Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.461
Filtrar
1.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(3): 41-44, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013694

RESUMO

The purpose of our work was to assess the capabilities of the SEM in the framework of expert studies of gunshot injuries of targets made of cotton fabric. In the study of experimental injuries resulting from shots fired from the KO-M1-98 carbine with 8x57JS cartridges at various distances (from the stop to 3.5 m), the presence of features of the soot morphology was established, by which it is possible to judge the distance of the shot. Thus, by examining fragments of target tissue from the central and peripheral zones of soot deposition, electron microscopy revealed a change in the ratio, intensity, and topography of soot particles. The energy-dispersion analysis revealed that with increasing distance, the number of chemical elements that make up the capsule decreases, with the exception of tin, which has an unstable inversely proportional bond.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Balística Forense , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fuligem
2.
Rev. crim ; 63(1): 61-76, 20/04/2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247627

RESUMO

El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo general determinar el grado de afectación que presenta la prueba Griess (a y b), al interior del cañón del arma de fuego tipo escopeta, marca Benelli, modelo Súper Nova, con la trasmisión de los contaminantes aceite, agua lluvia, diésel y gasolina. Surge la necesidad de indagar si los contaminantes establecidos pueden afectar la realización del procedimiento descrito en el numeral 4.1 de la guía 2DCGU-0024 "realizar procedimientos balísticos a las armas (de fuego, neumáticas, de gas, fisto, detonadoras, eléctricas, entre otras) e ingreso a los sistemas de identificación balística". La metodología utilizada fue de tipo experimental, para ello se realizó una cantidad importante de ensayos, se manipularon las soluciones A y B del reactivo de GRIESS. Como resultado se evidenció que los agentes contaminantes transferidos al interior del cañón (aceite 4 tiempos, diésel y gasolina) no afectan los resultados para la identificación de nitritos producto de la combustión durante el fenómeno del disparo, caso contrario ocurre con el agua lluvia, ya que se observa que esta afecta la elaboración de la prueba, teniendo en cuenta que sin entrar en contacto con la pólvora deflagrada, arroja como resultado una coloración rosada tenue, que indica de forma preliminar que es positiva para la presencia de nitritos.


This study's general objective was to determine the degree of impact a GRIESS test (a and b) may have on the inside of a Benelli Supernova shotgun barrel by transmitting contaminants, such as oil, rain water, diesel and gasoline. The need arose to research whether or not the established contaminants can affect performing the procedure described in clause 4.1 of guide 2DC-GU-0024 on "performing ballistic testing on weapons (firearms, pneumatic, gas, black powder, detonating, electrical, etc.) and entering ballistic identification systems." The methodology was experimental. A high number of tests were carried out, manipulating components A and B of the GRIESS reagent. As a result, it was observed that contaminating agents transferred within a barrel (4-stroke engine oil, diesel and gasoline) do not affect the results of identifying nitrates resulting from combustion during firearm discharge. The opposite occurs with rain water, since it was observed that is affects preparing evidence, taking into account that it yields a light pink coloration as a result without coming into contact with combusted gunpowder, which preliminarily indicates that it tested positive for the presence of nitrites.


O objetivo geral do presente estudo foi determinar o grau de afetação que o teste de GRIESS (a e b) apresenta, dentro do cano da arma de fogo tipo espingarda, marca Benelli, modelo Super Nova, com a transmissão dos contaminantes: óleo, água da chuva, diesel e gasolina. Surge a necessidade de investigar se os contaminantes estabelecidos podem afetar o desempenho do procedimento descrito no numeral 4.1 do guia 2DC-GU-0024 "realizar procedimentos balísticos em armas (armas de fogo, pneumáticas, gás, fisto, detonantes, elétricos, entre outros) e acesso a sistemas de identificação balística". A metodologia utilizada foi experimental, nesse sentido, foi realizado um número significativo de testes, e as soluções A e B do reagente de GRIESS foram manipuladas. Como resultado, ficou evidente que os agentes contaminantes transferidos para o interior do cano (óleo 4 tempos, diesel e gasolina) não afetam os resultados para a identificação de nitritos produto da combustão durante o fenômeno de queima. O contrário ocorre com a água da chuva, pois observa-se que isso afeta o preparo do teste, visto que, sem entrar em contato com a pólvora deflagrada, produz uma leve coloração rosa, o que preliminarmente indica que é positivo para a presença de nitritos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Armas de Fogo , Gunpowder , Substâncias Explosivas
3.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 51(2): 368-377, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have found that state gun laws that regulate the purchase and possession of firearms can lead to a reduction in suicide rates. Yet, the literature has primarily focused on the effects of state gun laws on adult suicides, despite the fact that some gun laws are specifically tailored to restrict the purchase and possession of firearms by youths. AIMS: In this study, we estimate the effect of two such laws-Child Access Prevention (CAP) laws and minimum age laws-on youth suicide by firearm rates. MATERIALS & METHODS: Our sample consists of state-level panel data for 41 states observed over the years 1981-2017. RESULTS: Based on a series of negative binomial regression analyses, we confirm previous research by finding that CAP laws are associated with a decrease in youth suicides by firearm, especially among males. However, we show that this effect is limited to states that have adopted relatively strict CAP laws. We also find that minimum age laws serve to reduce the youth suicide rate, but once again this effect is largely concentrated among males. Finally, we investigate the possibility that these effects were countered to some degree by "means substitution"-the substitution of firearms with other methods of suicide. DISCUSSION: Similar to other studies that have examined this question, we find no effect of youth-targeted gun laws on nonfirearm suicide deaths. CONCLUSION: Despite the noteworthy increase in youth suicide rates over the last decade, our results suggest that state laws which restrict firearm access to young people continue to represent a potentially effective strategy for suicide reduction.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Família , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Análise de Regressão , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 51(2): 197-202, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of military personnel and veterans who decline to answer survey items asking about firearm availability at home, and to determine how these characteristics compare to those of military personnel and veterans who answered these items. METHODS: Self-report surveys were administered to 2025 military personnel and veterans visiting a primary care clinic located at five military installations across the United States for a routine visit. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors that distinguished participants with firearms at home, participants without firearms at home, and participants who declined answering. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, participants who selected "refuse to answer" in response to an item asking about firearm access at home did not differ demographically from participants who selected "yes," but were significantly more likely to screen positive for depression and recent thoughts of death or self-harm. These differences were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses, however. Participants who selected "refuse to answer" or "yes" were significantly more likely than participants who selected "no" to be male, white, and previously deployed. CONCLUSIONS: Military personnel and veterans who decline answering firearm-related survey items are indistinguishable from those who report having a firearm at home. Declining to answer firearm-related items is more common among those who screen positive for depression or recent thoughts of death or self-harm, but this association is statistically accounted for by demographic factors (i.e., male gender, white race).


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Militares , Suicídio , Veteranos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 277: 113879, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839470

RESUMO

In this critical literature review we develop a five-part agenda for pandemic-era research into mass shootings and multiple-victim homicides that promotes understanding the psychologies of individual shooters within larger structures and systems. We show how the momentous events set in motion by the COVID-19 virus, and the structural drivers of inequity and racism that its spread exposed, challenge mental health research on gun trauma to better account for broader terrains of race and place, as well as the tensions, politics, and assumptions that surround guns in the U.S. more broadly. Doing so will broaden mental-health interventions into epidemics of U.S. gun trauma, and challenge mental health research better recognize structural biases inherent in its own purview. We frame the agenda through the rubric of structural competency, an emerging framework that systematically trains health care professionals and others to recognize ways that institutions, neighborhood conditions, market forces, public policies, and health care delivery systems shape symptoms and diseases. Developing a structural framework around research into U.S. gun violence addresses the risks, traumas, meanings, and consequences that firearms represent for all communities-and highlights the importance of a renewed focus on mental health and safety for communities of color. Recognizing how gun violence reflects and encapsulates structures helps mental health experts address common sense gun policies within broader contexts-by fighting against structural racism or racially inflected gun policies for instance, or against economic policies that undermine access to mental health care more broadly.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Homicídio , Humanos , Características de Residência
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923084

RESUMO

In 2017 Australia saw the highest overall suicide rate in the past 10 years, with male suicide rates three times higher than in women. Since the mid-1980s there have been major changes in suicide epidemiology in Australia with large shifts in method of suicide among both men and women. This study examined method-specific suicide trends in Australian men over the past 40 years by state. Suicide mortality data for the period 1978 to 2017 was obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) National Mortality Database and log-linear Poisson regression analysis was used to analyse suicide mortality. This study found large differences between states in patterns and trends in suicide mortality from 1978 to 2017. Hanging, gas and firearms were the most common methods of suicide in Australia. We found statistically significant increasing trends in hanging suicide among men in all six states. The study findings highlight the growing concern of hanging-related suicide in all states in Australia since the late 1970s. New suicide prevention strategies focusing on the ubiquity and ease of hanging as a method will be needed in order for Australia to reduce suicide mortality in future.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise de Regressão
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925508

RESUMO

Psychological aspects like anxiety, injuries' effects, professional psychological support (PPS), psychological training (PT), or athlete-coach relationships could influence shooters' performance. This study tried to determine which aspects were critical from the shooters' perspective. Eight elite shooters were interviewed. After using qualitative methods, the following categories were obtained: importance of PT; anxiety and competition relationship; mental preparation; PPS; stress during training; injuries' psychological effects and coach's influence. PT is important for shooter's performance, being PPS a key aspect. Moreover, anxiety levels are critical, raising during the pre-competitive period and oscillating during competition. Furthermore, shooters considered more effective the stress placed on training by the coach than by themselves. Accordingly, the coach plays a key role. Surprisingly, injuries did not affect shooters psychologically, nor in their competitive performance. We conclude that the combination of PPS, shooter competitive experience and the optimal coach's work can promote a greater performance in Olympic shooting.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Esportes , Atletas , Humanos
12.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(1): 106-108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721316

RESUMO

Pneumatic nail guns are hand-held tools used in industrial and construction settings. Nail guns cause the most trauma with hospitalization among construction workers. To our knowledge, we report for the first time a case of pneumomediastinum from a nail gun injury to the hand. Our patient was a 40-year-old male construction worker who shot a nail gun into his hand. He became acutely dyspneic and was found to have a pneumomediastinum due to air insufflation. He later underwent tube thoracostomy and intubation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pneumomediastinum from a nail gun injury to the hand.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Enfisema Mediastínico , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Acidentes de Trabalho , Adulto , Materiais de Construção , Humanos , Masculino , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/etiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 366, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol and firearms are commonly involved in suicide in the United States. State alcohol and firearm policies may impact alcohol and firearm related suicide, yet little is known about these relationships. This study examines relationships between state alcohol and firearm policies and suicides involving alcohol, guns, or both, and explores interactive policy associations. METHODS: Alcohol policies were assessed with the Alcohol Policy Scale. Firearm policies were assessed using the Gun Law Scorecard from Giffords Law Center. Suicide data from the National Violent Death Reporting System in 2015 covered 22 states. State- and individual-level GEE Poisson and logistic regression models assessed relationships between policies and firearm- and/or alcohol-involved suicides with a 1-year lag. RESULTS: In 2015, there were 8996 suicide deaths with blood alcohol concentration test results in the 22 included states. Of those deaths, alcohol and/or firearms were involved in 5749 or 63.9%. Higher alcohol and gun law scores were associated with reduced incidence rates and odds of suicides involving either alcohol or firearms (adjusted incidence rate ratios [IRR] 0.72 (95% CI 0.63, 0.83) for alcohol policies, 0.86 (95% CI 0.82, 0.90) for firearm policies). Relationships were similar for suicides involving both alcohol and firearms, and there was an interactive effect, such that states with restrictive policies for both had the lowest rates of suicides involving alcohol or guns. CONCLUSIONS: More restrictive alcohol and firearm policies are associated with lower rates and odds of suicides involving alcohol or firearms, and alcohol and firearms, and may be a promising means by which to reduce suicide.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Estudos Transversais , Homicídio , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia
14.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 48: e20202784, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to identify associated factors with the increased length of hospital stay for patients undergoing surgical treatment for liver trauma, and predictors of mortality as well as the epidemiology of this trauma. METHODS: retrospective study of 191 patients admitted to the Cajuru University Hospital, a reference in the treatment of multiple trauma patients, between 2010 and 2017, with epidemiological, clinicopathological and therapeutic variables analyzed using the STATA version 15.0 program. RESULTS: most of the included patients were men with a mean age of 29 years. Firearm injury represents the most common trauma mechanism. The right hepatic lobe was injured in 51.2% of the cases, and hepatorraphy was the most commonly used surgical correction. The length of hospital stay was an average of 11 (0-78) days and the length of stay in the intensive care unit was 5 (0-52) days. Predictors for longer hospital stay were the mechanisms of trauma, hemodynamic instability at admission, number of associated injuries, degree of liver damage and affected lobe, used surgical technique, presence of complications, need for reoperation and other surgical procedures. Mortality rate was 22.7%. CONCLUSIONS: the study corroborated the epidemiology reported by the literature. Greater severity of liver trauma and associated injuries characterize patients undergoing surgical treatment, who have increased hospital stay due to the penetrating trauma, hemodynamic instability, hepatic packaging, complications and reoperations.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Adulto , Hospitalização , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/cirurgia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108596, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that adolescent prescription opioid misuse is strongly associated with weapon carrying. METHOD: For this research, data from the nationally representative 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Average marginal predictions were estimated for gun and weapon carrying as a function of prescription opioid misuse and sex. As per STROBE guidelines, additive interactions with risk differences-in addition to multiplicative interactions with odds ratios and risk ratios-were estimated to investigate sex disparities in the effects of prescription opioid misuse on gun and other weapon-carrying. RESULTS: Male US high school students who misused prescription opioids had an especially high prevalence of gun and other weapon carrying. Additive interactions show significantly greater risk differences associated with prescription opioid misuse among male students compared to female students for gun carrying, weapon carrying, and weapon carrying at school. In contrast, multiplicative interactions show lower odds ratios and risk ratios among male students for these same weapon-carrying variables. DISCUSSION: Prescription opioid misuse is a significantly greater risk factor for gun and other weapon carrying among male US high school students, which disproportionately increases the risk for violence perpetration, including suicide among these students. Researchers should follow STROBE guidelines and report additive interactions and risk differences separately by sex when investigating risk factors associated with gun and other weapon carrying.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Armas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587140

RESUMO

Euthanasia of mature swine is challenging. Temporal and behind-the-ear locations are two sites that have been identified as alternatives to the more commonly used frontal placement. In stage one, the effectiveness of two penetrating captive bolt gun styles (cylinder or pistol) was evaluated using frontal, temporal, and behind-the-ear placement in anesthetized mature swine (n = 36; weight: 267 ± 41 kg). For stage one, when evaluating treatment efficacy by sex, the cylinder-style equipment was 100% effective in achieving death when applied to all cranial locations (frontal, temporal, and behind-the-ear) for sows; however, the pistol-style equipment was only 100% effective when applied at the behind-the-ear location for sows. For boars, the cylinder-style equipment was 100% effective when applied to the frontal and behind-the-ear location, but the pistol-style equipment was not effective for any cranial location in boars. Therefore, the pistol-frontal, pistol-temporal, pistol-behind-the-ear, and cylinder-temporal were not included for boars, and pistol-frontal and pistol-temporal were not included for sows in stage two. In stage two, commercial, mixed-breed, mature swine (n = 42; weight: 292 +/- 56 kg) were randomly assigned to one of four treatments based on the inclusion criteria described in stage one. A three-point traumatic brain injury (TBI) score (0 = normal; 1 = some abnormalities; 2 = grossly abnormal, unrecognizable) was used to evaluate six neuroanatomical structures (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus, pons, and brain stem), and the presence of hemorrhage was also noted. All treatments were 100% effective in stage two. A significant interaction between gun style and placement was determined on predicting total TBI as the cylinder style produced a higher total TBI score compared with the pistol type of the magnitude of +2.8 (P < 0.01). The cylinder style tended to produce a greater TBI score than the pistol in the temporal location (+1.2; P = 0.08). No difference was noted for TBI score behind-the-ear between the cylinder- and pistol-style gun (P > 0.05). TBI tended to be less in boars compared with sows (-0.6; P = 0.08). Hemorrhage was observed in frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. This study demonstrated that the cylinder-style captive bolt gun more effectively resulted in brain trauma and death compared with a pistol-style gun and the behind-the-ear and temporal placement showed promise as an alternative placement site for euthanizing mature pigs on-farm.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Tronco Encefálico , Eutanásia Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Sus scrofa , Suínos
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2034208, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538822

RESUMO

Importance: Preventing firearm violence requires understanding its antecedents. Yet no comprehensive longitudinal study has examined how involvement with firearms during adolescence-use, access, and victimization (defined as threatened with a weapon or gunshot injury)-is associated with the perpetration of firearm violence in adulthood. Objective: To examine the association between firearm involvement during adolescence and subsequent firearm perpetration and ownership in adulthood among youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed interview responses of 1829 randomly selected participants as part of the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal study of health needs and outcomes of youth sampled from a temporary juvenile detention center in a large US city. Youth aged 10 to 18 years were interviewed in detention from November 1995 through June 1998. Participants were reinterviewed up to 13 times over 16 years through February 2015, for a total of 17 776 interviews. The sample was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and legal status (juvenile or adult court). Data were analyzed from April 2017, when data preparation began, through November 2020. Exposures: Firearm involvement during adolescence: use (ie, threaten, shoot), access (ownership, ease of access, firearm in household, membership in gang that carries firearms), and victimization (gunshot injury, threatened with a weapon). Main Outcomes and Measures: Firearm involvement during adulthood: perpetration of firearm violence (ie, threatening with or using a firearm) and firearm ownership. Results: Among the 1829 participants, 1388 had a 16-year follow-up interview: 860 males, 528 females; 809 were African American, 203 were non-Hispanic White; 374 were Hispanic; and 2 were other race/ethnicity; median (interquartile range) age of 32 (30-32) years. Eighty-five percent of males and 63.2% of females were involved with firearms as adolescents. Compared with females, males had significantly higher odds of every type of involvement except having a firearm in the home. In adulthood, 41.3% of males and 10.5% of females perpetrated firearm violence. Adolescents who had been threatened with a weapon or injured by firearms had 3.1 (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.2-4.9) times the odds of perpetrating violence during adulthood. Similar associations were found for firearm ownership. Conclusions and Relevance: Involvement with firearms during adolescence-including victimization-is a significant risk factor for firearm perpetration and ownership during adulthood.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Direito Penal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Propriedade , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(3): 12, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570688

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine mass shootings in youth including mass shooting trends, risk and protective factors for emotional sequelae, mental health, prevention of mass shootings, and the assessment and treatment of survivors. RECENT FINDINGS: Many youth are exposed to gun violence, with a smaller subset exposed to mass shootings. While youth have varying responses to mass shootings, possibly due to risk and protective factors as well as level of exposure, the mental health outcomes are significant and include posttraumatic stress, suicide, depression, substance abuse, and anxiety. Efforts at developing effective prevention and treatment programs are still underway but generally take a tiered public health approach. Mass shootings have significant mental health outcomes for youth survivors, particularly those with direct exposure or risk factors. Continued efforts are needed to better understand the effects of mass shootings and how to prevent them from occurring as well as how to best address the needs of survivors.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes , Violência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...