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1.
Medwave ; 21(4): e8186, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086666

RESUMO

Introduction: On March 19, 2020, preventive and mandatory social isolation was decreed in Argentina in response to the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the disease it causes (COVID-19). This measure aimed to reduce the transmission of the virus and the resulting severe respira-tory condition that frequently besets older adults. However, this measure can also affect the support networks of these isolated people. Objectives: To explore the emerging needs related to the mental health of isolated older adults in this period and to identify the main support networks they have and the emerging coping strategies in the face of the situation. Methodology: We carried out an exploratory qualitative study, summoning participants over 60 years of age. Using snowball sampling, a group of researchers contacted them by phone to collect data. The analysis of the findings was triangulated among researchers with different academic backgrounds (medicine, psychology, and sociology). The concepts emerging from the interviews were linked in conceptual networks using an inductive methodology and were mapped into conceptual frameworks available to researchers. Atlas.ti 8 software was used for coding. Results: Thirty-nine participants belonging to the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area were interviewed between April and July 2020. For greater clarity, the main themes were described in five cross-sectional axes: network configurations, resources and coping strategies, affective states and emo-tions, perceptions and reflections on the future, and actions emerging from the participatory approach. Participants reported distress, anxiety, anger, uncertainty, exhaustion, and expressed fear of contagion from themselves and their loved ones. We identify greater vulnerability in people living alone, in small and closed environments, with weak linkages and networks, or limited access to technologies. We also found vari-ous coping strategies and technology was a fundamental factor in maintaining the bonds. Conclusions: The findings of this research have implications for decision-making at the individual level, health systems, professional care, and policy devel-opment. Future research may elucidate the regional, temporal, and socioeconomic variations of the phenomena explored in our research.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Relações Familiares , Medo , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Sociais Online , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Quarentena/psicologia , Rede Social , Participação Social , Apoio Social
2.
Medwave ; 21(4): e8192, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086668

RESUMO

Introduction: On March 19, 2020, a mandatory lockdown was imposed in Argentina due to the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Objectives: To explore the elderlys healthcare experiences during the lockdown and the problems that may have arisen regarding accessibility to the healthcare system and emerging adaptations to medical care. Methods: We coded the data using Atlas.ti 8 software and then triangled the analysis among researchers from different backgrounds. Finally, concept maps were developed and themes arising from these were described. Results: Thirty-nine participants were interviewed from the metropolitan area in Buenos Aires from April to July of 2020. The main emerging themes were: 1) access to regularly scheduled consults, 2) access to chronic medication, 3) emergency consultations, and 4) the role of information and communication technologies. Accessibility to the healthcare system was compromised due to reduced outpatient consultations, affecting health checkups, diagnosis, and treatment. However, participants tried to keep their immunizations up to date. Information and communication technologies were used to fill digital prescriptions and online medical consultations. While this was a solution to many, others did not have access to these technologies or had trouble using them. Conclusions: The global pandemic caused a reduction in outpatient medical consultations. Emerging needs originated new ways of carrying out medical consultations, mainly through information and communication technologies, which was a solution for many but led to the exclusion of others because of the preexisting technology gap.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Quarentena , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Agendamento de Consultas , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Prescrição Eletrônica , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Tecnologia da Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribuição , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Telemedicina , Vacinação
3.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210056, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105689

RESUMO

Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in urban areas of Argentina has been an overlooked phenomena. We conducted the first comprehensive cross-sectional study of domestic infestation with Triatoma infestans and vector infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in a metropolitan area of San Juan, Argentina. Our results document the occurrence of T. infestans infected with T. cruzi in human sleeping quarters. In this urban setting, we also show that infestation was associated with construction materials, the presence of chickens, cats and a large number of dogs that can provide blood meals for the vector. Our findings reveal new challenges for vectorial control agencies.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Argentina , Gatos , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Insetos Vetores
4.
Braz Oral Res ; 35(suppl 01): e054, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076078

RESUMO

Dental caries remains highly prevalent in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC). However, this disease can be controlled through interventions that implement evidence-based strategies in an affordable manner and that target all population groups instead of the most affluent only. Therefore, the aim of this report was to summarize the main scientifically documented community interventions and strategies based on restriction of sugars consumption, use of fluoride, and the use of occlusal sealants for caries control in LACC. A critical literature review was carried out in a systematic manner that included defined search strategies, independent review of the identified publications, and compilation of results in this report. Three systematic searches were conducted using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases to identify studies related to community interventions and strategies for caries control in LACC. Of the 37 publications identified, twenty-six focused on fluoride use, eight on occlusal sealant use, and three on the restriction of sugar consumption. Documented community interventions for sugars restriction were scarce in the region and were based on food supplementation, sugar replacement, and education. Thus, local and/or national policies should prioritize investment in upstream, coherent, and integrated population-wide policies such as taxes on sugary drinks and stronger regulation of advertising and promotion of sugary foods and drinks mainly targeting children. The main fluoride-based strategies used drinking water, refined domestic salt, cow milk, toothpaste and, to a lesser extent, mouth-rinses, acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gels, and varnishes to deliver fluoride to the population. Evidence of fluoride use was seen in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Studies reporting the use of occlusal sealants were mainly located in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela. Community interventions restricting sugar consumption should be implemented at the individual level and through public policies. The use of fluoride must be monitored at the local, regional, and national levels so as to achieve maximum anti-caries effect while also minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis. Moreover, fluoridated water and salt programs, used as a mutually exclusive community level strategy for caries control, should expand their benefits to reach non-covered areas of the LACC while also simultaneously providing adequate surveillance of the fluoride concentration delivered to the population. Regulating the concentration of soluble fluoride (for anti-caries effect) in dentifrice formulations is also necessary in order to provide the population with an effective strategy for disease control. Targeting culturally appropriate, economically sustainable caries control interventions to rural populations and native ethnic groups such as indigenous people, quilombolas (African-origin), and riverside Amazonian people remains a crucial challenge.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária , Argentina , Brasil , Região do Caribe , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Chile , Colômbia , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Guatemala , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , Nicarágua , Panamá , Peru , Uruguai
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190426, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105608

RESUMO

Cytogenetic analyses were performed on specimens of Leptodactylus bufonius from different localities in Argentina. Mitotic chromosomes were studied with Giemsa and differential staining techniques (Ag-NOR, C-banding, and CMA3/DAPI) and fluorescence in situ hybridization with the 18S DNAr probe. All specimens showed karyotypes with 2n = 2x = 22 and FN = 44. Secondary constrictions were present in the long arm of chromosome pair 8, coincident with Ag-NOR and hybridization signals of the 18S DNAr probe. The C-banding technique evidenced an important amount of heterochromatin with a sex-linked pericentromeric band in the short arm of chromosome pair 4. This heterochromatic band was heteromorphic in males but present in both homologues of females, and it was CMA3 positive (DAPI negative) at fluorescence staining. The occurrence of heteromorphic XY sex chromosomes in L. bufonius is the second known case in Leptodactylus and the fifth within the speciose family Leptodactylidae.


Assuntos
Anuros , Cromossomos Sexuais , Animais , Anuros/genética , Argentina , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos/genética , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105610

RESUMO

Chrysodeixis includens, is an important Plusiinae pest that feeds on soybean, beans, and cotton. This species has a genetic structure determined by molecular markers in populations collected in soybean crops in Brazil and has developed resistance to insecticides. This had led to an increased interest in the genetic diversity of its populations in Argentina. This study aimed to characterize the fitness parameters and mating compatibility of geographically distant C. includens populations and on different host plants in Argentina. Intra- and inter-population crosses revealed that C. includens populations from Tucumán and Santiago del Estero provinces did not present any evidence of prezygotic and postzygotic incompatibilities, suggesting that both populations collected from soybean plants belonged to a single wide-ranging species. Prezygotic and postzygotic incompatibilities were detected between populations collected from different crops (soybean and bean). These incompatibilities may be caused by the different nutrients that each plant species renders, or the specific pest control strategies which may affect C. includens behavior. Studies of the genetic structure of C. includens populations based on mating isolation on other crops, as well as of the impact of management strategies on the specie, will increase understanding of the reproductive compatibility revealed by the present study.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Argentina , Brasil , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Larva , Soja/genética
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20200058, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105613

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the four arboviruses in America which have the greatest impact on human health. The introduction of Aedes albopictus in South America and Argentina acquires importance given the possibility that this species may be a new vector of arboviruses in this region. For this reason, the studies of the biology of their parasites, such as Ascogregarina spp., should be important for the knowledge of the invasive behavior of these vectors. We reported the finding of Ascogregarina culicis in Aedes aegypti and Ascogregarina sp. in Ae. albopictus populations in subtropical Argentina. The prevalence of parasitism by A. culicis in Ae. aegypti and Ascogregrarina sp. in Ae. albopictus was 34.81% (n = 464) and 37.23% (n = 70), respectively, differing between the seasons and habitats. The infection intensity caused by A. culicis and Ascogregarina sp. varied between 1 to 250 and 1 to 327 trophozoites respectively. Ascogregarina culicis was found throughout the all sampling period of Ae. aegypti (June 2016-April 2018). However the presence of Ascogregarina sp. in the midgut of Ae. albopictus was not recorded throughout the whole sampling period despite the presence of the host.


Assuntos
Aedes , Apicomplexa , Animais , Argentina , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , América do Sul
8.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54288

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To evaluate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection in pauci-symptomatic and asymptomatic people, the associated epidemiological factors, and IgG antibody kinetic over a 5-month period to get a better knowledge of the disease transmissibility and the rate of susceptible persons that might be infected. Methods. Seroprevalence was evaluated by a cross-sectional study based on the general population of Santa Fe, Argentina (non-probabilistic sample) carried out between July and November 2020. A subgroup of 20 seropositive individuals was followed-up to analyze IgG persistence. For the IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detection, the COVID-AR IgG® ELISA kit was used. Results. 3 000 individuals were included conforming asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic groups (n=1 500 each). From the total sample, only 8.83% (n=265) presented reactivity for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2. A significant association was observed between positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and a history of contact with a confirmed case; the transmission rate within households was approximately 30%. In the pauci-symptomatic group, among the seropositive ones, anosmia and fever presented an OR of 16.8 (95% CI 9.5-29.8) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.6-4.6), respectively (p <0.001). In asymptomatic patients, IgG levels were lower compared to pauci-symptomatic patients, tending to decline after 4 months since the symptoms onset. Conclusion. We observed a low seroprevalence, suggestive of a large population susceptible to the infection. Anosmia and fever were independent significant predictors for seropositivity. Asymptomatic patients showed lower levels of antibodies during the 5-month follow-up. IgG antibodies tended to decrease over the end of this period regardless of symptoms.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la seroprevalencia de la infección por el virus causante de la COVID-19 en personas paucisintomáticas y asintomáticas, los factores epidemiológicos asociados y la cinética de los anticuerpos IgG durante un período de cinco meses para conocer mejor la transmisibilidad de la enfermedad y la tasa de personas susceptibles a estar infectadas. Métodos. Se evaluó la seroprevalencia mediante un estudio transversal basado en la población general de Santa Fe, Argentina (muestra no probabilística) llevado a cabo entre julio y noviembre del 2020. Se realizó un seguimiento de un subgrupo de 20 personas seropositivas para analizar la persistencia de los anticuerpos IgG. Para la detección de los anticuerpos IgG contra SARS-COV-2, se empleó el kit ELISA COVID-AR IgG®. Resultados. Hubo 3 000 participantes divididos en un grupo asintomático y un grupo paucisintomático (n=1 500 cada grupo). De la muestra total, solo 8,83% (n=265) presentó una reactividad de IgG contra el SARS-CoV-2. Se observó una asociación significativa entre anticuerpos IgG positivos contra el SARS-CoV-2 y antecedente de contacto con un caso confirmado. La tasa de transmisión en el hogar fue de 30% aproximadamente. En el grupo paucisintomático, entre las personas seropositivas, la anosmia y la fiebre presentaron un OR de 16,8 (IC 95% 9,5-29,8) y 2,7 (IC 95% 1,6-4,6), respectivamente (p <0,001). En los pacientes asintomáticos, los niveles de IgG fueron inferiores en comparación con los pacientes paucisintomáticos, con tendencia a la baja pasados cuatro meses desde la aparición de los síntomas. Conclusiones. Se observó una seroprevalencia baja, indicadora de una gran población susceptible a la infección. La anosmia y la fiebre fueron factores predictivos independientes de relevancia para la seropositividad. Los pacientes asintomáticos mostraron niveles inferiores de anticuerpos durante el seguimiento de cinco meses. Los anticuerpos IgG tendieron a disminuir hacia el final del período con independencia de los síntomas.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar a soroprevalência de anticorpos contra a COVID-19 em indivíduos paucissintomáticos e assintomáticos, os fatores epidemiológicos associados e a cinética dos anticorpos da classe IgG em um período de 5 meses, visando aprimorar o conhecimento sobre a transmissibilidade da doença e a taxa de suscetíveis à infecção. Métodos. Inquérito transversal de soroprevalência realizado na população geral (amostra não probabilística) de Santa Fé, na Argentina, entre julho e novembro de 2020. Um subgrupo de 20 indivíduos soropositivos foi acompanhado para analisar a persistência de anticorpos IgG. O kit de ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) COVID-AR IgG® foi usado para a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2. Resultados. A amostra compreendeu 3 000 indivíduos, divididos entre assintomáticos e paucissintomáticos (n = 1.500 por grupo). Deste total, somente 8,83% (n = 265) apresentaram reatividade, com a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2. Observou-se uma associação significativa entre a presença de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2 e histórico de contato com caso confirmado. A taxa de transmissão intradomiciliar foi de aproximadamente 30%. No grupo paucissintomático, entre os soropositivos, o odds ratio (OR) para anosmia foi de 16,8 (IC 95% 9,5–29,8), e para febre, 2,7 (IC 95% 1,6–4,6) (p <0,001). Os indivíduos assintomáticos apresentaram níveis de IgG mais baixos que os paucissintomáticos, com uma tendência de declínio após 4 meses do início dos sintomas. Conclusões. Observou-se uma soroprevalência baixa de anticorpos contra a COVID-19 na população estudada, o que indica um grande número de pessoas suscetíveis à infecção. Anosmia e febre foram preditores importantes independentes de soropositividade. Os assintomáticos apresentaram níveis mais baixos de anticorpos aos 5 meses de acompanhamento. Houve uma tendência de redução dos anticorpos IgG ao final deste período, independentemente da presença de sintomas.


Assuntos
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Assintomáticas , Anosmia , Epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Argentina , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Assintomáticas , Epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Assintomáticas , Epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069124

RESUMO

The worldwide prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA) and prolonged sedentary behavior (SB) were high before the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Measures that were taken by governments (such as home confinement) to control the spread of COVID-19 may have affected levels of PA and SB. This cross-sectional study among South American adults during the first months of COVID-19 aims to (i) compare sitting time (ST), screen exposure, moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) before and during lockdown to sociodemographic correlates and (ii) to assess the impact of lockdown on combinations of groups reporting meeting/not-meeting PA recommendations and engaging/not-engaging excessive ST (≥7 h/day). Bivariate associations, effect sizes, and multivariable linear regressions were used. Adults from Argentina (n = 575) and Chile (n = 730) completed an online survey with questions regarding demographics, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases. Mean reductions of 42.7 and 22.0 min./day were shown in MPA and VPA, respectively; while increases of 212.4 and 164.3 min./day were observed in screen and ST, respectively. Those who met PA recommendations and spent <7 h/day of ST experienced greatest changes, reporting greater than 3 h/day higher ST and more than 1.5 h/day lower MVPA. Findings from the present study suggest that efforts to promote PA to South American adults during and after COVID-19 restrictions are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Argentina , Chile , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Postura Sentada
10.
Infez Med ; 29(2): 209-215, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061785

RESUMO

Information regarding predictors of a worse COVID-19 prognosis in the South American population is scarce. We aimed to determine whether the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with a worse clinical course of COVID-19, and to evaluate what clinical variables are associated with COVID severity in our population. We included adult subjects with rtPCR-confirmed COVID-19. The use of renin system inhibitors was defined according to its registration in the electronic medical record or the hospital pharmacy registry during the previous three months. Our endpoint was a composite of death or mechanical ventilation requirement. Patients were followed up until discharge or death. A multiple logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of the composite endpoint. In all, we included 4930 COVID+ patients, the median age was 52 years, and 48.1% were male. The endpoint occurred in 488 patients (9.9%). In adjusted analysis, neither angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors nor angiotensin receptor blockers were associated with the outcome. Independent predictors of mortality and/or mechanical ventilation requirement were age, male sex, a history of diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, smoking and dementia. To conclude, renin system inhibitors seem to be unrelated to COVID-19 severity, whereas prognosis is independently associated with age, male sex and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Cidades/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133569

RESUMO

The yellow clam is a sand-burrowing bivalve that inhabits the dissipative beaches from southern Brazil to the north coast of Argentina. In the last decades, populations of this species have been impacted by mass mortality events, overfishing and other anthropogenic activities. The production of juveniles in captivity would allow feasibility studies to be carried out to restore the natural stock as well as the production in aquaculture systems. Given the scarcity of studies on the maintenance of this species in captivity, a culture system and a management protocol were developed and tested. Wild-caught clams (total length ≥50 mm) were used in a series of 14 day-long trials. Survival was higher in clams that were allowed to bury into the sand. A permanent ink marker covered with a thin layer of a quick-hardening adhesive proved to be a reliable method to tag clams. The maintenance of yellow clams in this system resulted in high survival and growth, increases in the condition factor and oocyte diameter, and a relative advancement of gonadal development.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Argentina , Brasil , Pesqueiros
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076087

RESUMO

Basking and retreat sites constitute a key resource in the habitat of any ectotherm. Identifying the elements that are used and modelling the microhabitat selection of species is crucial for assessing the impact of anthropogenic disturbances at the population level and, therefore, focusing on conservation efforts. We investigated how structural attributes of the microhabitat and biotic factors influence the probability of basking and retreat sites use by Phymaturus palluma, a rock-dwelling and viviparous lizard endemic to the Central Andes of Argentina. We measured the characteristics of a series of rocks (basking sites) and shelters (retreat sites) in the study area and compared lizard resource use versus availability using resource selection analyses (RSFs). According to our best RSF model, P. palluma select high and large rocks as basking sites and prefer those near their retreat sites and far from the basking sites of their neighbours. In contrast, retreat site selection is related to the length, depth, slope, and width of the shelter. Microhabitat site selection of P. palluma is associated with behavioural improvements such as enhancing basking capacity, reducing both intraspecific competition with neighbours and predation risk.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Argentina , Ecossistema , Humanos
13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 24: 100567, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024383

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis of neonatal dairy calves causes diarrhea, resulting in important economic losses. In Argentina, prevalence values of Cryptosporidium spp. and other enteropathogens such as group A rotavirus (RVA), bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, endotoxin STa+), have been independently studied in different regions. However, an integrative epidemiological investigation on large-scale farms has not been carried out. In this study, fecal samples (n = 908) were randomly collected from diarrheic and healthy calves from 42 dairy farms, and analyzed for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, BCoV, ETEC (STa+) and Salmonella spp. In all sampled dairy farms, dams had been vaccinated against rotavirus and gram-negative bacteria to protect calves against neonatal diarrhea. The proportion of calves shedding Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, and BCoV in animals younger than 20 days of age were 29.8%, 12.4% and 6.4%, and in calves aged between 21 and 90 days, 5.6%, 3.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. ETEC was absent in the younger, and occurred only sporadically in the older group (0.9%), whereas Salmonella spp. was absent in both. The observed sporadic finding or even absence of bacterial pathogens might be explained by the frequent use of parenteral antibiotics in 25.3% and 6.5% of the younger and the older group of calves, respectively, within 2 days prior to sampling and/or vaccination of dams against gram-negative bacteria. Diarrhea was observed in 28.8% (95% CI, 24.7-32.8%) of the younger calves and 11.7% (95% CI, 9.1-15.5%) of the older calves. Importantly, Cryptosporidium spp. (odds ratio (OR) = 5.7; 95% CI, 3.3-9.9; p < 0.0001) and RVA (OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1; p < 0.05) were both found to be risk factors for diarrhea in calves younger than 20 days old. Based on its high prevalence and OR, our results strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. is the principal causative factor for diarrhea in the group of neonatal calves, whereas RVA seems to play a secondary role in the etiology of diarrhea in the studied farms, with about three-times lower prevalence and a half as high OR. Furthermore, a coinfection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. and RVA of 3.7% was observed in the group of younger calves, which strengthens the assumption that these events are independent. In contrast, due to a low infection rate of enteropathogens in older calves, mixed infection (<< 1%) was virtually absent in this group.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147317, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933765

RESUMO

Horticulture has greatly increased in Argentina in recent decades mainly due to increasing greenhouse utilization and agrochemical consumption, thus representing a threat to adjacent water bodies. Riparian wetlands, however, could attenuate agrochemical contamination. The present work therefore compared insecticide concentrations in bottom sediments in addition to sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella curvispina and investigated the macroinvertebrate composition upstream and downstream from a natural wetland in a small stream draining a basin undergoing intense horticultural production. The wetland surface was covered by macrophytes, mainly Thypha sp., and the insecticide concentrations measured downstream from the wetland were significantly lower, at roughly 19% of the upstream values. The growth rates of H. curvispina were significantly higher when exposed to the sediments downstream from the wetland, while the macroinvertebrate-assemblage composition was significantly different upstream and downstream: the snail Pomacea canaliculata was the dominant species upstream while the amphipod H. curvispina was dominant downstream. Pomacea canaliculata is often the dominant species in the regional streams draining agriculture and horticultural basins. Hyalella curvispina is sensitive to pesticide toxicity and is often dominant in streams draining extensive livestock basins and within a biosphere reserve. We conclude that riparian wetlands effectively attenuate horticulture contamination in pampean streams and should therefore be preserved and restored.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agricultura , Animais , Argentina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Horticultura , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147290, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940405

RESUMO

Micrococcus luteus SA211, isolated from the Salar del Hombre Muerto in Argentina, developed responses that allowed its survival and growth in presence of high concentrations of lithium chloride (LiCl). In this research, analysis of total genome sequencing and a comparative proteomic approach were performed to investigate the responses of this bacterium to the presence of Li. Through proteomic analysis, we found differentially synthesized proteins in growth media without LiCl (DM) and with 10 (D10) and 30 g/L LiCl (D30). Bi-dimensional separation of total protein extracts allowed the identification of 17 over-synthesized spots when growth occurred in D30, five in D10, and six in both media with added LiCl. The results obtained showed different metabolic pathways involved in the ability of M. luteus SA211 to interact with Li. These pathways include defense against oxidative stress, pigment and protein synthesis, energy production, and osmolytes biosynthesis and uptake. Furthermore, mono-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed differential protein synthesis at equivalent NaCl and LiCl concentrations, suggesting that this strain would be able to develop different responses depending on the nature of the ion. Moreover, the percentage of proteins with acidic pI predicted and observed was highlighted, indicating an adaptation to saline environments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relationship between protein synthesis and genome sequence analysis in response to Li, showing the great biotechnological potential that native microorganisms present, especially those isolated from extreme environments.


Assuntos
Micrococcus luteus , Proteômica , Argentina , Genômica , Lítio
17.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(3): 170-176, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033416

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: From an infectious perspective, children and adolescents were not highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social isolation measures have deeply changed their lifestyle, which is believed to have a psychological impact on them. The objective was to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the emotional health of children and adolescents attending primary or secondary school. POPULATION AND METHODS: Parents of children and adolescents from San Carlos de Bariloche participated in the study. Adults' perception of the emotional and behavioral impact of lockdown on children and adolescents, changes in sleeping habits, screen use, sports-related activities, eating, and medical consultations, was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 267 parents were included. Of them, 96.3 % noticed emotional and behavioral changes. The most common ones were that their children were more bored (76.8 %), more irritable (59.2 %), more reluctant (56.9 %), and angrier (54.7 %). It was observed that they woke up and went to bed later, and slept 30 minutes more. Moreover, leisure screen use increased by 3 hours on weekdays. Time dedicated to physical activities did not change, but the type of activities did: swimming and team sports were replaced by biking, walking, and skiing. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown affected the emotional health and habits of children and adolescents. Boredom, irritability, and reluctance were more present during lockdown. The possibility of doing outdoor physical activities allowed them to keep practicing sports.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Educação à Distância , Saúde Mental/tendências , Distanciamento Físico , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(3): 198-201, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033420

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The reduction in the number of visits to health care centers since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may affect mandatory vaccination. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the administration of the pentavalent and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines to children younger than 2 years at the vaccination center of a children's hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. METHOD: Cross-sectional study using the vaccination center's digital records from January to May 2019 and 2020. Results. In the second fortnight of March 2020, vaccinations dropped by 64.2 %. When examining the first dose of the pentavalent and MMR vaccines, such reduction was 74.9 % and 55.1 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: As of the second fortnight of March 2020, vaccinations dropped by 64.2 % compared to the same period of the previous year.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Esquemas de Imunização , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Vacinas Combinadas , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 1): e20200846, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008765

RESUMO

We present briefly the LLAMA sub-mm radiotelescope, a joint project of Argentina and Brazil, being mounted in the Andes, Argentina, at 4800 m altitude. Here we focus on the activities that are going on mostly under the responsibility of Brazil, like the high frequency receivers, parts of the back-end and electronics, the optical system of the telescope to bring the radiation to the receivers, the equipment needed for the integration and verification phase (optical telescope and holography) and the computation system.The main scientific applications that are planned are dscribed. We also report on a joint program with BRICS countries approved in 2019, which will involve the use of LLAMA for testing high-frequency receivers.


Assuntos
Telescópios , Argentina , Brasil
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 611152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046385

RESUMO

The extreme north of Chile presents a subtropical climate permissive of the establishment of potential disease vectors. Anopheles (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis is distributed from the south of the United States to the north of Argentina and Chile, and is one of the main vectors of malaria in Latin America. Malaria was eradicated from Chile in 1945. Nevertheless, the vector persists in river ravines of the Arica and Tarapacá regions. The principal effect of climate change in the north of Chile is temperature increase. Precipitation prediction is not accurate for this region because records were erratic during the last century. The objective of this study was to estimate the current and the projected distribution pattern of this species in Chile, given the potential impact due to climate change. We compiled distributional data for An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis and constructed species distribution models to predict the spatial distribution of this species using the MaxEnt algorithm with current and RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, using environmental and topographic layers. Our models estimated that the current expected range of An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis extends continuously from Arica to the north of Antofagasta region. Furthermore, the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 projected scenarios suggested that the range of distribution of An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis may increase in longitude, latitude, and altitude limits, enhancing the local extension area by 38 and 101%, respectively, and local presence probability (>0.7), from the northern limit in Arica y Parinacota region (18°S) to the northern Antofagasta region (23°S). This study contributes to geographic and ecologic knowledge about this species in Chile, as it represents the first local study of An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis. The information generated in this study can be used to inform decision making regarding vector control and surveillance programs of Latin America. These kinds of studies are very relevant to generate human, animal, and environmental health knowledge contributing to the "One Health" concept.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Argentina , Chile , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores
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