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1.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(17): e0088521, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160281

RESUMO

The mud cellar creates a unique microenvironment for the fermentation of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Recent research and long-term practice have highlighted the key roles of microbes inhabiting pit mud in the formation of SFB's characteristic flavor. A positive correlation between the quality of SFB and cellar age was extracted from practice; however, the evolutionary patterns of pit mud microbiome and driving factors remain unclear. Here, based on the variation regularity analysis of microbial community structure and metabolites of samples from cellars of different ages (∼30/100/300 years), we further investigated the effects of lactate and acetate (main microbial metabolites in fermented grains) on modulating the pit mud microbiome. Esters (50.3% to 64.5%) dominated the volatile compounds identified in pit mud, and contents of the four typical acids (lactate, hexanoate, acetate, and butyrate) increased with cellar age. Bacteria (9.5 to 10.4 log10 [lg] copies/g) and archaea (8.3 to 9.1 lg copies/g) mainly constituted pit mud microbiota, respectively dominated by Clostridia (39.7% to 81.2%) and Methanomicrobia (32.8% to 92.9%). An upward trend with cellar age characterized the relative and absolute abundance of the most predominant bacterial and archaeal genera, Caproiciproducens and Methanosarcina. Correlation analysis revealed significantly (P < 0.05) positive relationships between the two genera and major metabolites. Anaerobic fermentation with acetate and lactate as carbon sources enhanced the enrichment of Clostridia, and furthermore, the relative abundance of Caproiciproducens (40.9%) significantly increased after 15-day fed-batch fermentation with lactate compared with the initial pit mud (0.22%). This work presents a directional evolutionary pattern of pit mud microbial consortia and provides an alternative way to accelerate the enrichment of functional microbes. IMPORTANCE The solid-state anaerobic fermentation in a mud cellar is the most typical feature of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Metabolites produced by microbes inhabiting pit mud are crucial to create the unique flavor of SFB. Accordingly, craftspeople have always highlighted the importance of the pit mud microbiome and concluded by centuries of practice that the production rate of high-quality baijiu increases with cellar age. To deepen the understanding of the pit mud microbiome, we determined the microbial community and metabolites of different-aged pit mud, inferred the main functional groups, and explored the forces driving the microbial community evolution through metagenomic, metabolomic, and multivariate statistical analyses. The results showed that the microbial consortia of pit mud presented a regular and directional evolutionary pattern under the impact of continuous batch-to-batch brewing activities. This work provides insight into the key roles of the pit mud microbiome in SFB production and supports the production optimization of high-quality pit mud.


Assuntos
Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Argila/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiota , Vinho/análise , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Vinho/microbiologia
2.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(2): 416-423, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633002

RESUMO

AIMS: This research was performed to investigate the influence of clay and humic acid on Escherichia coli O157 survival in model soils. Additionally, the influence of pH and humic acid on E. coli O157 in liquid culture was investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Artificial soil microcosms were prepared with sand, kaolinite, bentonite and humic acid. Artificial soil microcosms pH was adjusted (6·0-7·0) with aluminium sulphate before E. coli O157 inoculation. After 56 days of incubation at 30°C, significant differences in E. coli O157 log CFU per gram were observed between 0 and 1000 ppm (P < 0·0001) and 0 and 5000 ppm (P < 0·0001) humic acid in 1·5% clay soils, but not in 7·5 or 15% clay soils. Significant differences (P < 0·05) in E. coli O157 log CFU per ml were observed in liquid culture influenced by humic acid concentrations after 8 h at 37°C. CONCLUSIONS: The developed model soils support E. coli O157 populations over 28 days, and higher clay soils may aid in E. coli O157 survival. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These results provide insights into physicochemical properties of soil that may influence E. coli O157 in the environment and help explain E. coli O157 survival in various soils and geographical regions.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157/fisiologia , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Viabilidade Microbiana , Solo/química , Bentonita/análise , Argila/química , Argila/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Húmicas/toxicidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Caulim/análise , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Can J Microbiol ; 67(5): 396-405, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064956

RESUMO

Directional stress is an effective measure to change the community structure and improve the bioactivity of pit mud (PM). In this study, the addition of fortified Daqu to artificial PM (APM) was intended to disturb the microbial community and further affect metabolites. To evaluate the effect of fortified Daqu on culturing APM, the microbial communities of APM with or without the addition of fortified Daqu were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and Illumina MiSeq. The results indicated that microbes (Clostridium sp., Clostridium kluyveri, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and acetotrophic methanogens) related to the production of key aroma compounds increased notably when fortified Daqu was added. In particular, the hydrogenotrophic and acetotrophic methanogens increased by 6.19- and 4.63-fold after 30 days of culture. Subsequently, metabolites (organic acids, volatile compounds) were also analyzed by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) and HS-SPME-GC-MS (headspace solid phase microextraction - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry). The results showed that the content of butyric acid and hexanoic acid was significantly higher when fortified Daqu was added to APM. In addition, the proportion of esters and phenols was also higher than in APM without fortified Daqu. A survey of the microbial compositions of APMs with or without added fortified Daqu indicated that the microbial community evolves into a functional community favoring liquor brewing. We have developed a novel process by disturbing the community diversity.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/classificação , Microbiota , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , China , Argila/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 260: 112894, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348844

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal Earths (MEs), natural aluminosilicate-based substances (largely kaolinite and montmorillonite), have been part of the European pharmacopoeia for well over two millennia; they were used generically as antidotes to 'poison'. AIM OF THE STUDY: To test the antibacterial activity of three Lemnian and three Silesian Earths, medicinal earths in the collection of the Pharmacy Museum of the University of Basel, dating to 16th-18th century and following the methodology outlined in the graphical abstract. To compare them with natural clays of the same composition (reference clays) and synthetic clays (natural clays spiked with elements such as B, Al, Ti and Fe); to assess the parameters which drive antibacterial activity, when present, in each group of samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a total of 31 samples are investigated chemically (ICP-MS), mineralogically (both bulk (XRD) and at the nano-sized level (TEM-EDAX)); their organic load (bacterial and fungal) is DNA-sequenced; their bioactivity (MIC60) is tested against Gram-positive, S. aureus and Gram-negative, P. aeruginosa. RESULTS: Reference smectites and kaolinites show no antibacterial activity against the above pathogens. However, the same clays when spiked with B or Al (but not with Ti or Fe) do show antibacterial activity. Of the six MEs, only two are antibacterial against both pathogens. Following DNA sequencing of the bioactive MEs, we show the presence within of a fungal component, Talaromyces sp, a fungus of the family of Trichocomaceae (order Eurotiales), historically associated with Penicillium. Talaromyces is a known producer of the exometabolite bioxanthracene B, and in an earlier publication we have already identified a closely related member of the bioxanthracene group, in association with one of the LE samples examined here. By linking fungus to its exometabolite we suggest that this fungal load may be the key parameter driving antibacterial activity of the MEs. CONCLUSIONS: Antibacterial activity in kaolinite and smectite clays can arise either from spiking natural clays with elements like B and Al, or from an organic (fungal) load found only within some archaeological earths. It cannot be assumed, a priori, that this organic load was acquired randomly and as a result of long-term storage in museum collections. This is because, at least in the case of medicinal Lemnian Earth, there is historical evidence to suggest that the addition of a fungal component may have been deliberate.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Arqueologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Argila , Fungos , Caulim , Microbiota , Minerais/farmacologia , Silicatos , Antibacterianos/história , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carga Bacteriana , Argila/química , Argila/microbiologia , Fungos/química , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Caulim/química , Minerais/história , Minerais/isolamento & purificação , Nanopartículas , Ribotipagem , Silicatos/química
5.
mSphere ; 4(5)2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666313

RESUMO

Bentonite clay is an integral component of the engineered barrier system of deep geological repositories (DGRs) that are planned for the long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. Although nucleic acid extraction and analysis can provide powerful qualitative and quantitative data reflecting the presence, abundance, and functional potential of microorganisms within DGR materials, extraction of microbial DNA from bentonite clay is challenging due to the low biomass and adsorption of nucleic acids to the charged clay matrix. In this study, we used quantitative PCR, gel fingerprinting, and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to assess DNA extraction efficiency from natural MX-80 bentonite and the same material "spiked" with Escherichia coli genomic DNA. Extraction protocols were tested without additives and with casein and phosphate as blocking agents. Although we demonstrate improved DNA recovery by blocking agents at relatively high DNA spiking concentrations, at relatively low spiking concentrations, we detected a high proportion of contaminant nucleic acids from blocking agents that masked sample-specific microbial profile data. Because bacterial genomic DNA associated with casein preparations was insufficiently removed by UV treatment, casein is not recommended as an additive for DNA extractions from low-biomass samples. Instead, we recommend a kit-based extraction protocol for bentonite clay without additional blocking agents, as tested here and validated with multiple MX-80 bentonite samples, ensuring relatively high DNA recoveries with minimal contamination.IMPORTANCE Extraction of microbial DNA from MX-80 bentonite is challenging due to low biomass and adsorption of nucleic acid molecules to the charged clay matrix. Blocking agents improve DNA recovery, but their impact on microbial community profiles from low-biomass samples has not been characterized well. In this study, we evaluated the effect of casein and phosphate as blocking agents for quantitative recovery of nucleic acids from MX-80 bentonite. Our data justify a simplified framework for analyzing microbial community DNA associated with swelling MX-80 bentonite samples within the context of a deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel. This study is among the first to demonstrate successful extraction of DNA from Wyoming MX-80 bentonite.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Argila/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Biologia Molecular/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
J Microbiol Methods ; 165: 105695, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442458

RESUMO

It is essential that sampling procedures for biological measurements are done in a way that reflects the soil processes, whilst limiting sampling artefacts. In heavy clay Vertisol soils, coring lubricants are often considered necessary in order to extract and recover soil for quality and health assessments. Previous reports into the use of coring lubricants have found soil carbon measurements to be inflated but to date, a study to evaluate the effects of these lubricants on soil microbial activity, has not been forthcoming. We measured soil carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution in response to the addition of common coring lubricants, to determine the effects upon soil microbial activity to the depth of 100 cm. Application of coring lubricants to the surface soil layers of field collected cores did not significantly influence CO2 evolution however, microbial activity increased in deeper soil layers (30-100 cm) with the use of WD-40, mould stripper and silicone oil. When the ratio of coring lubricant to soil was increased to ~5 g coring lubricant to 100 g-1 soil, there was a significant (P = .001) effect on microbial activity, with silicone oil and mould stripper inflating measurements by at least 5%, whilst olive oil and WD-40 were similar to the control. The results imply that when using coring rigs to recover soil for microbial functional analysis in Vertisols, the use of coring lubricants is best avoided, with further research recommended.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Argila/microbiologia , Lubrificantes/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química
7.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 184(3-4): 385-387, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038705

RESUMO

Some microorganisms in the environment make siderophores, which are low molecular chelators, to take up minerals from soil. Eleven bacteria were separated from the root of white clover by chlome azrol S (CAS) assay. Each bacterium was incubated in casamino acid (CAA) culture, and siderophores in CAA culture were purified. These extractions were applied to biotite or vermiculite spiked with Cs. From each clay mineral, 57.1-72.8% (5100 ppm), 55.6-63.8% (920 ppm) and 48.6-54.3% (2300 ppm), 31.6-34.4% (520 ppm) was eluted, respectively. To understand elution behaviour, Cs desorption ratio of each clay was measured every 30 min. The results indicate Cs elution was occurred quickly.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Argila/química , Minerais/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Argila/microbiologia , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Medicago/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sideróforos/metabolismo
8.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 95(3)2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649315

RESUMO

Preferential flow paths in subsurface soils serve as transport routes for water, dissolved organic matter and oxygen. Little is known about bacterial communities in flow paths or in subsoils below ∼4 m. We compared communities from preferential flow paths (biopores, fractures and sand lenses) with those in adjacent matrix sediments of clayey till from the plough layer to a depth of 6 m. 16S rRNA gene-targeted community analysis showed bacterial communities of greater abundance and diversity in flow paths than in matrix sediments at all depths. Deep fracture communities contained a higher relative abundance of aerobes and plant material decomposers like Nitrospirae, Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes than adjacent matrix sediments. Similarly, analyses of the relative abundances of archaeal amoA, nirK and dsrB genes indicated transition from aerobic to anaerobic nitrogen and sulphur cycling at greater depth in preferential flow paths than in matrix sediments. Preferential flow paths in the top 260 cm contained more indicator operational taxonomic units from the plough layer community than the matrix sediments. This study indicates that the availability of oxygen and organic matter and downward transport of bacteria shape bacterial communities in preferential flow paths, and suggests that their lifestyles differ from those of bacteria in matrix communities.


Assuntos
Argila/microbiologia , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Argila/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Nutrientes/análise , Oxigênio/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Movimentos da Água
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(2): 58, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627788

RESUMO

Stormwater infiltration systems (SIS) have been developed to limit surface runoff and flooding in urban areas. The impacts of such practices on the ecological and biological quality of groundwater ecosystems remain poorly studied due to the lack of efficient methodologies to assess microbiological quality of aquifers. In the present study, a monitoring method based on the incubation of artificial matrices (clay beads) is presented to evaluate microbial biomass, microbial activities, and bacterial community structure. Four microbial variables (biomass, dehydrogenase and hydrolytic activities, bacterial community structures) were measured on clay beads incubated in three urban water types (stormwater surface runoffs, SIS-impacted and non-impacted groundwaters) for six SIS. Analyses based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) of partial rrs (16S rRNA) PCR products (V5-V6) were used to compare bacterial community structures of biofilms on clay beads after 10 days of incubation with those of waters collected from the same sampling points at three occasions. Biofilm biomass and activities on clay beads were indicative of nutrient transfers from surface to SIS-impacted groundwaters. Biofilms allowed impacts of SIS on groundwater bacterial community structures to be determined. Although bacterial communities on clay beads did not perfectly match those of waters, clay beads captured the most abundant bacterial taxa. They also captured bacterial taxa that were not detected in waters collected at three occasions during the incubation, demonstrating the integrative character of this approach. Monitoring biofilms on clay beads also allowed the tracking of bacterial genera containing species representing health concerns.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Argila/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Água Subterrânea/química , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789473

RESUMO

Sewage irrigation has a strong influence on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil. However, the effects of sewage irrigation on the pore characteristics of soil are not well understood. This study compares the effects of sewage irrigation and groundwater irrigation on computed tomography (CT)-measured pore parameters and examines the relationships between CT-measured pore parameters and soil physicochemical and microbial properties. Intact soil cores were collected from S1 irrigated with sewage for 25 years, S2 irrigated with sewage for 52 years, and CK irrigated with groundwater. Various soil pore characteristics were determined, including the total pore number, macropore number (>1 mm diam.), coarse mesopore number (0.264⁻1 mm diam.), total porosity, macroporosity, coarse mesoporosity, and circularity. The results indicated that sewage irrigation significantly affected soil pore number and porosity. Compared with S1 and S2, CK exhibited a higher average total pore number (91), macropore number (40), coarse mesopore number (51), total porosity (2.08%), macroporosity (1.90%), and coarse mesoporosity (0.18%) throughout the 50⁻350 mm layer. At depths of 200⁻350 mm, S2 exhibited the lowest average total pore number (33), macropore number (13), coarse mesopore number (21), total porosity (0.42%), macroporosity (0.35%), and coarse mesoporosity (0.07%) among the three sites. In addition, the average pore numbers and porosity at depths of 200⁻350 mm decreased with increasing sewage irrigation time. There were significant positive correlations between pore features (including pore numbers and porosity) and soil properties (phosphorus content and fungi numbers). Our results suggest that decreased macropore numbers and macroporosity in the sewage-irrigated farmland may strongly intensify the accumulation of metals and nutrients in the upper layer. The findings of this study are useful for understanding the negative effects of sewage irrigation on soil pore structure and are critical for developing sustainable strategies in agriculture.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Fazendas , Esgotos , Solo/química , China , Argila/química , Argila/microbiologia , Porosidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(14)2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752271

RESUMO

Microbial mineralization (corrosion, decomposition, and weathering) has been investigated for its role in the extraction and recovery of metals from ores. Here we report our application of biomineralization for the microbial enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability oil reservoirs. It aimed to reveal the etching mechanism of the four Fe(III)-reducing microbial strains under anaerobic growth conditions on Ca-montmorillonite. The mineralogical characterization of Ca-montmorillonite was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Results showed that the microbial strains could efficiently reduce Fe(III) at an optimal rate of 71%, alter the crystal lattice structure of the lamella to promote interlayer cation exchange, and efficiently inhibit Ca-montmorillonite swelling at a rate of 48.9%.IMPORTANCE Microbial mineralization is ubiquitous in the natural environment. Microbes in low-permeability reservoirs are able to facilitate alteration of the structure and phase of the Fe-poor minerals by reducing Fe(III) and inhibiting clay swelling, which is still poorly studied. This study aimed to reveal the interaction mechanism between Fe(III)-reducing bacterial strains and Ca-montmorillonite under anaerobic conditions and to investigate the extent and rates of Fe(III) reduction and phase changes with their activities. Application of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria will provide a new way to inhibit clay swelling, to elevate reservoir permeability, and to reduce pore throat resistance after water flooding for enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability reservoirs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Bentonita/metabolismo , Biomineralização , Campos de Petróleo e Gás/microbiologia , Cátions/metabolismo , Argila/microbiologia , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Permeabilidade , Difração de Raios X
12.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 10(3): 264-271, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488349

RESUMO

Desert varnishes are dark rock coatings observed in arid environments and might resemble Mn-rich coatings found on Martian rocks. Their formation mechanism is not fully understood and the possible microbial involvement is under debate. In this study, we applied DNA metagenomic Shotgun sequencing of varnish and surrounding soil to evaluate the composition of the microbial community and its potential metabolic function. We found that the α diversity was lower in varnish compared to soil samples (p value < 0.05), suggesting distinct populations with significantly higher abundance of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria within the varnish. Additionally, we observed increased levels of transition metal metabolic processes in varnish compared to soil samples. Nevertheless, potentially relevant enzymes for varnish formation were detected at low to insignificant levels in both niches, indicating no current direct microbial involvement in Mn oxidation. This finding is supported by quantitative genomic analysis, elemental analysis, fluorescence imaging and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. We thus conclude that the distinct microbial communities detected in desert varnish originate from settled Aeolian microbes, which colonized this nutrient-enriched niche, and discuss possible indirect contributions of microorganisms to the formation of desert varnish.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Argila/microbiologia , Cianobactérias/classificação , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Compostos de Manganês/metabolismo , Óxidos/metabolismo , Proteobactérias/classificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
13.
Food Res Int ; 91: 80-87, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28290330

RESUMO

Chinese strong-flavor liquor (CSFL) is fermented in cellars lined with pit mud (PM). This PM, specific fermented clay, contains microbes that play important roles in CSFL production. However, there is limited information about fungal community structure and cellar-age-related changes in PM. In this study, PM samples were removed from the cellars used for 5 and 100years and characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Both methods revealed there were no significant differences in fungal species diversity (Shannon index, Chao1, and observed species) between the 5- and 100-year PM samples (p>0.05), but the communities were more stable in the 100-year PM samples (UPGMA). Illumina MiSeq sequencing allowed identification of 111 fungal genera belonging to 4 phyla (Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota) in the PM samples, with the predominant phylum being Ascomycota. The results also indicated that the compositions of dominant genera in the PM samples were significantly changed during long-term CSFL fermentation. There were relatively more Rhizopus, Phoma, and Trichosporon in the 5-year PM samples, and Aspergillus and Candida were most highly represented in the 100-year PM samples (p<0.05). Of these, Candida increased its relative abundance significantly in the 100-year samples (p<0.05). Overall, the results provide novel insights into the fungal community associated with CSFL production, and may suggest why fermentation in a cellar with PM that has been in usage for a longer time allows better quality CSFL production.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Argila/microbiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante , Fermentação , Fungos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota/genética , Ribotipagem/métodos , Biodiversidade , China , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo
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