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1.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt B): 114115, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800773

RESUMO

Waterworks which utilise river bank filtration water sources often have to apply aeration and sand filtration to remove iron and manganese during the drinking water treatment process. After some time, the sand becomes saturated and the spent filter sand (SFS) must be disposed of and replaced. In order to valorize this waste stream, this paper investigates the reuse of SFS as an adsorbent for the treatment of arsenic contaminated drinking water. The arsenic removal performance of SFS is compared with two synthetic iron oxide coated sands (IOCS). The sorbents were first characterized by SEM, EDS, BET specific surface area, and point of zero charge (pHpzc) measurements, and then investigated under a variety of conditions. The surface of the SFS was revealed to be coated with iron manganese binary oxide. The Freundlich model best described the isotherm experiment data, indicating a non monolayer adsorption model for arsenic adsorption on the three IOCS investigated. As(III) and As(V) removals were negatively effected by the presence of PO43- and HA anions as they competed with the arsenic species for adsorption sites. However, given the status of SFS as a waste material, the results obtained in this paper suggest it may be successfully reused as a very economically and environmentally sustainable solution for small waterworks requiring both As(V) and As(III) removal during drinking water treatment.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Ferro , Manganês , Areia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
J Morphol ; 283(1): 5-15, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689355

RESUMO

We determined location and amount of accumulated sand in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed diets containing external (silicate) abrasives. Computed tomographic abdominal images of rabbits (n = 44) and guinea pigs (n = 16) that each received varying numbers (4-7) of different diets for 14 days each (total n = 311 computed tomographs), and radiographs of dissected GIT and presence of silica in GIT content (n = 46 animals) were evaluated. In rabbits, the majority of accumulated sand was located in the caecal appendix, an elongated, intestinal structure in the left side of the abdomen. The 'wash-back' colonic separation mechanism in rabbits may be partly responsible for a retrograde transport of sand back to the caecum, where dense, small particles accumulate in the appendix. The appendix likely acted as a reservoir of these particles, leading to significant effects not only of the momentary but also of the previous diet on recorded sand volumes in the rabbits. Guinea pigs have no caecal appendix and a colonic separation mechanism not based on a 'wash-back'. Less sand accumulation was found in their GIT without a specific location pattern, and there were less previous diet effects in this species. None of the rabbits or guinea pigs developed clinical signs of obstruction during the study, and the recorded sand volumes represented 1.0 ± 1.2% of the 14-d sand intake in rabbits and 0.2 ± 0.2% in guinea pigs. Accumulation of sand in volumes up to 10 cm3 in the GIT of rabbits does not seem to cause clinical health impairment. Large inter-individual differences in rabbits indicate inter-individual variation in proneness to sand accumulation. The reason for the presence of a sand-trapping caecal appendix in animals that are, due to their burrowing lifestyle and feeding close to the ground, predestined for accidental sand ingestion, remains to be unveiled.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Apêndice , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Cobaias , Coelhos , Areia
3.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132350, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582933

RESUMO

A hybridization of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with pre-oxidation processes was conducted in this study to investigate changes in dissolved organic matter characteristics and the attenuation of selected trace organic contaminants (TrOCs). Potassium permanganate, chlorine, and ozone treatments were used for pre-oxidation, which effectively attenuated some TrOCs, particularly the combination of MAR with ozone achieved 84-99% attenuation. The pre-oxidation step using potassium permanganate showed high removal of carbamazepine (96%). Moreover, MAR was also combined with nanofiltration (NF) as a multi-barrier concept for the removal of persistent TrOCs after MAR. A short-chain polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) was effectively removed after combining MAR columns with NF membranes. Thus, pre-oxidation coupled with MAR followed by NF could potentially enhance the removal of selected TrOCs.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Rios , Areia , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118309, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626709

RESUMO

A pyrene-degrading consortium OPK containing Mycolicibacterium strains PO1 and PO2, Novosphingobium pentaromativorans PY1 and Bacillus subtilis FW1 effectively biodegraded medium- and long-chain alkanes as well as mixed hydrocarbons in crude oil. The detection of alkB and CYP153 genes in the genome of OPK members supports its phenotypic ability to effectively degrade a broad range of saturated hydrocarbons in crude oil. Zeolite-immobilized OPK was developed as a ready-to-use bioproduct and it exhibited 74% removal of 1000 mg L-1 crude oil within 96 h in sterilized seawater without nutrient supplementation and maintained high crude oil-removal activity under a broad range of pH values (5.0-9.0), temperatures (30-40 °C) and salinities (20-60‰). In addition, the immobilized OPK retained a high crude oil removal efficacy in semicontinuous experiments and showed reusability for at least 5 cycles. Remarkably, bioaugmentation with zeolite-immobilized OPK in sandy soil microcosms significantly increased crude oil (10,000 mg kg-1 soil) removal from 45% to 80.67% within 21 days compared to biostimulation and natural attenuation. Moreover, bioaugmentation with exogenous immobilized OPK stimulated an increase in the relative abundances of Alcanivorax genus, indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, which in turn enhanced removal efficiency of crude oil contamination from sandy soil microcosms. The results indicate positive interactions between the bioaugmented immobilized consortium, harboring Mycolicibacterium as a key player, and indigenous Alcanivorax, which exhibited crucial functions for improving crude oil removal efficacy. The knowledge obtained forms an important basis for further synthesis and handling of a promising bio-based product for enhancing the in situ bioremediation of crude oil-polluted marine environments.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Sphingomonadaceae , Zeolitas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Areia , Solo
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131965, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449324

RESUMO

The production and degradation of plastic remains can result in nanoplastics (NPs) formation. However, insufficient information regarding the environmental behaviors of NPs impedes comprehensive assessment of their significant threats. In this study, the transport behavior of unmodified NPs (PSNPs), carboxyl-modified NPs (PSNPs-COOH), and amino-modified NPs (PSNPs-NH2) was investigated using column experiments in the presence and absence of goethite (GT) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Quantum chemical computation was performed to reveal the transport mechanisms. The results showed that GT decreased the transport of NPs and the presence of DEHP decreased it further. Van der Waals forces and small electrostatic interactions coexisted between the PSNPs and GT and caused deposition. Ligand exchange caused greater deposition of PSNPs-COOH on GT-coated sand than that of PSNPs. Although hydrogen bonding existed between the DEHP and NPs with functional groups, an increase in the positive charge and chemical heterogeneity of the collector was the main reason for DEHP promoting the deposition of NPs. Because of low absolute negative zeta potential values, PSNPs-NH2 was sensitive to chemical heterogeneity, and thus fully deposited (over 96.9%) in GT and GT-DEHP-coated columns. Generally, the deposition of NPs due to chemical heterogeneity was more significant than that due to the formation of chemical bonds and van der Waals, electrostatic, and hydrogen interactions. Our results highlight that the surface charge and functional groups significantly influence the transport behaviors of NPs and elucidate the fate of NPs in the terrestrial environment.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poliestirenos , Areia
6.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131889, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461337

RESUMO

Estimating soil properties is important for maximizing the production of crops in sustainable agriculture. The hyperspectral data next input depends upon the previous one, and the current techniques do not take advantage of this sequential nature of hyperspectral signatures. The variants of RNN can learn the short-term and long-term dependencies between data. This paper proposes a deep learning hybrid framework for quantifying the soil minerals like Clay, CEC, pH of H2O, Nitrogen, Organic Carbon, Sand of European Union from the LUCAS library. The hyperspectral signatures contain the data in the range of 400-2500 nm captured from the FOSS spectroscope in the laboratory. As hyperspectral data is high dimensional, Principal Component Analysis and Locality Preserving Projections are utilized to form the hybrid features, which have low dimensions containing the local and global information of the original dataset. These hybrid features are passed on to Long Short Term Memory Networks, a deep learning framework for building an effective prediction model. The effectiveness of the prepared models is demonstrated by comparing it to existing state-of-the-art techniques.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Solo , Agricultura , União Europeia , Areia
7.
J Environ Manage ; 304: 114307, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942547

RESUMO

Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) via biostimulation of urea hydrolysis is a biogeochemical process in which soil indigenous ureolytic microorganisms catalyse the decomposition of urea into ammonium and carbonate ions which, in the presence of calcium, precipitate as calcium carbonate minerals. The environmental conditions created by urine in soil resemble those induced by MICP via urea hydrolysis. Thus, this study assesses the suitability of a waste product, cow urine, as a source of nutrients for MICP. Urea stability in fresh and sterilised urine were monitored for a month to cover the length of a potential MICP intervention. An experimental soil column set up was used to compare the soil response to the repeated application of fresh and sterilised cow urine, within pH of 7 and 9, and the chemical-based solution. Urea hydrolysis and the carbonate content in solution were monitored to assess the suitability of the proposed alternative. In addition, the nitrification process was monitored. Key findings indicated i) urea concentration and stability in fresh and sterilised cow urine are suitable for MICP application; ii) the soil response to treatments of cow urine within pH of 7 and 9 are similar to the chemical-based solution; and iii) increasing solution pH results in a faster activation of ureolytic microorganisms and higher carbonate content in solution. These results demonstrate that cow urine is a suitable substitute of the chemical-based MICP application.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio , Solo , Animais , Bovinos , Precipitação Química , Nutrientes , Areia
8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(12)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908522

RESUMO

A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped, bacterial strain (CAU 1598T) was isolated from marine sand. Strain CAU 1598T grew well at 30 °C, pH 6.5-7.0 and with 3 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogeny results based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the identified strain had the highest similarity (94.3%) to Pseudoxanthomonas putridarboris, indicating that strain CAU 1598T belongs to the family Xanthomonadaceae. Further, the fatty acid profile of the strain was primarily composed of C16:0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (consisting of C16 : 1 ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and summed feature 9 (consisting of iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl), with ubiquinone-8 as the major isoprenoid quinone. The polar lipid profile included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphoglycolipid, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified lipid. The G+C content of the bacterial genome was 62.6 mol% and its 5.4 Mb length encompassed 144 contigs and 4236 protein-coding genes. These phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data indicate that CAU 1598T belongs to a new genus and species, for which the name Pseudomarimonas arenosa gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 1598T (=KCTC 82406T=MCCC 1K05673T).


Assuntos
Areia , Água do Mar , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932582

RESUMO

Sunflower production is significantly lower in arid and semi-arid regions due to various crop management problem. Conservation of tillage provides the most excellent opportunity to reduce degradation of soil reserves and increase soil productivity. The main objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of conservation tillage and drought stress on growth and productivity of different sunflower hybrids. Experimental treatments included two sunflower hybrids ('NK-Senji' and 'S-278'), two drought stress treatments (i.e., well-watered and drought stress at flowering and grain filling stages) and three tillage practices (i.e., conservation, minimum and deep tillage). The results indicated that morphological and physiological parameters, and yield-related traits were significantly (P≤0.05) affected by all individual factors; however, their interactive effects were non-significant. Among sunflower hybrids, 'NK-Senji' performed better for morphological, physiological, and yield-related traits than 'S-278'. Similarly, conservation tillage observed better traits compared to the rest of the tillage practices included in the study. Nonetheless, conservation tillage improved growth and yield-related traits of hybrid 'NK-Senji' under drought stress. Hence, it is concluded that conservation tillage can improve the productivity of sunflower under low moisture availability. Therefore, conservation tillage could be suggested in the areas of lower water ability to improve sunflower production. Nonetheless, sunflower hybrids or varieties need thorough testing for their adaptability to conservation tillage and low moisture availability before making recommendations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Quimera/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Clima Desértico , Secas , Helianthus/genética , Helianthus/metabolismo , Humanos , Areia , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the effects of 8 weeks of plyometric jump training (PJT) conducted on sand or a rigid court surface on jump-related biomechanical variables and physical fitness in female indoor volleyball players. METHODS: Seventeen participants were randomly divided into a sand surface group (SsG, n = 8) and rigid surface group (RsG, n = 9). Both groups completed equal indoor volleyball training routines. Participants were assessed pre and post the 8-week PJT for jump-related biomechanical variables (countermovement jump (CMJ) RSI; drop jump (DJ) reactive strength index (RSI); spike jump (SJ) height; CMJ height; CMJ rate of force development (RFD); CMJ velocity at take-off; DJ height and CMJ peak force), 20 m linear sprint time, t test for change-of-direction sprint (CODs) time, Wingate test peak power (PP), cardiorespiratory endurance, and leg-press one-repetition maximum (1RM). RESULTS: A two-way mixed analysis of variance (group × time) revealed that there was a significant group × time interaction between DJ height (p = 0.035) and CMJ peak force (p = 0.032) in favour of RsG and SsG, respectively. A significant interaction was also observed for cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.01) and 1RM (p = 0.002), both favouring the SsG. No other group × time interaction was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The type of surface used during PJT induced specific adaptations in terms of jump-related biomechanical variables and physical fitness in female indoor volleyball players. Based on the individual needs of the athletes, practitioners may prescribe one type of surface preferentially over another to maximize the benefits derived from PJT.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Voleibol , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Aptidão Física , Areia
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 780, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748090

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and rare earth elements (REEs) in Brazilian sandy soils under the Cerrado at the Parnaíba-São Francisco Basin transition. We also explored the geochemical correlation between these elements and pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC), sand, clay, oxides from secondary minerals, and chemical index of alteration for each basin. Mineralogical, physical, and chemical analyses were used to examine PTE and REE geochemistry in six sand soil profiles from the Brazilian Cerrado. The background concentrations of these elements are low, but soils from the Parnaíba Basin have higher concentrations of PTEs than soils from the São Francisco Basin. In soils from the Parnaíba Basin, mainly Al2O3 has relevance in the V and Cr geochemistry, as these elements increase with increasing Al2O3 content. On the other hand, the REEs have CEC as a soil attribute of higher relevance in the geochemistry of those elements is soils from the Parnaíba Basin, and this relevance divides the TOC, Fe2O3, and TiO2 minerals from the clay fraction. In soils from the São Francisco Basin, the geochemistry of PTEs is possibly associated with kaolinite, especially Cu, V, and Zn. In contrast, the Ba concentration was associated with the presence of feldspar. Unlike soils from the Parnaíba Basin, the REEs do not correlate with the studied soil attributes, except for Ho and Lu. Ho had a positive association with Al2O3. Ho and Lu are negatively related to the presence of iron oxides.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Poluentes do Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Areia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769594

RESUMO

This study focused on the processes of free infiltration, precipitation displacement, and natural attenuation of the LNAPL under the condition of near-surface leakage. Sandbox experiments were performed to explore the migration characteristics of LNAPL in the vadose zone with two media structures and the influences of the soil interface on the migration of LNAPL. The results indicate that the vertical migration velocity of the LNAPL infiltration front in medium and coarse sand was 1 order of magnitude higher than that in fine sand and that the LNAPL accumulated at the coarse-fine interface, which acted as the capillary barrier. Displacement of precipitation for LNAPL had little relationship with rainfall intensity and was obviously affected by medium particle size, where coarse sand (40.78%) > medium sand (20.5%) > fine sand (10%). The natural attenuation rate of the LNAPL in the vadose zone was related to the water content of the media; the natural attenuation rate of fine sand was higher. This study simulated the process of the LNAPL leakage from the near surface into the layered heterogeneous stratum, improved the understanding of the migration of the LNAPL under different stratum conditions, and can provide support for the treatment of LNAPL leakage events in the actual site.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Areia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Zootaxa ; 5020(1): 130-140, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810417

RESUMO

As a part of the study of marine nematofauna of a sandy intertidal zone of Jeju Island (South Korea), a number of species have been proven as new for science. Here a new species representing a new genus of the family Microlaimidae (Chromadorea), Jejulaimus sinyangensis gen. n., sp. n. is described. The new monotypic genus is characterized by head set off abruptly from the body; anterior sensilla pattern 6+10, where six outer labial setiform sensilla together with four longer cephalic setiform sensilla are integrated in a common crown; pharyngostoma armed with a dorsal tooth and surrounded by convex muscular pharyngeal tissue, forming an anterior pharyngeal bulb which is distinctly set off from the rest of the pharynx; terminal pharyngeal bulb oval; ventral pore and ampulla of the excretory-secretory gland situated just posterior to the nerve ring; an only anterior testis present. The new genus bears some resemblance to the genera Bolbolaimus, Pseudomicrolaimus and Spirobolbolaimus in having an anterior pharyngeal bulb and in the position of the ventral pore of the excretory/secretory gland, but differs from them by anterior sensilla pattern 6+10, absence of subventral teeth in buccal cavity, and monorchic condition of male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Cromadoria , Nematoides , Animais , Masculino , Faringe , República da Coreia , Areia
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605765

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile, short rod-shaped, catalase-negative and oxidase-positive bacterium, strain CAU 1568T, was isolated from marine sediment sand sampled at Sido Island in the Republic of Korea. The optimum conditions for growth were at 25-30 °C, at pH 6.5-8.5 and with 0-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain CAU 1568T was a member of the genus Photobacterium with high similarity to Photobacterium salinisoli JCM 30852T (97.7 %), Photobacterium halotolerans KACC 17089T (97.3 %) and Photobacterium galatheae LMG F28894T (97.3 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω6c and/or C16 : 1 ω7c) and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c), with Q-8 as the major of isoprenoid quinone. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipid, two aminophospholipids and three unidentified lipids. The whole genome size of strain CAU 1568T was 4.8 Mb with 50.1 mol% G+C content; including 38 contigs and 4233 protein-coding genes. These taxonomic data support CAU 1568T as representing a novel Photobacterium species, for which the name Photobacterium arenosum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this novel species is CAU 1568T (=KCTC 82404T=MCCC 1K05668T).


Assuntos
Photobacterium , Areia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos , Photobacterium/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Water Res ; 205: 117610, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649082

RESUMO

Phytotoxins - toxins produced by plants - are contaminants with the potential to impair drinking water quality. They encompass a large group of toxic, partially persistent compounds that have been detected in seepage waters and in shallow wells used for drinking water production. If phytotoxins enter wells used for drinking water production, it is essential to know if the drinking water treatment processes will remove them from the water phase. However, it is currently unknown whether phytotoxins remain stable during traditional groundwater treatment using sand filters as the main treatment process. The objective of this study is to investigate removal potential of phytotoxins in biological sand filters and to asses if the removal potential is similar at different waterworks. Microcosms were set up with filter sand and drinking water collected at different groundwater-based waterworks. To be able to monitor phytotoxin removal ptaquiloside, caudatoside, gramine, sparteine, jacobine N-oxide, senecionine N-oxide and caffeine were applied at initial concentrations of 300 µg L-1, which is approx. two orders of magnitude higher than currently detected in environment, but expected to cover extreme environmental conditions. Removal was monitored over a period of 14 days. Despite the high initial concentration, all filter sands removed ptaquiloside and caudatoside completely from the water phase and at waterworks where pellet softening was implemented (pH 8.4) prior to rapid sand filtration, complete removal occurred within the first 30 min. All filter sands removed gramine and sparteine, primarily by a biological process, while jacobine N-oxide, senecionine N-oxide and caffeine were recalcitrant in the filter sands. During degradation of ptaquiloside and caudatoside we observed formation and subsequent removal of degradation products pterosin B and A. Filter sands with the highest removal potential were characterised by high contents of deposited iron and manganese oxides and hence large specific surface areas. Difference between bacterial communities investigated by 16S rRNA gene analyses did not explain different removal in the filter sands. All five investigated filter sands showed similar degradation patterns regardless of water chemistry and waterworks of origin. In drinking water treatment systems biological sand filters might therefore remove phytotoxin contaminants such as ptaquiloside, caudatoside, gramine, sparteine, while for other compounds e.g. jacobine N-oxide, senecionine N-oxide further investigations involving more advanced treatment options are needed.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Filtração , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Diálise Renal , Areia , Dióxido de Silício , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639414

RESUMO

Sand play may be a significant determinant of health and development in early childhood, but systematically synthesised evidence is absent in the literature. The main objective of this study was to present a planned methodology to systematically review, and synthesise, the evidence regarding sand play and its associations with 0-8-year-old children's health and development. The systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols statement was registered to PROSPERO (CRD42021253852). Literature searches will be conducted using information from eight electronic databases. Studies will be included when participating children were aged 0-8 years, settings provided children with exposure to sand environments and/or materials, and child-level outcomes related to physical, cognitive, and/or social-emotional health and development. The search results will be imported to software; duplicates will be removed; and independent double screening, and study quality assessments using appropriate tools, will be conducted. Synthesis without meta-analysis will be conducted for quantitative studies similar in exposure, outcome, and content analysis to qualitative studies. Our overall confidence in each review finding will be assessed. The findings of this systematic review can inform policy makers and early childhood education teachers about the associations between sand play and children's health and development, and its impact in practice.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Areia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2895-2905, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664463

RESUMO

Based on the MODIS NDVI data from 2000 to 2018, we estimated the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) using the dimidiate pixel model and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of FVC in the Beijing-Tianjin sand source region (BTSSR). The geographical detector model was used to estimate the impacts of natural and human factors on FVC spatial distribution at the regional scale. The results showed that the FVC of the BBTSR showed an increasing trend from 2000 to 2018, with an annual growth rate of 0.013·(10 a)-1 and a vegetation increase rate of 8.2%. The area with high FVC was concentrated in the Yanshan Mountain water source protection area, followed by the pastoral transitional zone desertified land control area and the Otindag sandy land area. The area with poor FVC was concentrated in the northern arid grassland area. The explanatory power of driving factors to FVC varied across different regions. Among the natural factors, annual precipitation was the main driving factor for the spatial distribution of FVC in the northern arid grassland area, the Otindag sandy land area and the Yanshan Mountain water source protection area. Slope was the main driving factor for the spatial distribution of FVC in the pastoral transitional zone desertified land control area. Among different human activities, the number of large livestock at the year-end was the main driving factor controlling the spatial distribution of FVC in the northern arid grassland area and the pastoral transitional zone desertified land control area, while population density was the main driving factor controlling the spatial distribution of FVC in the Otindag sandy land area and the Yanshan Mountain water source protection area. There were regional differences in the influen-ce of other factors on FVC spatial distribution. The results of the interaction detector showed that the two-factor interactions were mainly the double-synergy and nonlinear synergy. The interaction of human activities with annual precipitation and slope could more fully explain the spatial variations of FVC. The range of suitable vegetation growth identified by the risk detector was the area with annual precipitation of 316.4-486.0 mm, average relative humidity of 48.4%-57.6%, and average annual temperature of 2.5-7.9 ℃, while other driving factors were different in different zones.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Areia , Pequim , China , Atividades Humanas , Humanos
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3195-3203, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658205

RESUMO

As sand dunes gradually become fixed, soil particle size, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents vary across different locations of the dunes. To investigate the spatial variation of soil particle size distribution and soil nutrition in the fixed sand dunes, we examined particle composition, SOC and TC features in different locations of dunes in the Eastern Ningxia. The results showed that the particle sizes of each soil layer were mainly characterized by medium and coarse sands. The SOC and TN contents were higher in surface soil layers, with a maximum of 5.781 and 0.412 g·kg-1, respectively, which were observed in interdune lands and dune ridges, while the leeward slope of the dunes showed the least. The SOC content of both the leeward and windward slope gradually decreased with increasing soil depth along the dune. By contrast, that of the interdune lands decreased first and then increased. At small scale, both the SOC and TN contents showed a clear spatial heterogeneity. There was a positive correlation between soil nutrition contents (SOC and TN) and silt and very fine sand contents in the fixed sand dunes, and a negative correlation with medium and coarse sand contents. Our results implied that soil particle size composition influenced SOC and TN contents. The contents of soil nutrition increased with increa-sing contribution of fine particles, highlighting the role of fine particles in adhesion and accumulation of organic matter.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Nitrogênio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Areia
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3341-3348, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658221

RESUMO

Crude oil may block soil pores, affect soil water repellency, and change soil water movement. In this study, soil column simulation was used to study the effects of different crude oil pollution levels (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%) on the water infiltration processes in loessial soil and aeolian sandy soil. The results showed that soil wetting front speed and infiltration rate of those two soils decreased with increasing crude oil content. The time needed for wetting front reaching the bottom of the soil column was the longest under 4% crude oil polluted soil, which was 4 times and 48 times longer than that of no crude oil polluted soil for loessial soil and aeolian sandy soil, respectively. The cumulative infiltration of loessial soil decreased with increasing crude oil content, while it increased to the max and then decreased as the crude oil content increased in aeolian sandy soil. The cumulative infiltration curves of aeolian sandy soil with high crude oil contents (2% and 4%) presented "up-tail" phenomenon. Kostiakov infiltration model and Philip infiltration model could better fit the infiltration process than Green-Ampt model for loessial soil with different crude oil content. However, the two models could only well fit the infiltration process for aeolian sandy soil with low crude oil content (0, 0.5%, 1%). Crude oil pollution could significantly affect soil water infiltration process, especiall in aeolian sandy soil.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo , Areia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200774, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705939

RESUMO

This study performs natural sand-based synthesis using the sonochemical route for preparing Zn-doped magnetite nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were dispersed in water as a carrier liquid to form Zn-doped magnetite aqueous ferrofluids. Structural data analysis indicated that the Zn-doped magnetite nanoparticles formed a nanosized spinel structure. With an increase in the Zn content, the lattice parameters of the Zn-doped magnetite nanoparticles tended to increase because Zn2+ has a larger ionic radius than those of Fe3+ and Fe2+. The existence of Zn-O and Fe-O functional groups in tetrahedral and octahedral sites were observed in the wavenumber range of 400-700 cm-1. The primary particles of the Zn-doped magnetite ferrofluids tended to construct chain-like structures with fractal dimensions of 1.2-1.9. The gas-like compression (GMC) plays as a better model than the Langevin theory to fit the saturation magnetization of the ferrofluids. The ferrofluids exhibited a superparamagnetic character, with their magnetization was contributed by aggregation. The Zn-doped magnetite ferrofluids exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and negative bacteria. It is suggested that the presence of the negatively charged surface and the nanoparticle size may contribute to the high antibacterial activity of Zn-doped magnetite ferrofluids and making them potentially suitable for advanced biomedical.


Assuntos
Óxido Ferroso-Férrico , Areia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Água , Zinco
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