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1.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193596

RESUMO

La soledad y el apoyo social deficiente están reconocidos como predictores de morbimortalidad. Cuando una persona mayor vive sola y no recibe soporte familiar ni social para corregir desviaciones en su autocuidado, se produce una sobreutilización de servicios sanitarios y, posiblemente, un aumento de los ingresos hospitalarios. En 2018, el Consell de Salut del Centro de Salud (CS) República Argentina de Valencia realizó un estudio piloto de detección y abordaje de soledad no deseada en las personas del barrio en el que se estableció que un 45% de las personas que vivían solas y eran mayores de 75 años tendrían un posible diagnóstico de aislamiento social. OBJETIVOS: implementar una red comunitaria de voluntariado de acompañamiento-vigilancia en autocuidados para personas mayores con aislamiento social en el área del CS República Argentina, con el soporte del «Programa de acompañamiento en salud constante» (PASC) de la Cruz Roja, en colaboración con el centro de salud, y estudiar la relación entre soledad y salud. MÉTODOS: mediante un diseño escalado de detección y diagnóstico de aislamiento social, con la participación de técnicos de la Cruz Roja, profesionales del centro de salud y la colaboración de voluntariado de acompañamiento a personas mayores participantes. RESULTADOS: en 7 meses 1.200 personas fueron sensibilizadas de forma directa sobre la soledad y 49 voluntarios del barrio desarrollaron labores de acompañamiento y asistencia a talleres formativos y lúdicos. Los profesionales sanitarios analizaron 216 casos: 149 (69%) no se sintieron solos y 67 (31%) fueron diagnosticados de aislamiento social (código correspondiente a V64.01 según CIE-9). Participaron en el proyecto 54 personas (25%). Existe asociación entre la escala de detección de la soledad existencial (EDSOL) y la participación en el proyecto. La sensación de soledad no deseada presenta correlación positiva con problemas de movilidad, cronicidad y una tendencia de asociación con otras variables de salud (consumo elevado de fármacos, percepción negativa de calidad de vida, etc.). CONCLUSIONES: las intervenciones comunitarias promovidas desde el centro de salud sobre personas que viven solas contribuyen al abordaje del aislamiento no deseado y a su vez generan un barrio más solidario


Loneliness and poor social support are widely recognized as predictors of morbidity and mortality. When an elderly person lives alone and does not receive family or social support to correct minor deviations in basic self-care processes, this leads to overuse of health services and possibly, increased hospital admissions. In 2018, the Consell de Salut of the República Argentina Primary Health Centre in Valencia, began a pilot study to detect and tackle unwanted loneliness in people from the neighbourhood, in which it was established that 45% of people aged over 75 years old who lived alone may be diagnosed with social isolation. OBJECTIVES: To establish a community network of accompanying-surveillance volunteers in self-care for socially isolated elderly people in the area of the República Argentina Primary Care Centre with the support of the Red Cross Constant Health Accompaniment Programme. The specific objective is to study the relationship between loneliness and health. METHODS: Using a scaled design for the detection and diagnosis of social isolation, with the participation of the Red Cross technicians, professionals from the health center, and the collaboration of volunteer support for elderly participants. RESULTS: Over seven months a total of 1200 people have been directly made aware about loneliness and 49 volunteers from the neighbourhood performed accompaniment work and attended training and recreational workshops. Health professionals analyzed 216 cases, of which 149 (69%) did not feel alone and the remaining 67 (31%) were diagnosed with social isolation (code V64.01 according to ICD-9). A total of 54 (25%) agreed to take part in the project. An association was observed between the scale for detection of existential loneliness (EDSOL) and participation in the project. The feeling of unwanted loneliness correlates positively with mobility problems, chronicity and a tendency of association with other health variables such as high consumption of drugs and negative perception of quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Community interventions promoted by the Primary Health Centre on people who live alone contribute to tackling unwanted isolation, which at the same time generates a more supportive neighbourhood


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Redes Comunitárias , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Programas Voluntários , Agências Voluntárias , Solidão , Argentina , Qualidade de Vida
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The complexity of urbanization processes across Latin American societies encourages investigating its implications in health conditions, especially during childhood. One of the possible links between them is recreation, a component of the daily life of children and, therefore, essential to produce health and life itself. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between neighborhood context and active public park use among school-aged children in Cordoba, Argentina. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1466 children, aged 9 to 11, attending 19 schools and living in 110 neighborhoods. Multilevel models with Poisson distribution were used for the analyses, stratified by gender. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and physical covariates were included at the individual level, and socioeconomic neighborhood conditions at second level. RESULTS: Girls residing in neighborhoods with a worse socioeconomic context were less likely to report frequent public park use for physical activity, while those from neighborhoods with better socioeconomic conditions were more likely to, regardless of individual characteristics. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that socioeconomic conditions of neighborhoods are associated with public park use for physical activity in school-aged girls, demonstrating gender inequality in the use and appropriation of public spaces.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Zootaxa ; 4803(2): zootaxa.4803.2.7, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056022

RESUMO

Two species of a new genus of Rhinebothriidea have been collected from species of Psammobatis Günther along the coast of Argentina. Semiorbiseptum gen. nov. is considered a rhinebothriidean for the presence of facially loculated bothridia borne on stalks and cirrus covered with spinitriches. The genus is unique in the arrangement of loculi and septa on the distal bothridial surface, including semicircular septa in the middle region. Despite the anterior-posterior orientation of bothridia, Semiorbiseptum gen. nov. fits well in the description of the family Rhinebothriidae by lacking a myzorhynchus at the adult stage and postvaginal testes, and by having vitelline follicles that are not interrupted at the level of the ovary. The two new species differ from each other in the number of facial bothridial loculi and in the microthrix pattern on the proximal bothridial surface. Unlike the majority of rhinebothrideans in the marine environment, which show high specificity for their definitive host, Semiorbiseptum mariae sp. nov. was found in two species of Psammobatis, the smallthorn sand skate Psammobatis rudis Günther and shortfin sand skate Psammobatis normani McEachran. These species have a sympatric distribution, similar to the hosts of most rhinebothrideans that parasitize more than one host. On the contrary, Semiorbiseptum alfredoi sp. nov. was found only in P. normani. This study shows that some of the characters previously proposed as possible synapomorphies for the order have interspecific variability or can be equivocally interpreted (e.g. the entrance of the vas deferens into the cirrus sac, bothridial stalk shape).


Assuntos
Cestoides , Doenças dos Peixes , Rajidae , Animais , Argentina , Feminino , Masculino
4.
Zootaxa ; 4852(3): zootaxa.4852.3.9, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056419

RESUMO

To date, only one species of Temnocephala is known from Chile, Temnocephala chilensis, and three from southern Argentina (Patagonia), namely T. chilensis, Temnocephala dionii, and Temnocephala mexicana. Here we describe a new species of Temnocephala and provide an updated description of T. chilensis based on material found on an anomuran crab (Aeglidae) from southern Chile. Additional hosts and localities are reported for both species in southern Argentina and Chile, and a diagnostic key for all species of Temnocephala hosted on Aegla and Parastacidae is included as well. In southern Chile, both T. chilensis and the new species were found on the crayfish Samastacus spinifrons and on the anomuran crabs Aegla abtao and Aegla alacalufi; in addition, the new species was found on Aegla manni, and T. chilensis on Aegla rostrata. In southern Argentina, T. chilensis and the new species were found on Aegla riolimayana and S. spinifrons. Based on their shared traits (morphology of the penial stylet, host preferences and geographic distribution), the temnocephalans hosted in Aegla are tentatively gathered into two clusters, the Chilensis and Axenos groups.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Platelmintos , Turbelários , Animais , Argentina , Chile
5.
Zootaxa ; 4780(1): zootaxa.4780.1.5, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055758

RESUMO

Samples collected from Monte Hermoso, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina revealed the presence of specimens of the genus Franciscideres Dal Zotto et al., 2013, previously known only from Brazil. This morphotype seems to differ from the only known species, Franciscideres kalenesos Dal Zotto et al., 2013, in the following characters: (1) presence of ventrolateral tubes on segment 1, (2) introvert features, (3) each segment composed of a closed cuticular ring, (4) trunk cuticle ornamented by a secondary fringe of knob-like structures, (5) posterior margin of segment 10 ventrally terminating in two lateral and one broad triangular lobes, (6) posterior margin of segment 11 centrally terminating in four lobes (7) lateral terminal spines armed with thorn-like processes, (8) pores/sensory spots/gland cells distribution and (9) sexual dimorphism in segments 10 and 11. Because of the lack of full information about F. kalenesos from Brazil, we consider the new exemplars as Franciscideres cf. kalenesos. Additionally, we provide new information about the movement of this species using light microscopy and we compare these movements with those of other meiofaunal inhabitants.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Movimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Argentina , Microscopia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4810(3): zootaxa.4810.3.4, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055732

RESUMO

Helminthological examination of viscera of six freshwater fish species, collected from Misión la Paz, Pilcomayo River, Province of Salta, Argentina, revealed the presence of five species of parasitic nematodes belonging to the Camallanidae, Cystidicolidae, Cucullanidae and Anisakidae  The material also contained one unknown species, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) tomsici sp. nov. collected from Pimelodus albicans, Pygocentrus nattereri and Hoplias misionera. This species is distinguished from its congeners all over de world by possessing six pores distinctly surrounding the mouth aperture, a buccal capsule with 3-4 spiral thickenings complete, females possessing a lateral cuticular ornamentation along the body, and two pairs of preanal and three pairs of postanal papillae in males. The findings represent new hosts and geographical records.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Nematoides , Animais , Argentina , Feminino , Água Doce , Masculino , Rios
8.
Zootaxa ; 4808(3): zootaxa.4808.3.11, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055970

RESUMO

Loricariidae is a very diverse lineage of Neotropical fishes, being the most speciose family of the order Siluriformes. However, the loricariid fossil record is still very sparse. The aim of the present contribution is to describe in detail several bones belonging to the loricariid genus Acanthicus coming from late Miocene beds located at the Paraná River cliffs, Entre Ríos province, Argentina. Fishes of the Acanthicus clade are currently restricted to the northern half of South America, being mainly distributed in the Orinoco and Amazonas basins, with a single genus reaching the Paraná-Plata basin. Acanthicus adds to the list of several taxa that are shared by the Miocene of Paraná, Amazonas and Orinoco basins, but that nowadays are absent in the former (e.g., Colossoma, Phractocephalus, and Brachyplatystoma), and are typical of large river channels. This report of Acanthicus supports a close affinity between freshwater faunas of the Paraná, Orinoco, and Amazonas basins. Miocene fossils of freshwater fishes recorded in Paraná beds shed light on the connections between ancient basins of South America and also indicate that several fish clades suffered regional extinctions during the late Neogene or the beginning of the Quaternary.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Argentina , Fósseis , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4763(1): zootaxa.4763.1.11, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056885

RESUMO

A new species of amphipod, Ptilohyale corinne sp. nov. (Hyalidae) is described from the Bahía Blanca estuary (38°53'S, 62°07'W) in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Ptilohyale corinne sp. nov. can be differentiated from its valid congeners by having two posterior marginal cusps on coxa 2 and 3, and asymmetrical telson lobes with a particular combination of setae: each lobe with three dorsal plumose setae and one seta on inner margin. This is the first record of Ptilohyale in South America. Additionally a key to the valid species of the genus is provided.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Animais , Argentina , Brasil , Estuários
10.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 417-424, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048783

RESUMO

This is a preliminary, multicenter, retrospective cohort study, including 272 consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospitals in Buenos Aires Province, between May 15th and July 1st, 2020, included in an expanded access program to convalescent plasma. Our objectives were to analyze mortality and its independent risk factors, and to assess the occurrence of a favorable evolution, defined as hospital discharge, or stay at the ward, or transfer from ICU to ward. Patients were stratified int o 4 subgroups: admission to the ward with pneumonia and/or oxygen requirement (WARD; n = 100); ICU admission (ICU; n = 87); ICU admission with requirement of mechanical ventilation (ICU-MV; n = 56), and ICU-MV plus septic shock (ICU-MV-SS; N = 29). Mortality at 28 days was 26.1% for the entire group, 14.0% for WARD group, 18.4% for ICU, 44.6% for ICU-MV, and 55.2% for ICU-MV-SS. Mean survival time (days) was 25.6 ± 0.6 (WARD); 25.3 ± 0.7 (ICU); 20.8 ± 1.2 (ICU-MV) and 18.2 ± 1.8 (ICU-MV-SS). Independent predictors of mortality were MV, septic shock and weight. A favorable evolution occurred in 81.4% of WARD patients; in 70.9% of ICU; in 39.6% of ICU-MV and in 27.6% of ICU-MV-SS patients. Severity of illness on admission, age, weight and heart rate were independently associated with evolution. No major adverse effects were recorded. The lack of a control group precluded the estimation of efficacy. However, our 26% mortality rate was higher than that of the treatment arm of clinical trials comparing plasma with usual treatment, which might be ascribed to higher proportion of patients with MV and septic shock in our cohort.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 425-432, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048784

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to measures of social isolation, labor restrictions, a strong information campaign and the suspension of scheduled medical activities. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of these measures on the number of hospitalizations in Cardiovascular Intensive Care Units, with the hypothesis that the social behavior generated by this emergency promotes a decreased demand for medical care, even when severe cardiovascular disease is involved. We compared the number of admissions in March-April 2010-2019 versus March-April 2020, based on a prospective study including six institutions (three public and three private) that use Epi-Cardio® as a multicenter registry of cardiovascular care unit discharge. Altogether, we included 6839 patients discharged during the 11-year study period (2010-2020). The average number of patient admissions on March-April 2010-19 was 595 (CI 95%: 507-683) and decreased to 348 in 2020 (fall of 46.8%, p < 0.001). The reasons for hospitalization were classified into 11 groups and a statistically significant reduction was seen in 10 of these groups: cardiovascular surgery 72.3%, electrophysiological interventions 67.8%, non-ST acute coronary syndromes 52.6%, angioplasties 47.6%, arrhythmias 48.7%, heart failure 46%, atrial fibrillation 35.7%, ST elevation myocardial infarction 34.7%, non cardiac chest pain 31.8%, others 51.6%. Although with low prevalence, hypertensive crisis increased in 89%. The abrupt decrease observed in the number of admissions due to critical pathologies may be considered an "adverse effect" related to the measures adopted, with potentially severe consequences. This trend could be reversed by improving public communication and policy adjustment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Argentina/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 433-438, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048785

RESUMO

Infection with the SARS coronavirus type 2 (COVID-19) has a variety of presentations, with little data on the evolution of affected patients in Argentina. This is a retrospective and observational study of patients with virological confirmation of coronavirus treated during the months of March to May in a private third-level university hospital in Buenos Aires. O ne hundred and fifty-five adult patients were included, of which 30.3% attended only for a swab; 59.4% were admitted to the hospital and 10.3% were hospitalized at home with daily telephone follow-up. Fifty-four point two percent of participants were women and the median age was 35 years (ICQ 29 to 50). About 59.3% of patients had some risk factor, including age (65 years old or more), underlying chronic disease, were health workers or personnel/residents in a nursing home. The most frequent symptom was fever (75.9%), followed by cough (65.7%), and odyno phagia (48.2%). Globally, 93.5% experienced some symptoms while 17.6% of the participants presented some symptoms but without fever. Chest tomographies were performed to 5 patients. Their chest radiograph was normal or non-diagnostic. Fourteen patients required intensive therapy and 6 of them required mechanical ventilation, 4 of them died. The remaining 2 patients were referred to chronic care centers. No patient with home hospitalization required admission to hospital or died. While this observation is encouraging, it will need to be confirmed with new studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Hospitais Privados , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 439-441, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048786

RESUMO

During the SARSCoV-2 pandemic many drugs have been used as potential treatments in order to improve the clinical outcome and reduce the mortality. But since it is a currently unknown disease, the evidence about efficacy and safety is built as the drugs are prescribed. In this context, intensive pharmacovigilance allows early detection of adverse events, and thereby infer the safety profile of the indication. We conducted an observational, retrospective, single-center study involving adult patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. All adverse events detected in 23 patients in the Intensive Care Unit between March 15 and June 15, 2020 were registered. We describe type and severity of the adverse events and if treatment suspension was needed. The results show a high rate of adverse events (10/23, 43%) in treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir. In most cases early treatment suspension was required. Even though the limitations of our study derived from the small sample size, these results could help in building evidence about the safety of using lopinavir/ritonavir for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/efeitos adversos , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(5): 505-511, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048795

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires rapid medical responses. The risk of venous and arterial thromboembolism increases in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a hypercoagulable state that includes elevated levels of D-dimer, with an increased risk of organ failure and increased mortality. The abnormalities described in hemostasis should be considered for therapeutic decision making. We analyzed the available scientific evidence for the therapeutic approach of coagulopathy in the course of the disease with the objective of designing realistic therapeutic recommendations aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Tromboembolia/complicações , Argentina/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Citocinas , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Heparina , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sepse
15.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52915

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Estimar la tendencia de la mortalidad infantil, de la desigualdad entre jurisdicciones y de la desigualdad asociada a las condiciones sociales en Argentina entre 1980 y 2017. Métodos. Estudio ecológico y de serie temporal de la mortalidad infantil y de su desigualdad. Se obtuvieron los datos oficiales de mortalidad infantil, de nacimientos y de necesidades básicas insatisfechas; se calculó la tasa de mortalidad infantil, el índice de Gini y el índice de concentración. También se analizó la tendencia con un modelo de regresión lineal y se calculó el coeficiente de regresión y su significación estadística. Resultados. La mortalidad infantil se redujo 71,2% (de 32,41 a 9,34 por 1 000 nacidos vivos). La desigualdad por jurisdicción también se redujo y el índice de Gini pasó de 0,163 a 0,09. La desigualdad asociada a las condiciones sociales también mostró una reducción, y el índice de concentración disminuyó de -0,153 a -0,079. Si bien la mortalidad infantil se redujo en todo el período, este descenso no siempre se acompañó de una reducción del índice de Gini y del índice de concentración. Conclusiones. La tendencia de la tasa de mortalidad infantil fue al descenso mientras que la desigualdad en su distribución por jurisdicción y la desigualdad asociada a las condiciones sociales no siempre acompañaron esa reducción.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To estimate the trend in infant mortality, inequality between jurisdictions and inequality associated with social conditions in Argentina between 1980 and 2017. Methods. Ecological and time series study of infant mortality and its inequality. Official data on infant mortality, births and unmet basic needs were obtained; the infant mortality rate, the Gini index and the concentration index were calculated. The trend was also analyzed with a linear regression model and the regression coefficient and its statistical significance were calculated. Results. Infant mortality was reduced by 71.2% (from 32.41 to 9.34 per 1 000 live births). Inequality by jurisdiction also decreased, and the Gini index fell from 0,163 to 0,09. Inequality associated with social conditions also showed a reduction, and the concentration index was reduced from -0.153 to -0.079. Although infant mortality declined throughout the period, this decline was not always accompanied by a reduction in the Gini index and the concentration index. Conclusions. The trend in the infant mortality rate decreased while the inequality in its distribution by jurisdiction and the inequality associated with social conditions did not always accompany this reduction.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Equidade em Saúde , Iniquidade Social , Estudos Ecológicos , Argentina , Mortalidade Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Equidade em Saúde , Iniquidade Social , Estudos Ecológicos
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4918, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004800

RESUMO

In order to control and eradicate epidemic cholera, we need to understand how epidemics begin, how they spread, and how they decline and eventually end. This requires extensive sampling of epidemic disease over time, alongside the background of endemic disease that may exist concurrently with the epidemic. The unique circumstances surrounding the Argentinian cholera epidemic of 1992-1998 presented an opportunity to do this. Here, we use 490 Argentinian V. cholerae genome sequences to characterise the variation within, and between, epidemic and endemic V. cholerae. We show that, during the 1992-1998 cholera epidemic, the invariant epidemic clone co-existed alongside highly diverse members of the Vibrio cholerae species in Argentina, and we contrast the clonality of epidemic V. cholerae with the background diversity of local endemic bacteria. Our findings refine and add nuance to our genomic definitions of epidemic and endemic cholera, and are of direct relevance to controlling current and future cholera epidemics.


Assuntos
Cólera/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Argentina/epidemiologia , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Pandemias/história , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidade
17.
Neuquén; s.n; sept. 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1120652

RESUMO

CONTEXTO: Ante el avance de la pandemia COVID-19 muchas provincias argentinas se encuentran en el límite de saturación de su capacidad sanitaria, especialmente para los pacientes más críticos que requieren hospitalización, oxigenoterapia y asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM). Se han analizado distintas alternativas en los pacientes con hipoxemias moderadas a severas que no corrigen con máscara reservorio. METODOLOGÍA: Un equipo multidisciplinario e independiente de conflictos de interés con el proveedor de esta tecnología, y de tecnologías alternativas realizó una evaluación de tecnología sanitaria enfocada en responder las preguntas clínicas: 1. ¿Cuál es la eficacia de los cascos para ventilación no invasiva en los pacientes internados con COVID-19? 2. ¿Cuál es la seguridad de los cascos para ventilación no invasiva en los pacientes internados con COVID-19? 3. ¿Cuál es el costo y la factibilidad de incorporar cascos para ventilación no invasiva en los pacientes internados con COVID-19? 4. ¿Cuál es el potencial impacto en la red prestacional pública de los cascos para ventilación no invasiva en los pacientes internados con COVID-19? Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las principales bases de datos, en buscadores genéricos de internet, y financiadores de salud. Se dio prioridad a las Revisiones Sistemáticas (RS), evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS), evaluaciones económicas (EE), guías de práctica clínica (GPC), políticas de cobertura (PC) de diferentes sistemas de salud, ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA), y estudios observacionales, desde 2000 hasta agosto 2020 sin ninguna restricción de idioma. RESULTADOS: Descripción de la Tecnología: Este informe se centra en el casco marca ECLERIS, por tratarse de un dispositivo médico "de pared" que no requiere equipamiento mecánico complejo, por ser fabricado en Argentina, cuenta con autorización de la Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (ANMAT), y su adquisición es más factible en el contexto de pandemia. Tecnologías Alternativas: En el presente informe la tecnología no se compara con equipos de ARM, sino con la mejor alternativa disponible cuando estos ya no se encuentran disponibles, qué es escenario asumido. Estas alternativas pueden ser aquellos dispositivos que ofrecen oxígeno suplementario a presión atmosférica (máscaras y máscaras reservorio). No se compara en este caso la VNI con el respirador, ya que en este escenario se asume agotada la capacidad de respiradores. Pese a lo cual se incluirán en las búsquedas y análisis de estudios o guías que analicen la comparación entre VNI y ARM para buscar información sobre seguridad. Acerca del contexto, se analiza su utilización en salas de internación, guardia de emergencias y derivaciones en ambulancia. CONCLUSIÓN: La mayoría de las autoridades sanitarias recomiendan, cuando está disponible, la intubación precoz y ARM en los pacientes con neumonía grave y SDRA por COVID. Al analizar la eficacia en los pocos estudios identificados (de baja calidad), estos preferencian la VNI en contraposición a la intubación temprana, basada en evidencia indirecta (proveniente de pacientes con SARS y MERS) y en un estudio descriptivo de SARS-Cov2. En esos contextos mostrarían disminución de la mortalidad, aunque es necesario realizar más estudios. En el presente informe los cascos de VNI tipo ECLERIS no se comparan con equipos de ARM, sino con la mejor alternativa cuando estos ya no se encuentran disponibles, que es el escenario asumido y esperado. Estas alternativas pueden ser aquellos dispositivos que ofrecen oxígeno suplementario a presión atmosférica (máscaras y máscaras reservorio). La capacidad de limitar el tratamiento a pacientes seleccionados puede amplificar los beneficios potenciales reduciendo la tasa de fracaso. Si la combinación de hCPAP y la posición prona redujera la tasa de intubación, el sistema de salud podría mejorar la asignación de camas de UCI, otorgando un mejor tratamiento a todos los pacientes que necesitan asistencia ventilatoria.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Hipóxia/complicações , Argentina , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Análise Custo-Benefício
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 611, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870472

RESUMO

Indicators of ecosystem health are effective tools to assess freshwater ecosystem impairment. However, they are scarcely used as a monitoring tool by local environmental agencies in Argentina. Here, we review the literature to analyze the use of ecosystem health indicators in freshwaters from Argentina. We found 91 scientific articles relating to the use of ecological indices to assess the impact of different environmental stressors in aquatic environments published between 1996 and 2019. We generated Google Earth map where we deployed the sampling sites and type of indices reported by each article. As biological indices were the most used, we also surveyed bioindication experts to gather information on their application. We found that most studies were concentrated mainly in Pampas (34%), Dry Chaco (20%), Espinal (12%), and Patagonian Steppe (10%) ecoregions. Biological indices (mainly with invertebrates) were more used than geomorphological or physico-chemical indices. Indices resulted useful to evaluate the impact of stressors in 63% of cases, being land use the most studied stressor. However, sampling design varied greatly among studies, making their comparison difficult. The information compiled here could help to the design of monitoring protocols, the adoption of regional indices, and the creation of a national inventory of ecosystem health status, which are mandatory to propose well-grounded conservation and management policies for freshwaters in Argentina.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Argentina , Água Doce , Invertebrados
19.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(3): 176-181, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991105

RESUMO

Introduction: After the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak, global measures were implemented with the aim of containing its progression. On March 20, 2020, the mandatory preventive quarantine began in Argentina. As a result of these events, previous studies conducted in the framework of this pandemic in China, have shown psychological consequences. Methods: The aim of this study is to explore, through a self-administered electronic survey, attitudes and fears regarding COVID-19, the development of depressive symptoms and the pattern of alcohol consumption among the argentinian population during quarantine (n = 759). Results: As a result, we observed that fear of COVID-19 was greater in 55 to 59 years old people, with an abrupt drop above 70; that depressed mood and the increased of alcohol consumption were more frequent in youngest subjects, and that depressed mood was also frequent among subjects who lost their jobs during quarantine. Finally, we observed an elevated degree of agreement with the quarantine measure, even in some people who suffered a decrease in their income greater than 80% during quarantine. These results are useful for obtaining information about risk groups, enabling specific preventive and therapeutic strategies could be designed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia
20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(8): 1139-1145, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the scientific evidence on the disclosure of the diagnostic of adolescents infected by HIV/AIDS in the South American context. DATABASE: Systematic literature review using the PubMed, Cinahal, Embase, Cochrane, BVS, and Global Health databases and the descriptors: adolescent and HIV and family and Argentina or Bolivia or Brasil or Chile or Colombia or Ecuador or French Guiana or Paraguay or Peru or Uruguay or Venezuela. DATA SYNTHESIS: Brasil was the country highlighted. It was verified that parents have a direct and indirect influence over the adolescents' life, especially regarding behaviors and health care. Dialog among family members can reduce adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and encourage diagnostic disclosure. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to amplify research involving adolescents with HIV/AIDS and their parents/caregivers and family members to improve care and reduce the cases of the disease. It is suggested that policies of prevention and treatment should involve families, caregivers, partners, and the community.


Assuntos
Revelação , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Argentina , Brasil , Chile , HIV , Humanos , Peru , Venezuela
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