Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 872
Filtrar
1.
Adv Pharmacol ; 90: 1-18, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706929

RESUMO

Paul Greengard's name is and will remain profoundly associated with Neuroscience, with brain signaling and chemical transmission, with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, with fundamental discoveries and solving paradoxes, but much less perhaps with drug discovery. This should not be mistaken as disdain. Paul in fact did contemplate developing therapeutic avenues to actually treat brain diseases much more than it is known, perhaps during his entire career, and certainly over the last two decades. As a matter of fact, he did more than contemplate it, he directly and indirectly contributed in the development of treatments for neurological diseases and disorders. Paul's impact on fundamental aspects of the brain has been so gargantuan that any other aspect of Paul's life will have difficulty to shine. It is precisely this less known aspect of Paul's career that will be covered in this review. We will discover how Paul very early on moved away from biophysics to avoid working on nuclear weapons and instead started his career in the pharmacological spheres of a large pharmaceutical company.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Animais , Encefalopatias/patologia , Aprovação de Drogas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Armas
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037209, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576818

RESUMO

Importance: Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are used broadly as a less-lethal force option for police officers. However, there is no clear picture of the possible health risks in humans on the basis of rigorously assessed scientific evidence from the international peer-reviewed literature. Objective: To synthesize and systematically evaluate the strength of published evidence for an association between exposure to different models of CEWs and adverse acute as well as chronic conditions. Evidence Review: Following a preregistered review protocol, the literature search strategy was based on a search of reviews published between January 1, 2000, and April 24, 2020, of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library, as well as relevant online databases and bibliographic sources, such as reference sections of recent publications. The identified studies were independently assessed in terms of scope, relevance, methodologic bias, and quality. Peer-reviewed publications of human studies were included, using original data and with a focus on the use of taser CEWs in the context of law enforcement. Eligible studies examined clearly defined health outcomes as dependent variables following exposure to a CEW. The review followed the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses reporting guideline. A meta-analysis could not be conducted. Findings: Of the 1081 unique records screened, 33 relevant studies were identified, all of them of experimental design and conducted in the US. Eleven studies had a low risk of bias and 22 had a higher bias risk. Studies focused on outcomes such as physiologic stress responses, heart rate, blood pressure, arrhythmias, or cognitive performance. Independently of bias risk, the studies reported few or no acute health problems, apart from the wounds caused by the darts. Furthermore, no long-term outcomes were studied. Most of the studies were performed on healthy, physically fit individuals (eg, police officers) in a controlled setting, with short exposure duration (5 seconds). Half of the studies, mainly those with a higher risk of bias, were at least partly funded by the manufacturer. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on the findings of the reviewed studies, the risk for adverse health outcomes due to CEW exposure can be currently estimated as low. However, most of the reviewed studies had methodologic limitations. Considering that recruited participants were not representative of the population that usually encounters a CEW deployment, it is not possible to draw conclusions regarding exposure outcomes in potentially vulnerable populations or high-risk groups, such as those under the influence of substances.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Armas , Acidose Láctica/epidemiologia , Acidose Láctica/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Doença Crônica , Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque/complicações , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Polícia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 25-38, sep.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144418

RESUMO

Resumen Perú no solo tiene una de las mayores tasas de victimización en Latinoamérica (24%), sino también la menor en delitos denunciados (15%) (Latinobarómetro, 2016). En este trabajo, el objetivo fue identificar las características del crimen y las características individuales que predicen la decisión de denunciar cuatro delitos patrimoniales distintos (robo de hogares, de auto, de autopartes y de moto). Para ello, se emplearon siete años de una encuesta de hogares a nivel nacional en Perú (2010-2016). Las estimaciones se realizaron mediante regresión logística multinivel de efectos mixtos a fin de controlar las características del ambiente que también influyen en la decisión de denuncia. El uso de arma de parte del delincuente es el factor que eleva en mayor proporción la probabilidad de denunciar cualquiera de los cuatro delitos evaluados. La victimización reiterada es también un predictor importante, aunque para menos delitos. La confianza en la policía no está asociada a la decisión de denunciar. Este estudio es el primero que analiza cuantitativamente los factores que afectan la decisión de denunciar en el Perú. Sus resultados son útiles para un mejor entendimiento de la baja tasa de denuncias en el país.


Abstract Peru has not only one of the highest victimization rates in Latin America (24%), but also the lowest rate of reported crimes (15%) (Latinobarometro, 2016) The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of the crimes and the characteristics of the individuals that predict the decision of reporting four different property crimes (burglary, auto theft, auto parts theft, and motorcycle theft). To this end, a seven-year survey of households at the national level in Peru was used (2010-2016). The estimations were made using multilevel mixed effects logistics regression, in order to control for characteristics of the environment that also influence the decision to report. Use of a weapon by the criminal is the factor that most increases the probability of reporting any of the four assessed crimes. Repeated victimization is also an important predictor, although for a lower number of crimes. Trust in the police is not associated to the decision to report. This is the first study to quantitatively analyze the factors that affect the decision to report in Peru. Its results are useful for a better understanding of the low reporting rates in the country.


Resumo O Peru não apenas tem uma das taxas mais altas de vitimização em América Latina (24%), mas também a mais baixa em crimes denunciados (15%) (Latinobarómetro, 2016). Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi identificar as características do crime e as características individuais que predizem a decisão de denunciar quatro diferentes crimes patrimoniais (furto de casa, carro, autopeças e motocicleta). Para isso, foram utilizados sete anos de dados de uma pesquisa domiciliar nacional no Peru (2010-2016). As estimativas foram feitas usando regressão logística multinível de efeitos mistos a fim de controlar as características ambientais que também influenciam na decisão de denunciar. O uso de arma de fogo pelo delinquente é o fator que aumenta em maior proporção a probabilidade de denúncia de qualquer um dos quatro crimes avaliados. A vitimização repetida também é um indicador importante, embora para menos crimes. A confiança na polícia não está associada à decisão de denunciar. Este estudo é o primeiro a analisar quantitativamente os fatores que afetam a decisão de denunciar no Peru. Seus resultados são úteis para um melhor entendimento da taxa baixa de denúncias no país.


Assuntos
Humanos , Roubo , Vítimas de Crime , Armas , Criminosos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956385

RESUMO

Palegawra cave, alongside its neighbouring Zarzi, has been an emblematic site of the Epipalaeolithic (Zarzian) cultural horizon in the NW Zagros of Southwest Asia ever since its first exploration in 1951 by Bruce Howe and Robert Braidwood in the context of the Iraq-Jarmo project. At the time scientific excavation, sampling and analysis methods were either under-developed or did not exist. In this paper we present the first results of new excavations at Palegawra conducted in 2016-2017 by the Eastern Fertile Crescent (EFEC) project, a research collaboration of the University of Liverpool and the Sulaymaniyah Directorate of Antiquities and Heritage. Our research has produced the first radiometric evidence pushing back the chronology of the NW Zagros Epipalaeolithic to the Last Glacial Maximum, thus fully aligning it with Epipalaeolithic facies until now known only from the Levant and the south Anatolian coast. We have also unearthed, for the first time in the Palaeolithic of the Zagros, direct archaeobotanical evidence for hitherto elusive Zarzian plant exploitation and the vegetation of the NW Zagros piedmont zone from the LGM to the end of the Lateglacial (~19,600-13,000 cal BP). The new Palegawra chronology alongside our detailed studies of its material culture and faunal and botanical assemblages suggest that the prevailing Epipalaeolithic habitation pattern in the NW Zagros (centred on generalised persistent occupations of small caves and rock-shelters alongside task-oriented ephemeral open-air campsites) remained an enduring characteristic of the Zarzian horizon throughout this period. The Palegawra data clearly show that neither resource levels and climate conditions nor geographic and/or cultural isolation provide adequate explanations for the stability and longevity of Zarzian lifeways during this long timespan. More fieldwork is required, including the discovery, excavation and intensive sampling of other Zarzian sites, for reaching a data-informed understanding of the nature and evolution of the NW Zagros Epipalaeolithic.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Agricultura/história , Animais , Antropologia Cultural , Artiodáctilos , Carnivoridade , Cavernas , Carvão Vegetal , Clima , Manipulação de Alimentos/história , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Fósseis , Geografia , Herbivoria , História Antiga , Humanos , Iraque , Plantas , Datação Radiométrica , Armas/história
8.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101762, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721867

RESUMO

A woman was stabbed 10 times and killed. The suspect confessed that he had used a thick (0.7 cm), single-edged survival knife with a serrated spine. However, the bilateral ends of the stab wounds appeared sharp. To address this discrepancy, we used pig skin to examine whether the knife could have been used to make the thin stab wounds observed. The widths of the pig skin wounds were approximately half the width of the knife and the ends of some wounds appeared sharp, particularly when the knife was held at a right angle. It was concluded that the suspect could have killed the victim using the survival knife. Similar pig skin experiments could be useful for forensic pathologists to determine whether a weapon of interest might have been used to inflict certain injuries.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Patologia Legal/métodos , Armas , Ferimentos Penetrantes/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Pele/lesões , Pele/patologia , Suínos
9.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(4): 9-11, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686383

RESUMO

The work purpose is to identify objective morphological traits of punctured and stab and slash wounds obtained as a result of using the ice cracking tools. An experimental injury to the skin was carried out, followed by the study and analysis of morphological signs of wounds. It was established that, depending on the design features of the ice-cracking tools and the conditions of injury, the injuries have a number of similar characteristics with wounds from the other puncturing and stab and slash articles, as well as they have certain morphological features.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Perfurantes , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Gelo , Pele/lesões , Armas
10.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(4): 12-16, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686384

RESUMO

The purpose of the work is to determine the advisability of using a skin-muscle flap as an imitator of a human body under a dense cotton target when modeling gunshot injuries resulting from ricochet of a bullet and buckshot when fired from a smooth-bore weapon through clothing. We conducted a ballistic experiment on the formation of gunshot injuries of dense cotton targets themselves, as well as with the underlying skin-muscle flap, formed when a 12-gauge hunting rifle is shot and the subsequent ricochet of bullets and buckshot. As a result of a comprehensive study, the absence of the effect of the underlying skin-muscle flap on the average values of most parameters of gunshot injuries of non-biological targets (p<0.01) was established. The results can be used in planning and conducting of experimental research in the field of forensic ballistics.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Balística Forense , Humanos , Pele , Armas
11.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(3): 16-18, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597605

RESUMO

The aim of study is to identify morfological signs of the skin damage, formed by electric discharge of different models of tasers, and therefore to determine construction features characterizing taser's models, as well as to detect the conditions of traumatization. As a result of experiment it was revealed that various morphological skin damages are caused by difference in the configuration of taser's terminal elements. It gives reason for an objective conclusion about stun gun's specific model.


Assuntos
Queimaduras por Corrente Elétrica , Traumatismos por Eletricidade , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles , Humanos , Pele/lesões , Armas
12.
Soud Lek ; 65(2): 27-29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493020

RESUMO

Traumatic injury due to crossbows is a rare occurrence these days. The aim of this study is to present a case of perforating chest injury caused by a bolt shot from a crossbow in suicidal intent which occurred “live“ during a telephone conversation. The autopsy revealed perforation of the heart and left lungs with massive bleeding to the left pleural cavity which caused haemorrhagic shock. The motive of the mans suicide was the breakup with his girlfriend.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Traumatismos Torácicos , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Humanos , Ideação Suicida , Traumatismos Torácicos/etiologia , Armas
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492038

RESUMO

The miniaturization of stone tools, as reflected through the systematic production of bladelets and bladelet tools (microliths), characterized many industries of the Late Pleistocene, with the Levantine Epipalaeolithic serving as a well-studied example. It is commonly held that microliths were used as modular inserts in composite projectiles, while their incorporation in other tools for different tasks is generally overlooked, the latter aspect being the main focus of this paper. We present here a more inclusive approach through a case study of the Geometric Kebaran (Middle Epipalaeolithic, ca. 18,500-15,000 cal BP) site of Neve David, Mount Carmel, Israel. Recent excavations at the site exposed a variety of features, and one well-preserved shallow pit provided a large lithic assemblage with ca. 90 microliths. We studied this assemblage using both the low- and high- magnification use-wear protocols, accompanied by a range of experiments. Our results show that a) the fragmentation rate is very high in this assemblage (ca. 90%), b) most of the microliths have identifiable use-wear, c) the microliths were commonly used as inserts in composite projectiles, d) many microliths were used for functions not related to weaponry and hunting, such as wood-working, weed harvesting and meat processing. These findings strongly support the suggestion that the small insets, regardless of their specific type (trapeze, rectangle, backed/retouched bladelet), were used in a wide variety of composite tools. We argue that such a versatile approach and flexibility in the use of microliths reflect a technological advantage where a minimal set of microlithic types, produced in large numbers, could provide the required elements for weapons, as well as for a variety of cutting, processing and harvesting tools needed for mundane tasks at a large Middle Epipalaeolithic camp.


Assuntos
Armas/história , Arqueologia , Desenho de Equipamento/história , Fenômenos Geológicos , História Antiga , Humanos , Indústrias/história , Israel , Miniaturização , Tecnologia/história
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1928): 20200254, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517625

RESUMO

A current evolutionary hypothesis predicts that the most extreme forms of animal weaponry arise in systems where combatants fight each other one-to-one, in duels. It has also been suggested that arms races in human interstate conflicts are more likely to escalate in cases where there are only two opponents. However, directly testing whether duels matter for weapon investment is difficult in animals and impossible in interstate conflicts. Here, we test whether superior combatants experience a disproportionate advantage in duels, as compared with multi-combatant skirmishes, in a system analogous to both animal and military contests: the battles fought by artificial intelligence agents in a computer war game. We found that combatants with experimentally improved fighting power had a large advantage in duels, but that this advantage deteriorated as the complexity of the battlefield was increased by the addition of further combatants. This pattern remained under the two different forms of the advantage granted to our focal artificial intelligence (AI) combatants, and became reversed when we switched the roles to feature a weak focal AI among strong opponents. Our results suggest that one-on-one combat may trigger arms races in diverse systems. These results corroborate the outcomes of studies of both animal and interstate contests, and suggest that elements of animal contest theory may be widely applicable to arms races generally.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Competitivo , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Evolução Biológica , Cibernética , Armas
16.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(5): 690-693, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313174

RESUMO

The poor preservation of Palaeolithic sites rarely allows the recovery of wooden artefacts, which served as key tools in the arsenals of early hunters. Here, we report the discovery of a wooden throwing stick from the Middle Pleistocene open-air site of Schöningen that expands the range of Palaeolithic weaponry and establishes that late Lower Palaeolithic hominins in Northern Europe were highly effective hunters with a wide array of wooden weapons that are rarely preserved in the archaeological record.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Hominidae , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , Humanos , Armas
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182279

RESUMO

Before Europeans arrived to Eastern North America, prehistoric, indigenous peoples experienced a number of changes that culminated in the development of sedentary, maize agricultural lifeways of varying complexity. Inherent to these lifeways were several triggers of social stress including population nucleation and increase, intergroup conflict (warfare), and increased territoriality. Here, we examine whether this period of social stress co-varied with deadlier weaponry, specifically, the design of the most commonly found prehistoric archery component in late pre-contact North America: triangular stone arrow tips (TSAT). The examination of modern metal or carbon projectiles, arrows, and arrowheads has demonstrated that smaller arrow tips penetrate deeper into a target than do larger ones. We first experimentally confirm that this relationship applies to arrow tips made from stone hafted onto shafts made from wood. We then statistically assess a large sample (n = 742) of late pre-contact TSAT and show that these specimens are extraordinarily small. Thus, by miniaturizing their arrow tips, prehistoric people in Eastern North America optimized their projectile weaponry for maximum penetration and killing power in warfare and hunting. Finally, we verify that these functional advantages were selected across environmental and cultural boundaries. Thus, while we cannot and should not rule out stochastic, production economizing, or non-adaptive cultural processes as an explanation for TSAT, overall our results are consistent with the hypothesis that broad, socially stressful demographic changes in late pre-contact Eastern North America resulted in the miniaturization-and augmented lethality-of stone tools across the region.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos/história , Miniaturização , Fatores Sociológicos , Guerra/história , Armas/história , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , América do Norte , Crescimento Demográfico , Guerra/psicologia
20.
Biol Lett ; 16(3): 20190950, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183636

RESUMO

Once thought to be the magical horn of a unicorn, narwhal tusks are one of the most charismatic structures in biology. Despite years of speculation, little is known about the tusk's function, because narwhals spend most of their lives hidden underneath the Arctic ice. Some hypotheses propose that the tusk has sexual functions as a weapon or as a signal. By contrast, other hypotheses propose that the tusk functions as an environmental sensor. Since assessing the tusks function in nature is difficult, we can use the morphological relationships of tusk size with body size to understand this mysterious trait. To do so, we collected morphology data on 245 adult male narwhals over the course of 35 years. Based on the disproportional growth and large variation in tusk length we found, we provide the best evidence to date that narwhal tusks are indeed sexually selected. By combining our results on tusk scaling with known material properties of the tusk, we suggest that the narwhal tusk is a sexually selected signal that is used during male-male contests.


Assuntos
Gadiformes , Dente , Animais , Masculino , Fenótipo , Armas , Baleias
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...