changes that correlate with oil production and disease. This review highlights key elements in proteomics pipeline, challenges and some examples of their implementations in plant studies in the context of oil palm in particular. We foresee that the proteomics technologies will play more significant role to address diverse issues related to the oil palm in the effort to improve the oil crop.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/metabolismo , Ganoderma , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Arecaceae/genética , Arecaceae/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
17.
Database (Oxford) ; 20182018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239681

RESUMO

A set of Elaeis guineensis genes had been generated by combining two gene prediction pipelines: Fgenesh++ developed by Softberry and Seqping by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board. PalmXplore was developed to provide a scalable data repository and a user-friendly search engine system to efficiently store, manage and retrieve the oil palm gene sequences and annotations. Information deposited in PalmXplore includes predicted genes, their genomic coordinates, as well as the annotations derived from external databases, such as Pfam, Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Information about genes related to important traits, such as those involved in fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) and disease resistance, is also provided. The system offers Basic Local Alignment Search Tool homology search, where the results can be downloaded or visualized in the oil palm genome browser (MYPalmViewer). PalmXplore is regularly updated offering new features, improvements to genome annotation and new genomic sequences. The system is freely accessible at http://palmxplore.mpob.gov.my.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Óleo de Palmeira/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Ontologia Genética , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11406, 2018 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061629

RESUMO

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) is a key tropical oil crop, which provides over one third of the global vegetable oil production, but few genes related to oil yield have been characterized. In this study, a GDSL esterase/lipase gene, which was significantly associated with oil content, was isolated from oil palm and designated as EgGDSL. Its functional characterization was carried out through ectopic expression in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. It was shown that expression of EgGDSL in Arabidopsis led to the increased total fatty acid content by 9.5% compared with the wild type. Further analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed that stearic acid (18:0) increased in the seeds of the transgenic lines, but the levels of linoleic acid (18:2) plus 11-eicosenoic acid drastically declined. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed that in oil palm, EgGDSL was highly expressed in mesocarp followed by leaf, and the expression level was very low in the root. The expression level of EgGDSL gene began to increase at two months after flowering (MAF) and reached its peak by four MAF, then declined rapidly, and reached its lowest level during the mature period (6 MAF). The EgGDSL gene was more highly expressed in oil palm trees with high oil content than that with low oil content, demonstrating that the transcription level of EgGDSL correlated with the amount of oil accumulation. The gene may be valuable for engineering fatty acid metabolism in crop improvement programmes and for marker-assisted breeding.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Genes de Plantas , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
19.
Plant Sci ; 275: 84-96, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107884

RESUMO

The diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) (diacylglycerol:acyl-CoA acyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.20) are a key group of enzymes that catalyse the final and usually the most important rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants and other organisms. Genes encoding four distinct functional families of DGAT enzymes have been characterised in the genome of the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The contrasting features of the various isoforms within the four families of DGAT genes, namely DGAT1, DGAT2, DGAT3 and WS/DGAT are presented both in the oil palm itself and, for comparative purposes, in 12 other oil crop or model/related plants, namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, Brassica napus, Elaeis oleifera, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus, Musa acuminata, Oryza sativa, Phoenix dactylifera, Sorghum bicolor, and Zea mays. The oil palm genome contains respectively three, two, two and two distinctly expressed functional copies of the DGAT1, DGAT2, DGAT3 and WS/DGAT genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the four DGAT families showed that the E. guineensis genes tend to cluster with sequences from P. dactylifera and M. acuminata rather than with other members of the Commelinid monocots group, such as the Poales which include the major cereal crops such as rice and maize. Comparison of the predicted DGAT protein sequences with other animal and plant DGATs was consistent with the E. guineensis DGAT1 being ER located with its active site facing the lumen while DGAT2, although also ER located, had a predicted cytosol-facing active site. In contrast, DGAT3 and some (but not all) WS/DGAT in E. guineensis are predicted to be soluble, cytosolic enzymes. Evaluation of E. guineensis DGAT gene expression in different tissues and developmental stages suggests that the four DGAT groups have distinctive physiological roles and are particularly prominent in developmental processes relating to reproduction, such as flowering, and in fruit/seed formation especially in the mesocarp and endosperm tissues.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/metabolismo , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Arecaceae/enzimologia , Arecaceae/genética , Simulação por Computador , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 59(12): 2490-2501, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137562

RESUMO

Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant either presents in the form of tocopherols and/or tocotrienols depending on the plant species, tissue and developmental stage, plays a major role in protecting lipids from oxidation in seeds. Unlike tocopherols, which have a more universal distribution, the occurrence of tocotrienols is limited primarily to monocot seeds. Dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis var. humilis) seeds accumulate tocotrienols in quiescent and dormant seeds, while tocopherols are de novo synthesized during germination. Here, we aimed to elucidate whether tocopherol biosynthesis is regulated at the transcriptional level during germination in this species. We identified and quantified the expression levels of five genes involved in vitamin E biosynthesis, including TYROSINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ChTAT), HOMOGENTISATE PHYTYLTRANSFERASE (ChHPT), HOMOGENTISATE GERANYLGERANYL TRANSFERASE (ChHGGT), TOCOPHEROL CYCLASE (ChTC) and TOCOPHEROL γ-METHYLTRANSFERASE (Chγ-TMT). Furthermore, we evaluated to what extent variations in the endogenous contents of hormones and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) correlated with transcriptional regulation. Results showed an increase of ChTAT and ChHPT levels during seed germination, which correlated with an increase of jasmonic acid (JA), gibberellin4 (GA4), and H2O2 contents, while ChHGGT and Chγ-TMT expression levels decreased, thus clearly indicating vitamin E biosynthesis is diverted to tocopherols rather than to tocotrienols. Exogenous application of jasmonic acid increased tocopherol, but not tocotrienol content, thus confirming its regulatory role in vitamin E biosynthesis during seed germination. It is concluded that the biosynthesis of vitamin E is regulated at the transcriptional level during germination in dwarf fan palm seeds, with ChHPT playing a key role in the diversion of the vitamin E pathway towards tocopherols instead of tocotrienols.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Transcrição Genética , Vitamina E/biossíntese , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tocoferóis/metabolismo , Tocotrienóis/metabolismo
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