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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925932

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to assess foodstuff storage throughout Recent Prehistory (5600-50 BCE) from the standpoint of the three different types (household, surplus and supra-household) identified in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. The volumetric data of the underground silos serves as a proxy to evaluate the link between them and the agricultural systems and technological changes. The study also assesses the ability, and specifically, the will of the ancient communities of the northeastern Iberia to generate domestic and extra-domestic surpluses.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Características da Família/história , Armazenamento de Alimentos/história , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo
2.
Environ Res ; 189: 109936, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980018

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an active pandemic that likely poses an existential threat to humanity. Frequent handwashing, social distancing, and partial or total lockdowns are among the suite of measures prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and being implemented across the world to contain the pandemic. However, existing inequalities in access to certain basic necessities of life (water, sanitation facility, and food storage) create layered vulnerabilities to COVID-19 and can render the preventive measures ineffective or simply counterproductive. We hypothesized that individuals in households without any of the named basic necessities of life are more likely to violate the preventive (especially lockdown) measures and thereby increase the risk of infection or aid the spread of COVID-19. Based on nationally-representative data for 25 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, multivariate statistical and geospatial analyses were used to investigate whether, and to what extent, household family structure is associated with in-house access to basic needs which, in turn, could reflect on a higher risk of COVID-19 infection. The results indicate that approximately 46% of the sampled households in these countries (except South Africa) did not have in-house access to any of the three basic needs and about 8% had access to all the three basic needs. Five countries had less than 2% of their households with in-house access to all three basic needs. Ten countries had over 50% of their households with no in-house access to all the three basic needs. There is a social gradient in in-house access between the rich and the poor, urban and rural richest, male- and female-headed households, among others. We conclude that SSA governments would need to infuse innovative gender- and age-sensitive support services (such as water supply, portable sanitation) to augment the preventive measures prescribed by the WHO. Short-, medium- and long-term interventions within and across countries should necessarily address the upstream, midstream and downstream determinants of in-house access and the full spectrum of layers of inequalities including individual, interpersonal, institutional, and population levels.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , África do Sul , Água
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946481

RESUMO

Light conditions in retail stores may contribute to potato greening. In this study, we aimed to develop a potato tuber greening risk rating model for retail stores based on light quality and intensity parameters. This was achieved by firstly exposing three potato varieties (Nicola, Maranca and Kennebec) to seven specific light wavelengths (370, 420, 450, 530, 630, 660 and 735 nm) to determine the tuber greening propensity. Detailed light quality and intensity measurements from 25 retail stores were then combined with the greening propensity data to develop a tuber greening risk rating model. Our study showed that maximum greening occurred under blue light (450 nm), while 53%, 65% and 75% less occurred under green (530 nm), red (660 nm) and orange (630 nm) light, respectively. Greening risk, which varied between stores, was found to be related to light intensity level, and partially explained potato stock loss in stores. Our results from this study suggested that other in-store management practices, including lighting duration, average potato turnover, and light protection during non-retail periods, likely influence tuber greening risk.


Assuntos
Luz/efeitos adversos , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Tubérculos/efeitos da radiação , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos da radiação , Verduras/efeitos da radiação , Comércio , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Iluminação/instrumentação , Iluminação/métodos , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Solanum tuberosum/economia , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Verduras/economia , Verduras/metabolismo
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1001-1009, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788519

RESUMO

To determine the food potential of Paeonia ludlowii D.Y.Hong (P. ludlowii) kernel oil, in this study, we analysed the fatty acid composition and volatile components of this oil, compared the antioxidant effects of two natural antioxidants on it, and then predicted its shelf life at room temperature (25°C). The results showed that P. ludlowii kernel oil mainly contained 20 fatty acids, of which linoleic acid, oleic acid and other unsaturated fatty acid contents together made up 86.99%. The aromatic composition of the crude P. ludlowii kernel oil was analysed, and 34 aromatic compounds were obtained, including 5 lipids (2.30%), 9 alcohols (12.64%), 6 aldehydes (14.67%), 2 alkanes (1.30%), 5 acids (2.70%), 1 ketone (0.41), 2 alkenes (39.12%) and 4 other substances (26.85%). The effects of the antioxidants were ranked as follows: 0.04% tea polyphenols + crude oil > 0.04% bamboo flavonoids + crude oil > crude oil. In addition, the shelf lives at room temperature (25℃) of each kernel oil-antioxidant mixture were 200.73 d, 134.90 d and 131.61 d, respectively. Overall, these results reveal that P. ludlowii kernel oil is a potential candidate for a new high-grade edible oil, and its development has broad application prospects.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Paeonia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/análise , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Food Chem ; 333: 127481, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663753

RESUMO

In this study, we tested the exogenous application of phytosulfokine α (PSKα) for delaying the yellowing of broccoli florets during cold storage. Our results showed that the lower yellowing in broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα was probably due to the higher endogenous accumulation of PSKα, leading to the endogenous accumulation of guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Besides, broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα exhibited a higher accumulation of phenols and flavonoids by triggering gene expression and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS). Moreover, the higher expression of L-galactotno-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) gene and the lower expression of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) gene in broccoli florets treated with 150 nM PSKα may be the reasons for the higher accumulation of ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the exogenous application of PSKα is a promising strategy in delaying the yellowing and preserving the nutritional quality of broccoli florets during cold storage.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Pigmentação/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1443-1457, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700103

RESUMO

The apple is a highly perishable fruit after harvesting and, therefore, several storage technologies have been studied to provide the consumer market with a quality product with a longer shelf life. However, little is known about the apple genome that is submitted to the storage, and even less with the application of ripening inhibitors. Due to these factors, this study sought to elucidate the transcriptional profile of apple cultivate Gala stored in a controlled atmosphere (AC) treated and not treated with 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP). Through the genetic mapping of the apple, applying the microarray technique, it was possible to verify the action of treatments on transcripts related to photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, response to hormonal stimuli, nucleic acid metabolism, reduction of oxidation, regulation of transcription and metabolism of cell wall and lipids. The results showed that the transcriptional profile in the entire genome of the fruit showed significant differences in the relative expression of the gene, this in response to CA in the presence and absence of 1-MCP. It should be noted that the transcription genes involved in the anabolic pathway were only maintained after six months in fruits treated with 1-MCP. The data in this work suggests that the apple in the absence of 1-MCP begins to prepare its metabolism to mature, even during the storage period in AC. Meanwhile, in the presence of the inhibitor, the transcriptional profile of the fruit is similar to that at the time of harvest. It was also found that a set of genes that code for ethylene receptors, auxin homeostasis, MADS Box, and NAC transcription factors may be involved in the regulation of post-harvest ripening after storage and in the absence of 1-MCP.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
Food Chem ; 332: 127375, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622189

RESUMO

Biopolymer films based on chitosan/potato protein/linseed oil/ZnO NPs were developed to maintain the storage quality of raw meat. Results indicated that the incorporation of ZnO NPs could effectively improve the transparency and tensile strength of the films, while addition of linseed oil could make the composite film maintain good elastic property. Films blended with chitosan/potato protein/linseed oil/ZnO NPs (Fcpzl) exhibited an excellent moisture barrier capability. SEM showed that ZnO NPs could harmoniously exist in various polymers matrix. FTIR analysis demonstrated that different components were bound together by intramolecular and intermolecular interactions, among which hydrogen bonds were the main force. Raw meat samples were wrapped with different films to evaluate the preservative effect during 4 °C storage. Results indicated that Fcpzl possessed best protective effect of raw meat with excellent acceptable sensory properties during 7 days storage, which could reduce the speed of increasing pH and total bacterial counts.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Carne , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Resistência à Tração
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235444, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614863

RESUMO

Commercial storage of potatoes often relies on the use of sprout inhibitors to prolong storage and reduce spoilage. The compound 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) has seen increase application as a sprout inhibitor in the potato industry as older chemistries are being phased out. The mode of action of DMN is poorly understood as is the sensitivity of potato tissues to this new class of inhibitor. During storage potato tubers transition from a state of endo-dormant to eco-dormant and it is not known if the DMN response is consistent across this developmental transition. RNA-seq gene expression profiling was used to establish if stored potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum cv La Chipper) have differential sensitivity to DMN as tubers age. DMN was applied at three different times during storage; just after harvest when tubers are in endo-dormancy, midwinter at early eco-dormancy, and in spring during late eco-dormancy when sprouting was prevented via exposure to cold storage temperatures. Changes in gene expression were lowest during endo-dormancy while midwinter and spring treatments exhibited a greater and more diverse expression response. Functional analysis of differential gene expression demonstrated gene sets associated with DNA replication, cell division, and DNA methylation are suppressed after DMN treatment. However, gene sets associated with salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abiotic and biotic stress responses are elevated by DMN only after endodormancy terminates. Gene clusters associated with pathogenesis related proteins PR-4 and PR-5 are also upregulated in response to DMN. These results indicate that DMN sensitivity changes as potato tubers age and transition from endo-dormant to eco-dormant in storage and the overall response is a shift in gene classes that regulate growth and response to stress.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Meristema , Dormência de Plantas , Tubérculos , Solanum tuberosum , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/metabolismo , Naftalenos/química , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 332: 127406, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615387

RESUMO

Hot peppers are sensitive to low temperature, and seed browning significantly reduces the fruit quality. This study aims to clarify the mechanisms of seed browning in terms of metabolite changes. Metabolites were analysed during a 30-day-storage period at 2 °C and 10 °C. Gamma-aminobutyric acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and isoleucine concentrations were significantly higher at 2 °C storage than at 10 °C. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was associated with seed browning. Transcription of jasmonic acid synthesis and ROS scavenging genes were higher in hot peppers stored at 2 °C than those stored at 10 °C. This study elucidated the mechanisms underlying seed browning and chill damage in hot peppers during storage at low temperatures and our findings may help improve hot peppers' quality following harvesting.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 332: 127415, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619945

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the combined effect of storage at 4 °C (10-days) and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the phytochemical profile of red beet (Beta vulgaris) and amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) microgreens. The untargeted profiling based on UHPLC-QTOF metabolomics allowed annotating 316 compounds, comprising mainly polyphenols and lipids. An impact of storage on the total phenolic content (TPC) was observed, with a maximum increase at 10-days of storage for both red beet (+1.3-fold) and amaranth (+1.1-fold). On the other hand, in vitro digestion of both red beet and amaranth microgreens produced a significant increase in TPC (36-88%), CUPRAC (27-40%), DPPH (6-43%), and BC (41-57%) to reach the maximum at 10 days of storage. Tyrosinase inhibitory potential also decreased following digestion. The combination of biochemical changes occurring in microgreen immature plants (likely in response to the harvest stress) with changes during digestion, determined the actual functional value of microgreens.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Digestão , Análise Discriminante , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 332: 127416, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619946

RESUMO

Water bamboo shoots quickly deteriorate after harvest as a result of rapid lignification and softening. Nitric oxide (NO) has been used to extend the postharvest life of several other vegetables. Here, we examined the effect of NO on the storage of water bamboo shoots at 4℃ for 28 days. Without NO, fresh weight and firmness decreased quickly, while the cellulose and lignin contents increased sharply during storage. NO treatment delayed softening by maintaining the integrity of the cell wall and inhibiting the degradation of protopectin and the expressions of pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase. NO treatment also delayed cellulose synthesis by increasing cellulase activity. NO treatment decreased the synthesis of lignin by inhibiting the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, laccase and peroxidase. These results indicate that NO treatment is effective at suppressing the softening and lignification of water bamboo shoots during postharvest storage.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Lignina/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 331: 127352, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652343

RESUMO

The influence of some additives, including metal ions, antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and organic solvents, on the storage stability of four organophosphorus pesticides in cucumber samples were investigated. It was found that metal ions, including Al3+, Fe3+, and Co2+, increased the stability of dichlorvos, malathion, and chlorpyrifos. Conversely, Al3+, Fe3+, Fe2+, and Co2+ caused catalytic degradation of diazinon. With the addition of organic solvents (CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3OH and CH3COCH3), remaining of diazinon residues was higher (16-54%) after storage for seven days. CCl4 was associated with the highest retention of malathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos (33%, 48% and 44%, respectively) in samples. SDS also stabilized the pesticides since residues were, again, higher (13-38%) after seven days storage. Furthermore, addition of Al3+ and Fe3+ decreased peroxidase (POD) activity and inhibited degradation of dichlorvos and malathion. After 14 days, lyophilization increased the pesticide residues remaining by 36%, 29%, and 58% for diazinon, malathion and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Overall, the stability of these pesticides during storage is impacted by water content and addition of exogenous substances. This could ensure higher quality of pesticide residue data in samples.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Inseticidas/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Alumínio/química , Clorpirifos/análise , Clorpirifos/química , Diazinon/análise , Diazinon/química , Diclorvós/análise , Diclorvós/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Liofilização , Inseticidas/análise , Malation/análise , Malation/química , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Oxirredutases/química , Peroxidases/química , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Água/química
13.
Food Chem ; 333: 127442, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673950

RESUMO

Betalains are violet-red, natural food grade pigments with health benefits; however, their stability limits its use in industrial food processing. This can be overcome by placing the betalains in lecithin nanoliposomes (NLs), which causes a 76% improvement of betalain colour and stability. Extended sonication time (8 min) lowered the zeta potential (-47.5 to -40.8), and particle size (74.23 to 55.35 nm). Zeta potential, particle size, and polydispersity index of Betalain NLs (BNLs) didn't change significantly during storage (40 days). Degradation in the colour of BNLs was observed only at 121 °C (20 min) while the native juice degraded at 100 °C (20 min). BNLs were incorporated in gummy candies (GuCa) to improve its colour stability. The betalain retention, colour, texture, antioxidant activity, and shelf-life of the GuCa during storage (5 °C, 28 days) demonstrated the efficacy of BNLs to be explored as a natural colourant for the food industry.


Assuntos
Betalaínas/química , Doces , Caryophyllales/química , Frutas/química , Lipossomos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cor , Dieta Vegana , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Paladar , Temperatura
14.
Food Chem ; 333: 127500, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693317

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to optimize the condition of ultrasonic treatment combined with aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on nitrate content of spinach by response surface methodology (RSM), and determine the effectiveness of ultrasound (US) and ClO2 alone and in combination, on spinach postharvest quality during 7 days' storage period. The optimal treatment parameters obtained were ultrasonic power (300 W), ClO2 concentration (50 ppm), treatment time (4 min). The combined treatments significantly reduced the nitrate content and maintained better storage quality in terms of total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid content compared with the individual treatment or untreated. For Chlorophyll content, the combined treatment was significantly higher than the control and ClO2 treatment, but lower than ultrasonic treatment. The results demonstrated that US combined with ClO2 are promising alternatives for the reduction of nitrate content, as well as preserving the quality of stored leafy vegetables.


Assuntos
Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos/farmacologia , Spinacia oleracea/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Clorofila/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/química , Spinacia oleracea/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/química , Verduras/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559209

RESUMO

In meat processing, antimicrobial treatment applied during slaughter and deboning may not control pathogens and spoilage organisms during subsequent transportation and storage. "Functional Ice" (FICE), an innovation over traditional ice, was investigated for its effects on food safety, shelf life, and quality of raw poultry thigh meat during refrigerated storage. FICE was prepared by freezing aqueous solutions of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (2.5% and 5% w/v) and sodium lactate-sodium diacetate (SL-SD) (1% and 2.5% v/v). Potable water was used to prepare ice for the control treatment. Thigh meat inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (108 CFU/sample) was placed in FICE treatments, stored at 4 °C and sampled at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h (n = 375). Weight pick-up was recorded for the uninoculated thighs. Additionally, shelf life and quality were evaluated for 8 days on tray-packed thighs that were stored in FICE treatments for 48 h (STPP 5%, and SL-SD 2.5%). Differences among treatments were determined using ANOVA with LSMeans (p ≤ 0.05). Results indicated that inoculated thighs stored in individual STPP 5%, and SL-SD 2.5% treatments lead to a significant reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium compared to the control (p ≤ 0.05) after 48 h of storage. FICE treated thighs showed higher yields, lower cook loss, and an extended shelf life of 1-2 days, without any color changes. FICE has the potential to improve food safety and shelf life while improving the yields and quality during storage and transportation of raw poultry meat.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Polifosfatos/química , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactato de Sódio/química , Lactato de Sódio/farmacologia
17.
Food Chem ; 331: 127192, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569963

RESUMO

Melatonin and serotonin are bioactive compounds present in foods and beverages and related to neuroprotection and anti-angiogenesis, among other activities. They have been described in wines and the role of yeast in their formation is clear. Thus, this study evaluates the content of these bioactives and other related indolic compounds in beer. For this purpose, commercial beers were analyzed by a validated UHPLC-HRMS method and sample treatment optimized due to the low concentrations expected. Moreover, a wort was fermented with different commercial beer yeast (Abbaye, Diamond, SafAle, SafLager) in order to monitor the formation of these bioactives during the elaboration process. Results show that indolic compounds such as N-acetylserotonin and 3-indoleacetic acid are produced during the alcoholic fermentation of wort. Moreover, the occurrence of four indolic compounds (5-hydroxytryptophan, N-acetylserotonin, 3-indoleacetic acid, l-tryptophan ethyl ester) in commercial beers is reported for the first time.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Cerveja/microbiologia , Indóis/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Bebidas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Indóis/análise , Melatonina/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Serotonina/análogos & derivados , Temperatura , Triptofano/análogos & derivados
18.
Food Chem ; 330: 127256, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540529

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of different 1-MCP treatment patterns on alleviating chilling injury (CI) of postharvest nectarine stored at 0 ± 1 °C. Nectarine fruits were subjected to the following treatments: Single-High dose 1-MCP treatment (S-H): 1 µL L-1 application before storage; Multi-low dose 1-MCP treatment: (M-L) Five 0.25 µL L-1 applications after 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 d of storage; Multi-high dose 1-MCP treatment (M-H): Five 1 µL L-1 applications after 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 d of storage. The results showed that although all 1-MCP treatments alleviated CI, M-H 1-MCP treatment is the most effective pattern in alleviating CI of nectarine fruit in S-H, M-L, and M-H 1-MCP treatments. Moreover, this study indicated that the reduction of CI in nectarine by 1-MCP application was related to its regulations of ROS and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Prunus/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Metabolismo Energético , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Néctar de Plantas , Prunus/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 328: 127040, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512467

RESUMO

Wine ageing in barrels is conditioned, among other factors, by the amount of oxygen received during this process, which thus impacts its final properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxygen on wine colour during ageing in barrels and bottles during different times. The use of barrels with different and known rates of oxygenation allows the effect of different oxygenation conditions throughout the process in barrels and its later evolution in bottles. A simulation process of ageing in bottles was used to study the impact of bottling in wines after differing ageing periods in barrels. The study of winés oxygen consumption capacity has been tied to colour modifications during ageing in barrels and bottles. Wines aged in barrels with a high oxygenation rate showed greater avidity to consume oxygen taking less time to consume that available, which is reflected in a greater increase in colour intensity.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Oxigênio/química , Vinho/análise , Cor , Cinética , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Food Chem ; 331: 127358, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593795

RESUMO

Saffron, stigmas of Crocus sativus, is one of the most precious spices used as food colorant and flavoring agent. Due to its scarce source and high cost, it is liable to fraudulent admixture with allied plants "safflower and calendula". In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine authenticity, adulterants detection, and to assess the roasting impact on its aroma. A total of 93 volatiles were identified belonging to different classes viz. aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatics, mono-and sesquiterpenes, oxides/ethers and pyrans/furans. Principle component analysis (PCA) identified safranal and 2-caren-10-al as discriminatory volatile markers of saffron from its allied flowers, later found enriched in estragole, ß-caryophyllene and eugenol. PCA model also revealed markers for freshly dried versus long-stored saffron, with ketoisophorone as freshness marker versus safranal as an ageing indicator. Safranal was further identified as a marker to distinguish saffron from safflower, whereas calendula aroma was predominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Especiarias/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Calendula/química , Carthamus tinctorius/química , Cicloexanonas/análise , Cicloexenos , Flores/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Irã (Geográfico) , Odorantes/análise , Espanha , Terpenos
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