Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.148
Filtrar
1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2345-2354, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231744

RESUMO

El suicidio constituye una de las principales causas de muerte por lesiones en Argentina y existen pocos estudios que analicen las variaciones geográficas intra-urbanas en países en desarrollo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre el suicidio y el nivel socioeconómico y la fragmentación social en áreas pequeñas de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA) durante el período 2011-2015. Se realizó un estudio ecológico utilizando datos sobre registros de suicidio en población residente de la CABA disponibles en el Ministerio de Seguridad de la Nación. Se llevó a cabo una regresión múltiple espacial para poner a prueba la relación entre el suicidio e indicadores de nivel socioeconómico y de fragmentación social por área. El riesgo de suicidio estuvo asociado positivamente a mayores índices de fragmentación social, mientras no mostró relación con el índice de pobreza. Los resultados de este estudio apoyan la hipótesis de fragmentación social como un factor asociado positivamente al aumento del suicidio a nivel intra-urbano en ciudades de países en desarrollo.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Argentina/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Medwave ; 21(4): e8192, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259723

RESUMO

Introduction: On March 19, 2020, a mandatory lockdown was imposed in Argentina due to the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Objectives: To explore the elderlys healthcare experiences during the lockdown and the problems that may have arisen regarding accessibility to the healthcare system and emerging adaptations to medical care. Methods: We coded the data using Atlas.ti 8 software and then triangled the analysis among researchers from different backgrounds. Finally, concept maps were developed and themes arising from these were described. Results: Thirty-nine participants were interviewed from the metropolitan area in Buenos Aires from April to July of 2020. The main emerging themes were: 1) access to regularly scheduled consults, 2) access to chronic medication, 3) emergency consultations, and 4) the role of information and communication technologies. Accessibility to the healthcare system was compromised due to reduced outpatient consultations, affecting health checkups, diagnosis, and treatment. However, participants tried to keep their immunizations up to date. Information and communication technologies were used to fill digital prescriptions and online medical consultations. While this was a solution to many, others did not have access to these technologies or had trouble using them. Conclusions: The global pandemic caused a reduction in outpatient medical consultations. Emerging needs originated new ways of carrying out medical consultations, mainly through information and communication technologies, which was a solution for many but led to the exclusion of others because of the preexisting technology gap.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Quarentena , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Agendamento de Consultas , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Prescrição Eletrônica , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Tecnologia da Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribuição , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Telemedicina , Vacinação
3.
Medwave ; 21(4): e8186, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259722

RESUMO

Introduction: On March 19, 2020, preventive and mandatory social isolation was decreed in Argentina in response to the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the disease it causes (COVID-19). This measure aimed to reduce the transmission of the virus and the resulting severe respira-tory condition that frequently besets older adults. However, this measure can also affect the support networks of these isolated people. Objectives: To explore the emerging needs related to the mental health of isolated older adults in this period and to identify the main support networks they have and the emerging coping strategies in the face of the situation. Methodology: We carried out an exploratory qualitative study, summoning participants over 60 years of age. Using snowball sampling, a group of researchers contacted them by phone to collect data. The analysis of the findings was triangulated among researchers with different academic backgrounds (medicine, psychology, and sociology). The concepts emerging from the interviews were linked in conceptual networks using an inductive methodology and were mapped into conceptual frameworks available to researchers. Atlas.ti 8 software was used for coding. Results: Thirty-nine participants belonging to the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area were interviewed between April and July 2020. For greater clarity, the main themes were described in five cross-sectional axes: network configurations, resources and coping strategies, affective states and emo-tions, perceptions and reflections on the future, and actions emerging from the participatory approach. Participants reported distress, anxiety, anger, uncertainty, exhaustion, and expressed fear of contagion from themselves and their loved ones. We identify greater vulnerability in people living alone, in small and closed environments, with weak linkages and networks, or limited access to technologies. We also found vari-ous coping strategies and technology was a fundamental factor in maintaining the bonds. Conclusions: The findings of this research have implications for decision-making at the individual level, health systems, professional care, and policy devel-opment. Future research may elucidate the regional, temporal, and socioeconomic variations of the phenomena explored in our research.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Relações Familiares , Medo , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Sociais Online , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Quarentena/psicologia , Rede Social , Participação Social , Apoio Social
4.
Public Health ; 195: 118-122, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a longitudinal study to analyze emotions that are related to the development of creative activities during isolation and social distancing that are associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: The study was performed in two stages: beginning of isolation (April 2020) and 6 months later during the social distancing period (September 2020). METHODS: A total of 305 people who resided in medium-sized cities (population: 50,000 to one million) in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, participated in the study. In the first stage, the participants answered an online questionnaire about creative activities in which they engaged during isolation. In the second stage, semistructured interviews were conducted that asked about changes in life, creative processes, and new endeavors during the social distancing period. RESULTS: In April 2020, positive emotions were associated with the development of creative activities. In September 2020, a predominance of negative emotions that were related to economic, family, and personal difficulties was observed. However, some positive emotions that are related to the development of new ventures and the consolidation of healthy and sustainable habits were also found. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the value of creativity as a resilience factor in the development of new projects and postponed activities. Our findings may contribute to the design and development of policies and programs to promote mental health in times of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Criatividade , Emoções , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(3): 311-317, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137688

RESUMO

Adherence to prescribed treatment in chronic diseases, as occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS), is a critical factor for a successful therapeutic response. The objective of this study was to evalua te the association between demographic variables and adherence to treatment of the population of MS patients in Argentina. A retrospective cohort study of MS patients who received treatment with disease-modifying drugs, included in the drug dispensing database of the National Care Medical Program: PAMI (Programa Asistencia Médica Integral), was conducted. Optimal adherence was defined as an acquisition of the drug greater than 80% during a 9-month follow-up. A total of 648 patients were included, mean age 55 years (IQR 46-64), 59.4% women. The mean adherence to treatment was 67% (IQR 44-89) and optimal adherence was documented only in 35.5% of cases. Adherence to injectable medications was 10% lower than that of oral drugs (p = 0.0001) and the use of original brands was associated with 7.4% greater adherence than with generic drugs (p = 0.001). In conclusion, adherence to treatment has been suboptimal. In the Patagonian region, the use of injectables and generic drugs was associated with lower adherence to therapy. These data are very important in order to planning socio-sanitary programs that aim to increase therapeutic adherence.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(3): 375-381, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137696

RESUMO

Acute coronary syndromes without coronary lesions have gained relevance in recent years. However, local data on this condition is scarce. We aimed to explore this entity in a National registry of acute myocardial infarction that was carried out prospectively in hospitals with cardiology residence programs from Argentina. We included 1182 patients from 45 centers, where 33 did not present coronary lesions on angiography. The mean age was 64.5 ±13.0 and 69.7% were male, without differences compared to participants with epicardial disease. The most common electrocardiographic presentation was ST segment deviation. In addition, presented lower biomarkers (peak CPK 203.5 IU / l, range [IQR] 102-422.5 vs. 895.5 IU / l IQR 350-1891, p < 0.0001). The median hospitalization was 4.0 days (IQR 3-5.5), lower than the group with intermediate and severe coronary disease (5.5 days, RIC 4-7, and 6, RIC 4-7, p = 0.003). At discharge, less use of ACE/ARB (54.6% vs.78.0% y 79.7%, p = 0.002) and statins (78.8% vs. 87.9% y 91.9%, p = 0.017). No deaths during hospitalization were reported. Our data suggested that infarcts without significant coronary lesions are frequent, although they are probably underdiagnosed. Their prognosis seems to be more favorable, but they receive fewer drugs to prevent recurrence. New studies are necessary to deepen the knowledge of the disease.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários , Infarto do Miocárdio , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Argentina/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
7.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(3): 389-395, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137698

RESUMO

Influenza infection is a latent public health problem, affecting millions of people throughout the world, which imposes high morbidity and economic burden on the region. In Argentina, influenza-associated mortality is estimated at 6/100 000 person-years, and is higher among men = 65 years old. The knowledge of the baseline characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients is crucial for public health officials planning interventions to address local outbreaks. Thus, in this retrospective, single-center study, performed in a highcomplexity university hospital, we aimed to analyze clinical characteristics, image findings, and laboratory variables of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization in our hospital during 2019. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. One hundred and forty-three patients with influenza were hospitalized during the study period; 141 (98.6%) were infected with influenza virus type A, including 88 (61.5%) with the H1N1 subtype. The median age was 71 years (IQR 60- 82), 111 (77.6%) were older than 70 years, and 126 (88.1%) had at least one coexisting illness; 56 (39.1%) patients required intensive care unit, 16 (11.1%) invasive mechanical ventilation, and 6 (4.1%) died during hospitalization. In this study, in-hospital mortality was similar to that reported in previous series of non-pandemic influenza, even though the majority of the cases in this study were older than 70 years and had at least one coexisting illness.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
8.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(3): 408-414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137701

RESUMO

This study describes the incidence of early events supposedly attributable to vaccination or immunization (ESAVI) that occurred in healthcare workers who had been inoculated with the first component of the Sputnik V vaccine. Safety at 72 h post-immunization was analyzed based on a self-reported form. Between January 5 and January 20, 2021, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, a total of 707 healthcare workers (median age 35 yrs, female 67%) were vaccinated. The response rate was 96.6% (n: 683) and 487 (71.3%) participants reported at least one ESAVI. The incidence rate was 6.3 per 1000 person/hours. The total number of ESAVIs was 1434. A total of 469 local reactions were reported, 57% of the participants reported pain at the injection site, and 11% had redness and swelling. A total of 968 systemic reactions were informed, including new or worsened muscle pain, referred by 58% of the participants, fever referred by 40%, and diarrhea referred by 5%. Five percent (n: 34) had serious adverse events and one participant had to be hospitalized. The ESAVI rate was higher in females than males (66.4% versus 51.4%; HR 1.38; 95% CI 1.13-5.38) and in workers younger than 55 yrs old (63.0% versus 28.0%; HR 2.66; 95% CI 1.32-5.38). This study demonstrates high rates of early local and systemic reactions. However, serious events were rare. Studies on long-term safety, stratified by sex and age, are needed.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunização , Masculino , Vacinação
9.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(3): 432-437, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137705

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to pose a challenge to the efforts of public health agencies by increasing their impact on the health of the affected communities. The common feature of VBDs is that the only way of preventing them is by avoiding the contact between vectors and humans. There are no vaccines, and they will not be available shortly as tools for prevention and control in Argentina. Although dengue outbreaks attracted the attention of mass media from 2009, other VBDs have been affecting public health in Argentina for many decades, as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Over these, and others that could potentially settle in the national territory (West Nile, Lyme, etc.), there are repeated mass media claims and political declarations justifying their increase because of climate changes. The argument asserts that the "tropicalization" of the climate in temperate regions promotes the installation of VBDs in areas previously unfavorable for them. Although much evidence exists showing that the climate is changing, there is very little evidence that the climate is the main factor promoting the increase of VBDs. In this article, the influence of the so-called climate change on the situation of disease vectors in Argentina (with emphasis on triatomines) and vector control activities implemented by governmental public health agencies are discussed.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Argentina/epidemiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Saúde Pública
10.
J Clin Neurosci ; 89: 360-364, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088579

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to describe the frequency of aggressive multiple sclerosis (aMS) as well as to compare clinical and radiological characteristics in aMS and non-aMS patients included in RelevarEM (NCT03375177). METHODS: The eligible study population and cohort selection included adult-onset patients (≥18 years) with definite MS. AMS were defined as those reaching confirmed EDSS ≥ 6 within 5 years from symptom onset. Confirmation was achieved when a subsequent EDSS ≥ 6 was recorded at least six months later but within 5 years of the first clinical presentation. AMS and non-aMS were compared using the χ2 test for categorical and the Mann-Whitney for continuous variables at MS onset and multivariable analysis was performed using forward stepwise logistic regression with baseline characteristics at disease onset. RESULTS: A total of 2158 patients with MS were included: 74 aMS and 2084 non-aMS. The prevalence of aMS in our cohort was 3.4% (95%CI 2.7-4.2). AMS were more likely to be male (p = 0.003), older at MS onset (p < 0.001), have primary progressive MS (PPMS) phenotype (p = 0.03), multifocal presentation (p < 0.001), and spinal cord as well as infratentorial lesions at MRI during disease onset (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively). CONCLUSION: 3.4% of our patient population could be considered aMS. Men, patients older at symptom onset, multifocal presentation, PPMS phenotype, and spinal cord as well as brainstem lesions on MRI at clinical presentation all had higher odds of having aMS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia
11.
Infez Med ; 29(2): 209-215, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061785

RESUMO

Information regarding predictors of a worse COVID-19 prognosis in the South American population is scarce. We aimed to determine whether the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with a worse clinical course of COVID-19, and to evaluate what clinical variables are associated with COVID severity in our population. We included adult subjects with rtPCR-confirmed COVID-19. The use of renin system inhibitors was defined according to its registration in the electronic medical record or the hospital pharmacy registry during the previous three months. Our endpoint was a composite of death or mechanical ventilation requirement. Patients were followed up until discharge or death. A multiple logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of the composite endpoint. In all, we included 4930 COVID+ patients, the median age was 52 years, and 48.1% were male. The endpoint occurred in 488 patients (9.9%). In adjusted analysis, neither angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors nor angiotensin receptor blockers were associated with the outcome. Independent predictors of mortality and/or mechanical ventilation requirement were age, male sex, a history of diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, smoking and dementia. To conclude, renin system inhibitors seem to be unrelated to COVID-19 severity, whereas prognosis is independently associated with age, male sex and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Cidades/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
12.
Medwave ; 21(4): e8186, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086666

RESUMO

Introduction: On March 19, 2020, preventive and mandatory social isolation was decreed in Argentina in response to the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the disease it causes (COVID-19). This measure aimed to reduce the transmission of the virus and the resulting severe respira-tory condition that frequently besets older adults. However, this measure can also affect the support networks of these isolated people. Objectives: To explore the emerging needs related to the mental health of isolated older adults in this period and to identify the main support networks they have and the emerging coping strategies in the face of the situation. Methodology: We carried out an exploratory qualitative study, summoning participants over 60 years of age. Using snowball sampling, a group of researchers contacted them by phone to collect data. The analysis of the findings was triangulated among researchers with different academic backgrounds (medicine, psychology, and sociology). The concepts emerging from the interviews were linked in conceptual networks using an inductive methodology and were mapped into conceptual frameworks available to researchers. Atlas.ti 8 software was used for coding. Results: Thirty-nine participants belonging to the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area were interviewed between April and July 2020. For greater clarity, the main themes were described in five cross-sectional axes: network configurations, resources and coping strategies, affective states and emo-tions, perceptions and reflections on the future, and actions emerging from the participatory approach. Participants reported distress, anxiety, anger, uncertainty, exhaustion, and expressed fear of contagion from themselves and their loved ones. We identify greater vulnerability in people living alone, in small and closed environments, with weak linkages and networks, or limited access to technologies. We also found vari-ous coping strategies and technology was a fundamental factor in maintaining the bonds. Conclusions: The findings of this research have implications for decision-making at the individual level, health systems, professional care, and policy devel-opment. Future research may elucidate the regional, temporal, and socioeconomic variations of the phenomena explored in our research.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Relações Familiares , Medo , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Sociais Online , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Quarentena/psicologia , Rede Social , Participação Social , Apoio Social
13.
Medwave ; 21(4): e8192, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086668

RESUMO

Introduction: On March 19, 2020, a mandatory lockdown was imposed in Argentina due to the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Objectives: To explore the elderlys healthcare experiences during the lockdown and the problems that may have arisen regarding accessibility to the healthcare system and emerging adaptations to medical care. Methods: We coded the data using Atlas.ti 8 software and then triangled the analysis among researchers from different backgrounds. Finally, concept maps were developed and themes arising from these were described. Results: Thirty-nine participants were interviewed from the metropolitan area in Buenos Aires from April to July of 2020. The main emerging themes were: 1) access to regularly scheduled consults, 2) access to chronic medication, 3) emergency consultations, and 4) the role of information and communication technologies. Accessibility to the healthcare system was compromised due to reduced outpatient consultations, affecting health checkups, diagnosis, and treatment. However, participants tried to keep their immunizations up to date. Information and communication technologies were used to fill digital prescriptions and online medical consultations. While this was a solution to many, others did not have access to these technologies or had trouble using them. Conclusions: The global pandemic caused a reduction in outpatient medical consultations. Emerging needs originated new ways of carrying out medical consultations, mainly through information and communication technologies, which was a solution for many but led to the exclusion of others because of the preexisting technology gap.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Quarentena , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Agendamento de Consultas , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Prescrição Eletrônica , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Tecnologia da Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribuição , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Telemedicina , Vacinação
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067018

RESUMO

Increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods can lead to inadequate intakes of shortfall nutrients, including vitamin A, D, C, and E, dietary folate, calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, and fiber. The objective was to examine the prevalence of inadequate intake of shortfall nutrients and identify food sources of shortfall nutrients in eight Latin American countries. Data from ELANS, a multi-country, population-based study of 9218 adolescents and adults were used. Dietary intake was collected through two 24 h Recalls from participants living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Foods and beverages were classified using the adapted version of the NHANES "What We Eat in America" system. Nutrients inadequacy was estimated using the Institute of Medicine recommendations and descriptive statistics were calculated. Prevalence of inadequacy was above 50% for most of the nutrients, which the exception of vitamin C with a prevalence of inadequacy of 39%. Milk, cheese, seafoods, breads, and fruit juices/drinks were among the top 5 sources for each of the 10 shortfall nutrients examined. Many food categories were top contributors to more than one dietary component examined. Understanding the nutrient intake and food sources can help inform dietary guidance and intervention approaches.


Assuntos
Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil , Chile , Colômbia , Equador/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Peru , Venezuela , Vitaminas
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069136

RESUMO

Wild bird species have commonly been implicated as potential vectors of pathogens to other species, humans included. However, the habitat where birds live could influence the probability to acquire these pathogens. Here, we evaluated if the characteristics of the environment used by obligate scavenging birds (vultures) influence their colonization by zoonotic pathogens. For this, we particularly focused on Salmonella spp., a zoonotic pathogen commonly present in bird species. The occurrence of this bacteria was evaluated in free ranging Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) using natural environments from Argentina and compared with those obtained from condors under human care. In addition, we compared our results with those reported for other wild vultures using natural and anthropized environments at a global scale. We did not find Salmonella spp. in samples of wild condors. Captive condor samples presented Salmonella spp. with an occurrence of 2.8%, and one isolate of Meticilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, among other potential pathogenic microorganisms. Moreover, some species of free ranging vultures from diverse geographical areas using anthropized environments tend to present higher occurrences of Salmonella spp. These results highlight the importance of pristine ecosystems to protect vultures' health toward pathogenic microorganisms that can produce disease in these birds, but also in other species. We call for more studies evaluating differences in occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in vultures according to the quality of the environment they use. Even when vultures have not been implicated in zoonotic pathogen spread, our results add information to evaluate potential events of pathogen spillover between vultures and from these birds to other species.


Assuntos
Falconiformes , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Aves , Ecossistema , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064880

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Latin America, tobacco smoking prevalence is between 6.4% and 35.2%. Governments have been making efforts to support the regulation of advertising and, in many cases, banning advertising and promotion of tobacco altogether. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact on health and economic outcomes of optimizing a ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. METHODS: We built a probabilistic microsimulation model, considering natural history, direct health system costs, and quality of life impairment associated with main tobacco-related diseases. We followed individuals in hypothetical cohorts and calculated health outcomes on an annual basis to obtain aggregated 10-year population health outcomes (deaths, events, healthy years of life) and costs. To populate the model, we performed a rapid review of literature to calculate intervention effectiveness. RESULTS: With current policies, over 10 years, in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia a total of 50,000 deaths and 364,000 disease events will be averted, saving $7.2 billion. If the seven countries strengthened their policies and implemented a comprehensive ban with 100% compliance, 98,000 deaths and 648,000 events would be averted over 10 years, saving almost $15 billion in healthcare costs. CONCLUSIONS: Optimizing a ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship would substantially reduce deaths, diseases, and health care costs attributed to smoking. Latin American countries should not delay the full implementation of this strategy.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Tabaco , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Brasil , Chile/epidemiologia , Colômbia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , México , Peru , Políticas , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 198-201, Junio 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222980

RESUMO

Introducción. El menor número de consultas a los centros de atención desde el comienzo de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2podría afectar la vacunación obligatoria.Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2en la administración de vacunas pentavalente y triple viral a niños menores de 2 años en el vacunatorio de un hospital pediátrico de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.Método. Estudio transversal, que utilizó registros informatizados del vacunatorio, de enero a mayo de 2019 y 2020.Resultados. Desde la segunda quincena de marzo de 2020, se observó un 64,2 % de disminución en la aplicación de vacunas. Al examinar la primera dosis de pentavalente y triple viral, la reducción fue del 74,9 % y del 55,1 %, respectivamente.Conclusión. A partir de la segunda quincena de marzo de 2020, se observó una disminución del 64,2 % en las vacunas aplicadas respecto del mismo período en el año anterio


Introduction. The reduction in the number of visits to health care centers since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may affect mandatory vaccination.Objective. To assess the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the administration of the pentavalent and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines to children younger than 2 years at the vaccination center of a children's hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.Method. Cross-sectional study using the vaccination center's digital records from January to May 2019 and 2020.Results. In the second fortnight of March 2020, vaccinations dropped by 64.2 %. When examining the first dose of the pentavalent and MMR vaccines, such reduction was 74.9 % and 55.1 %, respectively.Conclusion. As of the second fortnight of March 2020, vaccinations dropped by 64.2 % compared to the same period of the previous year.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinas Combinadas , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Argentina/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 170-176, Junio 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222869

RESUMO

Introducción. Los jóvenes no fueron muy afectados desde el punto de vista infeccioso por la pandemia de COVID-19. Sin embargo, las medidas de aislamiento social modificaron de manera profunda su estilo de vida, y se cree que esto los afecta psicológicamente. El objetivo fue evaluar el impacto del aislamiento por COVID-19en la salud emocional de jóvenes en escolaridad primaria o secundaria.Población y métodos. Participaron del estudio padres de jóvenes de San Carlos de Bariloche. Se evaluó la percepción del adulto sobre el impacto emocional y de comportamiento del aislamiento sobre el joven, cambio de hábitos de sueño, uso de pantallas, actividades deportivas y alimentación y de asistencia a consulta médica.Resultados. Se incluyeron 267 padres. El 96,3 % observó cambios emocionales y de comportamiento. Los más frecuentes fueron que estaban más aburridos (el 76,8 %), irritables (el 59,2 %), desganados (el 56,9 %) y enojados (el 54,7 %). Se observó que se levantaban y acostaban más tarde y dormían 30 minutos más. Además, el uso de pantallas por esparcimiento aumentó 3 horas durante los días hábiles. El tiempo dedicado a la actividad física no varió, pero sí cambió el tipo de actividades: la natación y los deportes de equipo fueron reemplazados por ciclismo, caminatas y esquí.Conclusiones. El aislamiento por COVID-19impactó sobre la salud emocional y los hábitos de los jóvenes. El aburrimiento, la irritabilidad y el desgano estuvieron más presentes durante el aislamiento. La posibilidad de realizar actividades al aire libre permitió que continuaran practicando deportes.


Introduction. From an infectious perspective, children and adolescents were not highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social isolation measures have deeply changed their lifestyle, which is believed to have a psychological impact on them. The objective was to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the emotional health of children and adolescents attending primary or secondary school.Population and methods. Parents of children and adolescents from San Carlos de Bariloche participated in the study. Adults' perception of the emotional and behavioral impact of lockdown on children and adolescents, changes in sleeping habits, screen use, sports-related activities, eating, and medical consultations, was assessed.Results. A total of 267 parents were included. Of them, 96.3 % noticed emotional and behavioral changes. The most common ones were that their children were more bored (76.8 %), more irritable (59.2 %), more reluctant (56.9 %), and angrier (54.7 %). It was observed that they woke up and went to bed later, and slept 30 minutes more. Moreover, leisure screen use increased by 3 hours on weekdays. Time dedicated to physical activities did not change, but the type of activities did: swimming and team sports were replaced by biking, walking, and skiing.Conclusions. COVID-19 lockdown affected the emotional health and habits of children and adolescents. Boredom, irritability, and reluctance were more present during lockdown. The possibility of doing outdoor physical activities allowed them to keep practicing sports


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Educação à Distância , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Pandemias , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia
19.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 24: 100567, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024383

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis of neonatal dairy calves causes diarrhea, resulting in important economic losses. In Argentina, prevalence values of Cryptosporidium spp. and other enteropathogens such as group A rotavirus (RVA), bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, endotoxin STa+), have been independently studied in different regions. However, an integrative epidemiological investigation on large-scale farms has not been carried out. In this study, fecal samples (n = 908) were randomly collected from diarrheic and healthy calves from 42 dairy farms, and analyzed for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, BCoV, ETEC (STa+) and Salmonella spp. In all sampled dairy farms, dams had been vaccinated against rotavirus and gram-negative bacteria to protect calves against neonatal diarrhea. The proportion of calves shedding Cryptosporidium spp., RVA, and BCoV in animals younger than 20 days of age were 29.8%, 12.4% and 6.4%, and in calves aged between 21 and 90 days, 5.6%, 3.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. ETEC was absent in the younger, and occurred only sporadically in the older group (0.9%), whereas Salmonella spp. was absent in both. The observed sporadic finding or even absence of bacterial pathogens might be explained by the frequent use of parenteral antibiotics in 25.3% and 6.5% of the younger and the older group of calves, respectively, within 2 days prior to sampling and/or vaccination of dams against gram-negative bacteria. Diarrhea was observed in 28.8% (95% CI, 24.7-32.8%) of the younger calves and 11.7% (95% CI, 9.1-15.5%) of the older calves. Importantly, Cryptosporidium spp. (odds ratio (OR) = 5.7; 95% CI, 3.3-9.9; p < 0.0001) and RVA (OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1; p < 0.05) were both found to be risk factors for diarrhea in calves younger than 20 days old. Based on its high prevalence and OR, our results strongly suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. is the principal causative factor for diarrhea in the group of neonatal calves, whereas RVA seems to play a secondary role in the etiology of diarrhea in the studied farms, with about three-times lower prevalence and a half as high OR. Furthermore, a coinfection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. and RVA of 3.7% was observed in the group of younger calves, which strengthens the assumption that these events are independent. In contrast, due to a low infection rate of enteropathogens in older calves, mixed infection (<< 1%) was virtually absent in this group.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Coronavirus Bovino/patogenicidade , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10024, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225517

RESUMO

We have studied the dynamic evolution of the Covid-19 pandemic in Argentina. The marked heterogeneity in population density and the very extensive geography of the country becomes a challenge itself. Standard compartment models fail when they are implemented in the Argentina case. We extended a previous successful model to describe the geographical spread of the AH1N1 influenza epidemic of 2009 in two essential ways: we added a stochastic local mobility mechanism, and we introduced a new compartment in order to take into account the isolation of infected asymptomatic detected people. Two fundamental parameters drive the dynamics: the time elapsed between contagious and isolation of infected individuals ([Formula: see text]) and the ratio of people isolated over the total infected ones (p). The evolution is more sensitive to the [Formula: see text]parameter. The model not only reproduces the real data but also predicts the second wave before the former vanishes. This effect is intrinsic of extensive countries with heterogeneous population density and interconnection.The model presented has proven to be a reliable predictor of the effects of public policies as, for instance, the unavoidable vaccination campaigns starting at present in the world an particularly in Argentina.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...