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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 696, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040211

RESUMO

For effective planning of irrigation scheduling, water budgeting, crop simulation, and water resources management, the accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is essential. In the current study, the hybrid support vector regression (SVR) coupled with Whale Optimization Algorithm (SVR-WOA) was employed to estimate the monthly ETo at Algiers and Tlemcen meteorological stations positioned in the north of Algeria under three different optimal input scenarios. Monthly climatic parameters, i.e., solar radiation (Rs), wind speed (Us), relative humidity (RH), and maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) of 14 years (2000-2013), were obtained from both stations. The accuracy of the hybrid SVR-WOA model was appraised against hybrid SVR-MVO (Multi-Verse Optimizer), and SVR-ALO (Ant Lion Optimizer) models through performance measures, i.e., mean absolute error (MAE), root-mean-square error (RMSE), index of scattering (IOS), index of agreement (IOA), Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and graphical interpretation (time-variation and scatter plots, radar chart, and Taylor diagram). The results showed that the SVR-WOA model performed superior to the SVR-MVO and SVR-ALO models at both stations in all scenarios. The SVR-WOA-1 model with five inputs (i.e., Tmin, Tmax, RH, Us, Rs: scenario-1) had the lowest value of MAE = 0.0658/0.0489 mm/month, RMSE = 0.0808/0.0617 mm/month, IOS = 0.0259/0.0165, and the highest value of NSE = 0.9949/0.9989, PCC = 0.9975/0.9995, and IOA = 0.9987/0.9997 for testing period at both stations, respectively. The proposed hybrid SVR-WOA model was found to be more appropriate and efficient in comparison to SVR-MVO and SVR-ALO models for estimating monthly ETo in the study region.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Baleias , Argélia , Algoritmos , Animais , Vento
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 630, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902799

RESUMO

In this paper, we use an integrated approach to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of water quality in the Beni Haroun (BH) dam, the largest surface water resource in Algeria. Several techniques have been employed under the same framework, including the Canadian Council Ministers Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI), principal component analysis and factor analysis (PCA/FA), the K-means clustering, and the ordinary least square (OLS) analysis. A data set of 22 physicochemical parameters has been collected, over a period of 11 years, from three sampling stations: Ain Smara (ST1) and Menia (ST2), both located upstream of "Wadi Rhumel," and BH dam station (ST3), located at the dam site. The PCA/FA enables the identification of seven key factors that influence significantly BH dam water quality. The average values of CCME indices at the BH dam were 17, 40, 42, and 32 for drinking, irrigation, industry, and aquatic life purposes, respectively, which indicate poor water quality, according to the CCME categorization scheme. Besides, the K-means algorithm has been proven to be a very useful machine learning tool to detect that the major source of BH dam pollution is "Wadi Rhumel." Finally, OLS analysis, along with the Mann-Kendall test, highlighted the positive trend of BH dam's water quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Argélia , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Recursos Hídricos
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(3): 537-548, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960798

RESUMO

The present paper deals with the improvement of infrastructure asset management of urban drainage systems (UDS). A numerical tool for assessing the existing management procedures is proposed. It is based on a participatory methodology for the construction of a set of performance indicators. This methodology consists of two phases. The first concerns the identification of priority objectives, criteria and indicators related to the management of the UDS infrastructure. The second phase concerns the assessment of the global performance for each identified objective. Performance measurement scales are first defined for all the elements of the proposed methodology. Then, the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is used for the weighting stage, and the Weighted Sum Method is used for the aggregation of indicators and criteria. To illustrate this methodology, a case study concerning Bejaia City in northern Algeria was carried out. Two priority objectives are identified for this case, they are divided into 6 criteria and 31 indicators. The results of the application of the developed tool highlighted some weaknesses that need improvements in the actual management procedure applied by the local sanitation services.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Argélia , Cidades
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8232-8238, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health crisis with social, psychological and long-lasting economical damages. Weather-related dynamics have an impact on the pattern of human health and disease. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of heat and humidity on daily basis incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 pandemic in ten of the world's hottest countries compared to ten of the coldest ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worldwide, we selected 20 countries; 10 hottest countries with the highest temperatures and 10 coldest countries with the lowest temperature. The selection of the countries was based on the daily basis mean temperature from the date of appearance of the initial cases of COVID-19, Dec 29, 2019 to May 12, 2020. In the world's 10 hottest countries, the mean temperature was (26.31±1.51) and humidity (44.67±4.97). However, in the world's 10 coldest countries the mean temperature was (6.19±1.61) and humidity (57.26±2.35). The data on the global outbreak of COVID-19, daily new cases and deaths were recorded from World Health Organization, and daily information on temperature and humidity was obtained from metrological web "Time and Date". RESULTS: In countries with high temperatures and low humidity, the mean daily cases incidence were (407.12±24.33); cumulative cases (9094.34±708.29); and cumulative deaths (452.84±43.30) were significantly low compared to countries with low temperatures and high humidity: daily cases (1876.72±207.37); cumulative cases (44232.38±5875.11); and cumulative deaths (2008.29±310.13). Moreover, COVID-19 cases and deaths per million population were significantly low in countries with high temperatures (cases 711.23, and deaths 16.27) compared to countries with low temperatures (cases 1685.99; and deaths 86.40). Furthermore, in hottest countries, a 1% increase in humidity reduced number of cases and deaths by (ß = -5.40, p<0.001) and (ß = -0.187, p=0.004) respectively. A similar trend was seen with a 1°C increase in temperature, reducing the number of deaths by (ß = -1.35. p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed a significant decrease in incidence of daily cases and deaths in countries with high temperatures and low humidity (warmest countries), compared to those countries with low temperatures and high humidity (coldest countries). The findings could be of interest to the policymakers and the health officials on the epidemiological trends of COVID-19 pandemic and weather changes.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estônia/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Kuweit/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Omã/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , República de Belarus/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111356, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658705

RESUMO

The cartography of shallow water macroalgal assemblages allows the assessment of water quality in coastal water bodies through the application of CARLIT. In this study, we have applied CARLIT to assess the ecological status of Algerian coastal water bodies for the first time. The surveyed zone is still in a good ecological status since 52% have a good to a high ecological Status. CARLIT index is well correlated with anthropogenic pressures and has proved suitable for the evaluation of the ecological status of coastal waters. Comparison between EQR values and EEI-c shows a similar pattern of change. CARLIT method allowed the collection of accurate information on the distribution and abundance of shallow-water communities. We also provide a cartographic baseline of the coastal assemblages useful for further evaluations on their geographic extension and for the implementation of a monitoring project on water quality in Algerian coast.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Argélia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Qualidade da Água
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 37699-37708, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607996

RESUMO

This paper seeks to answer an empirical question of whether clean biomass energy consumption lowers CO2 emissions while controlling for technical innovation in eight selected countries from Africa for the 1980-2015 period. The countries which are chosen based on availability of data on biomass energy and technological innovation include Egypt, Algeria, South Africa, Mauritius, Kenya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Zambia. Applying pooled mean group, mean group, and dynamic fixed effect panel estimators, the results indicate that clean biomass energy use decreases CO2 emission in the long run. But the effect of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emission is insignificant in the short run. The findings imply that CO2 emission can be reduced by increasing clean biomass energy in the energy mix of these countries. Similarly, environmental quality and economic growth can be achieved simultaneously by increasing the share of biomass energy in large-scale production process. Furthermore, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), which hypothesizes an inverted U-shaped relationship between CO2 emission and economic growth, was validated in the long run. This suggests that the EKC pattern is only observed in the long run. Thus, as part of recommendation from this study, policy makers in these countries should formulate more policies that will enhance clean biomass energy production and its usage to substitute significant percentage of fossil fuel use in production process.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Argélia , Biomassa , Egito , Quênia , Marrocos , África do Sul , Tunísia , Zâmbia
7.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020050, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to provide better insights into the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of scorpion envenomation in an endemic area in Algeria and to identify the model that best predicted daily scorpion sting counts. METHODS: Daily sting data from January 1, 2013 to August 31, 2016 were extracted from questionnaires designed to elicit information on scorpion stings from the two emergency medical service providers in Touggourt, Algeria. Count regression models were applied to the daily sting data. RESULTS: A total of 4,712 scorpion sting cases were documented, of which 70% occurred in people aged between 10 years and 49 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3. The upper and lower limbs were the most common locations of scorpion stings (90.4% of cases). Most stings (92.8%) were mild. The percent of people stung inside dwellings was 68.8%. The hourly distribution of stings showed a peak between 10:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. The daily number of stings ranged from 0 to 24. The occurrence of stings was highest on Sundays. The incidence of scorpion stings increased sharply in the summer. The mean annual incidence rate was 542 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The fitted count regression models showed that a negative binomial hurdle model was appropriate for forecasting daily stings in terms of temperature and relative humidity, and the fitted data agreed considerably with the actual data. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that daily scorpion sting data provided meaningful insights; and the negative binomial Hurdle model was preferable for predicting daily scorpion sting counts.


Assuntos
Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , Venenos de Escorpião/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Picadas de Escorpião/terapia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2965-2973, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661890

RESUMO

Little is known of the prevalence and genetic identity of Giardia duodenalis in sheep in Algeria. The present study aimed at characterizing G. duodenalis in lambs up to 6 months of age in Djelfa, Algeria. A total of 346 fecal specimens were collected from 28 farms and screened for G. duodenalis cysts by zinc sulfate flotation microscopy, and positive specimens were confirmed using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Microscopy-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase genes to determine G. duodenalis assemblages. Coprological examination indicated that the overall infection rate was 7.0% (24/346). Lambs under 3 months of age had higher infection rate (18/197, 9.0%) than older (6/149, 4.0%) animals, and animals with diarrhea (7/44, 16.0%) had higher infection rate than animals without diarrhea (17/302, 5.6%). PCR sequence analyses of the 15 G. duodenalis isolates revealed the presence of assemblages A in 6 isolates, assemblage E in 7 isolates, and both in 2 isolates. Assemblage A was only found in pre-weaned lambs with diarrhea, while assemblage E was mostly found in post-weaned lambs without diarrhea. The assemblage E isolates from sheep were genetically related to those from cattle in Algeria, while assemblage A isolates were from a well-known subtype prevalent in humans. Data generated from the study improve our understanding of the transmission of G. duodenalis in Algeria.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ovinos/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética
9.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 324-333, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measuring the attitudes of health professionals in two Maghreb countries (Tunisia and Algeria) with regard to the response to COVID-19 during the first quarter of 2020. METHODS: This scoping study was based on a "Google Form" covering three constituents of the response plan against COVID-19: responders, activities and crisis communication. The attitudes of health professionals who are working in Tunisia and Algeria were measured through the Likert scale with four propositions, grouped in pairs, during the analysis. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 280 health professionals, 170 of whom are Tunisians along with 110 Algerians. The medians of age and that of professional seniority are, respectively, 37 and 10 years. The role of "health workers", "Mass Media" and "civil society associations" was found to be satisfactory according, respectively, to 92%, 71%, and 55% of the respondents. As far as 72% of health professionals are concerned, the "barrier measures" were respected by the population. Approximately, seven in ten respondents were satisfied with the quality of communication occuring between the Ministries of Health and its epidemiological structures. CONCLUSION: Health professionals of the Maghreb working in Tunisia and Algeria had a generally positive perception of the role of population responders, community engagement, and the quality of official communication in regards to the response plan against COVID- 19. This perception would be a prerequisite for the success of community participation and multisectoral action as well as essential in the strategy of prevention and control of this pandemic and of possible other health emergencies.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia , Comunicação , Humanos , Pandemias , Tunísia/epidemiologia
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111231, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510377

RESUMO

Freshwater and dissolved nutrient inputs that entered the lower Seybouse River estuary were assessed in 2012 through a fortnightly surface water sampling both at a lower river station and at the estuary outlet. The Seybouse estuary delivered annually 950 × 106 m3 of freshwater yielding 83 kg N km-2 yr-1 of N-NH4 and 12 kg P km-2 yr-1 of P-PO4. More than 2/3 of the annual inputs of freshwater, Si(OH)4 and NO3 entered the sea during the flooding event of late February 2012. Si-Si(OH)4 and N-NO3 yields in the Seybouse estuary represented <1/3 those of the Mediterranean rivers. Annaba Bay is subjected to highly polluted waters from the Seybouse estuary, with significant NH4 (72 ± 37 µmol L-1) and PO4 (7 ± 4 µmol L-1) amounts. However it is characterized by low Si(OH)4 (104 ± 43 µmol L-1) amounts. Alteration of Si:N:P ratios at this bay suggest potential risk of eutrophication, except during and weeks after flood episodes.


Assuntos
Baías , Rios , Argélia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes
11.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 355-362, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the burden of Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) in the Maghreb and its evolution during the period 1990 to 2017. METHODS: We described the RTA in the Maghreb region, while analyzing database provided by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) for the period1990-2017. RESULTS: The age-standardized incidence rate of RTA has decreased overall across the Maghreb; it went from 719.57/100000 inhabitants in 1990 to 609.49 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2017. In 2017, the highest mortality rate in the region was noted in Tunisia and it was 30.15 / 100,000 inhabitants (CI95% = 24.05-37.08). The highest and lowest standardized rates for disability adjusted life years or DALYs were observed respectively in Tunisia: 1,311.56 per 100,000 inhabitants (CI95%=1,065.28-1588.68) and in Algeria: 962.68 per 100,000 inhabitants (CI95%=789.50- 1460.12). CONCLUSION: The burden of disease from road accidents is high in the Maghreb countries and the downward trend in the incidence of these accidents is relatively low. These results should encourage decision-makers to elaborate an integrated and multisectorial strategy to improve the situation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/tendências , Acidentes de Trânsito/história , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Idoso , Argélia/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 396-403, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548843

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis is a health problem that is increasing all over the world as in Algeria, but with scarce local data. AIM: To determine, for the first time, the epidemiological characteristics of urolithiasis in western Algeria. METHODS: We determined the socio-demographic parameters, the clinical data, and those related to stones of 1104 adult stone formers (2012-2019). RESULTS: We confirmed the higher prevalence of urolithiasis among males (sex-ratio=1.9). Stone formers were overweight or obese in 57.2% of cases, 56.7% were living in urban areas and 53.1% had a poor educational level. The rate of consanguinity was 25% and 33.9% had a family history. Stone recurrence was 51.1% and 89% of stones were located in the upper urinary tract. Spontaneous expulsion was the most frequent way of elimination (51.9%), open surgery was used in 19.7%, while 15.5% resorted to endourology or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. The predominant component of stones was calcium oxalate (75%), followed by calcium phosphates (8.9%) and uric acid (10.2%). Struvite (urinary infection indices) was in 3.4% of stones but detected in 16.9% and cystine was found in 1%. Males had a higher educational level, a higher consanguinity rate, and more recurrences than females. CONCLUSION: The epidemiologic profile coming out of this study is close to those described in Maghreb and in industrialized countries. Our data showed that there is an improvement of the socio-economical level, but modern techniques of stone removal should be used more, as well as change in lifestyle.


Assuntos
Urolitíase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argélia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Urolitíase/etiologia
13.
Tunis Med ; 98(5): 324-333, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Measuring the attitudes of health professionals in two Maghreb countries (Tunisia and Algeria) with regard to the response to COVID-19 during the first quarter of 2020. METHODS: This scoping study was based on a "Google Form" covering three constituents of the response plan against COVID-19: responders, activities and crisis communication. The attitudes of health professionals who are working in Tunisia and Algeria were measured through the Likert scale with four propositions, grouped in pairs, during the analysis. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 280 health professionals, 170 of whom are Tunisians along with 110 Algerians. The medians of age and that of professional seniority are, respectively, 37 and 10 years. The role of "health workers", "Mass Media" and "civil society associations" was found to be satisfactory according, respectively, to 92%, 71%, and 55% of the respondents. As far as 72% of health professionals are concerned, the "barrier measures" were respected by the population. Approximately, seven in ten respondents were satisfied with the quality of communication occuring between the Ministries of Health and its epidemiological structures. CONCLUSION: Health professionals of the Maghreb working in Tunisia and Algeria had a generally positive perception of the role of population responders, community engagement, and the quality of official communication in regards to the response plan against COVID- 19. This perception would be a prerequisite for the success of community participation and multisectoral action as well as essential in the strategy of prevention and control of this pandemic and of possible other health emergencies.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia , Comunicação , Humanos , Pandemias , Tunísia/epidemiologia
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 271: 153-160, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578558

RESUMO

The use of standards and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) is a crucial technique for supporting, monitoring and controlling the integration profiles in healthcare organization systems. The risk of "no-interoperability" increases when several standards are used. Lack of experience in developing countries, particularly in Algeria, increases this risk. This article aims to suggest and present a methodology for selecting standards and IHE integration profiles in field of E-health in order to build a base-frame of the Algerian E-Health system. In fact, this base-frame must comply with international standards and perfectly adapted to medical processes, thru respecting IHE integration profiles.


Assuntos
Telemedicina , Argélia , Assistência à Saúde , Programas Governamentais , Integração de Sistemas
15.
Tunis Med ; 98(4): 266-282, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-250596

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Maghreb Central, like all the countries of the world, was strongly mobilized (governments, ministries of health, population, civil society) in the response against COVID-19, immediately after the registration of the first cases on its territory (end of February, beginning of March) and according to pre-established control strategies. OBJECTIVES: Describe the perceptions of health professionals in the Central Maghreb (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco) as to the Strengths/Opportunities and Weaknesses/Threats of the national response plans against COVID-19, during the first weeks of their execution, and report their proposals for optimizing the performance of control strategies. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of the perceptions of health professionals in the Maghreb Central regarding their experience of the first six weeks of fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. The data was collected using the "Delphi" technique in one turn, based on an electronic form such as "Google Form", developed according to SWOT analysis. The respondents' verbatim was grouped into homogeneous groups of items, the occurrence of which was subsequently measured. RESULTS: A total of 382 health professionals from the Maghreb Central participated in this study, with a median age of 37 years and a median professional tenure of 10 years. The major force of the Maghreb response strategies, the most shared by the respondents, was the performance of the human resources mobilized (doctors, biologists, nurses, etc.) who succeeded in quickly learning from the international epidemiological expertise accumulated in Asia and in Europe. The fight against COVID-19 in the Central Maghreb was confronted with the general and chronic fragility of the national health systems and the low support of the general population for the recommendations of the steering committees of response, threatening the capacity of the Maghreb to confront new epidemics. CONCLUSION: The success of the national response plans against COVID-19 and of possible epidemics or pandemics in the Central Maghreb, is strongly attributed to the commitment of health professionals and to community participation, necessitating the launch of assistant motivation programs. and development of health personnel and mobilization and loyalty of civil society.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327067

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread in countries around the world. The impact of this virus is very great on populations following the application of total and partial containment measures. Our study aims to study the psychological impact of total and partial containment applied in Algeria, on 23 March 2020, following the spread of the virus COVID-19 and also studied the habits and behaviors of the Algerian population during this new way of life and this through a cross-sectional survey launched after three days from the start of confinement to quickly assess the impacts over the period from 23 March to 12 April 2020, by an online questionnaire which allowed us to obtain 678 responses from Internet users, who live in confinement in Algeria. According to the gender variable, our sample includes 405 men, or 59.7%, and 273 women, representing 40.3%. The results of the statistical analysis carried out using SPSS version 22.0 software showed that 50.3% of the respondents were in an anxious situation during these first three weeks of confinement. In addition, 48.2% feels stressed, 46.6% of the respondents confirmed to be feeling in a bad mood, and 47.4% do not stop thinking throughout the day about this epidemic and how to protect themselves. In addition, the study shows that 87.9% of the respondents in Algeria found it difficult to follow the confinement instructions. A significant change in the habits of the population was noted especially for the time of going to bed, the time of waking up, and the use of the Internet as well as the hours devoted to daily reading.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Argélia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Tunis Med ; 98(4): 266-282, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395789

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Maghreb Central, like all the countries of the world, was strongly mobilized (governments, ministries of health, population, civil society) in the response against COVID-19, immediately after the registration of the first cases on its territory (end of February, beginning of March) and according to pre-established control strategies. OBJECTIVES: Describe the perceptions of health professionals in the Central Maghreb (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco) as to the Strengths/Opportunities and Weaknesses/Threats of the national response plans against COVID-19, during the first weeks of their execution, and report their proposals for optimizing the performance of control strategies. METHODS: This is a qualitative study of the perceptions of health professionals in the Maghreb Central regarding their experience of the first six weeks of fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. The data was collected using the "Delphi" technique in one turn, based on an electronic form such as "Google Form", developed according to SWOT analysis. The respondents' verbatim was grouped into homogeneous groups of items, the occurrence of which was subsequently measured. RESULTS: A total of 382 health professionals from the Maghreb Central participated in this study, with a median age of 37 years and a median professional tenure of 10 years. The major force of the Maghreb response strategies, the most shared by the respondents, was the performance of the human resources mobilized (doctors, biologists, nurses, etc.) who succeeded in quickly learning from the international epidemiological expertise accumulated in Asia and in Europe. The fight against COVID-19 in the Central Maghreb was confronted with the general and chronic fragility of the national health systems and the low support of the general population for the recommendations of the steering committees of response, threatening the capacity of the Maghreb to confront new epidemics. CONCLUSION: The success of the national response plans against COVID-19 and of possible epidemics or pandemics in the Central Maghreb, is strongly attributed to the commitment of health professionals and to community participation, necessitating the launch of assistant motivation programs. and development of health personnel and mobilization and loyalty of civil society.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argélia/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Tunis Med ; 98(1): 8-16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Establishing the incidence and mortality data for stroke in the Blida region (Algeria) for 2018, through the setting up of a population-based register, was the objective of this study. METHODS: The World Health Organization criteria were used to define the stroke. Cerebral imaging was required to confirm stroke and its hemorrhagic or ischemic mechanism. The target population of the study was inhabitants of the region (wilaya) of Blida (Algeria) aged 25 and over. The ratios of overall incidence and mortality rates and age-specific stroke rates were considered to be relative risk (RR). The Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) was the ratio of standardized rates. RESULTS: A total of 828 stroke were reported, 85.1% ischemic and 13.5% hemorrhagic. The first-ever strokes constituted 70.5% of the strokes for which the occurrence was documented. The overall incidence rate of stroke for 2018, regardless of mechanism and occurrence, was estimated at 130.3/100000. The corresponding standardized rate for age was 138.1/100000. The incidence rate among men (143.6/100000) was significantly higher than that of women (116.9/100000): RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71; 0.93). The median age of onset of stroke was 70 years. The case-fatality rate at 28 days was 22.1%. The overall mortality rate was 28.8/100000 while the corresponding standardized rate was 29.9/100000. The standardized mortality rate for men (34.5/100000) was significantly higher than for women (25.3/100000): SMR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54; 0.99). CONCLUSION: The setting up of a register for stroke in the Blida region has made it possible to quantify the risk of stroke, occurrence and death, and to alert about the burden of disease attributable to this health problem.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argélia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neuroimagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
19.
Tunis Med ; 98(2): 99-109, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A Certificate of Specialization (C2S) in research methodology and scientific communication was established at the Faculty of Medicine of Bejaia (Algeria), for the benefit of university hospital teachers, in 2018. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a clinical certifying-research training program on the acquisition of fundamental knowledge for the conduct of health research projects in its three conceptual, operational and editorial phases. METHODS: This training took place during three face-to-face seminars (a total of 12 teaching days), in the form of lectures and workshops by eight lecturers, with a final exam and a thesis dissertation project. The data were collected through Pre- and post-tests which were distributed before and after each seminar while the questionnaire was administered by the end of the training in order to assess the whole course of this training. The knowledge assessment grids were composed of 20 items for each of the first two seminars and 12 items for the third seminar. According to the categories of the Likert scale, these items were weighted from 1 to 5 points, an overall score for the 52 items of 260 points. RESULTS: A total of 38 candidates (selected from 140 applications) attended this training with an overall presenteeism rate of 93%. The differential scores ("pre-test" and "post-test") of progression of knowledge were successively 60%, 49% and 42% in the three seminars. Out of a total of 260 points, the overall learning score of all three seminars increased from an average of 119 points ± 8.66 to 180 points ± 15.87 (p <10-7), with a differential score of 51.6%. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of the C2S clinical research program of the Bejaia Faculty of Medicine documented the significant evolution of knowledge of research methodology and scientific writing tools. The continuity of this training and its generalization to the Maghreb faculties of health sciences are highly recommended, for the improvement of scientific production in Algeria and the Great Maghreb.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Certificação , Currículo/normas , Docentes de Medicina , Capacitação de Professores/normas , Redação/normas , Argélia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Certificação/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Docentes de Medicina/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Tunis Med ; 98(3): 175-190, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395811

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mortality, particularly at younger ages, is a key measure of population health. AIM: To describe under 5 children mortality trends and its related factors in the Great Maghreb countries over the last three decades 1994-2019. METHODS: We conducted an observational descriptive study to clarify the situation in the Maghreb countries with regard to the under-five death rates and the various causes related to them during the last three decades (1990-2019). The data was collected from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD). RESULTS: he overall trend for the five Maghreb countries was towards the decrease in the mortality rates for all age groups and for both sexes. Mauritania remains at the top of the list in term of the number of deaths followed directly by Morocco. The number of deaths of under-5 children is higher among boys in all Maghreb countries and the most affected age group is under 1 year old. Regarding the causes of under-5 mortality in Maghreb countries, the top-5 causes were similar; except in Mauritania where infectious diseases remain the leading under-5 mortality cause, like in other sub-Saharan countries. CONCLUSION: Despite the big drop in under 5 child Mortality rates, a lot remains to be done in Maghreb countries to improve children health.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Líbia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Tunísia/epidemiologia
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