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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMO

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
2.
Se Pu ; 37(9): 955-962, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642299

RESUMO

An improved method to screen 52 pesticide residues in flavored tea using QuEChERS coupled with liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) has been investigated. The flavored tea was extracted with acetonitrile and purified using by primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) and C18 sorbent. The resultant residues were then analyzed using LC-Q-TOF-MS. The recoveries of all the pesticides in flavored tea at the four spiked levels of 10, 20, 50 and 100 µg/kg were 70%-120% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were less than 20%. The calibration curves of the 52 pesticide residues had good linear relationships, and the correlation coefficients were more than 0. 99. The screening detection limits (SDLs) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) for the 52 pesticides were in the range of 0.001-0.01 mg/kg and 0.002-0.02 mg/kg, respectively, which were lower than maximum residue limits standard permitted by the European Union (EU). This method is simple, rapid, reliable, and can meet the requirements for the simultaneous determination of 52 pesticide residues in flavored tea.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Chá/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Aromatizantes , Espectrometria de Massas
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12219-12227, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613626

RESUMO

Quantification, using an accurate analytical approach, of capsinoids and capsaicinoids was performed on three chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes: "Chiltepín", "Tampiqueño 74", and "Bhut Jolokia" at various stages of fruit development. The accumulation of capsinoids, in all these peppers started between 10 to 20 days post-anthesis (dpa), increased and reached the highest capsinoid amount at 40 dpa, and then decreased until 60 dpa. Conversely, capsaicinoids could already be determined at 10 dpa in "Bhut Jolokia" and their accumulation pattern was different from that of the capsinoids in this genotype. The capsiate/dihydrocapsiate ratio presented a higher variation between genotypes and developmental stages than the capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin ratio. Capsinoid ratios (4-24%) and Pun1/pAMT genotyping were determined. These results provide information on the progress of the accumulation of capsinoids in the aforementioned pungent and superhot cultivars and could support future breeding studies toward the understanding of the factors affecting their accumulation.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Capsaicina/análise , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
5.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(5): 393-396, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513538

RESUMO

The July-August 2019 issue of the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding includes part 1 of a 3-part article on the topic of excipients used in nonsterile compounding. This article, which discusses dosage form design and excipients related to appearance, palatability, flavoring, sweetening, and coloring, represents part 2 of this 3-part series. Part 3 will discuss preservatives used in nonsterile preparations. The topics presented in part 2 are very important for patient compliance. The colors, flavors, sweetening, appearance, and other dosage form characteristics can often be modified to enhance compliance by the patient, which can aid in therapeutic effectiveness.


Assuntos
Excipientes , Aromatizantes , Administração Tópica , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11454-11463, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529950

RESUMO

Commercial fragrant rapeseed oil (CFRO), from roasted and hot-pressed seeds, is enjoyed in China for its unique aroma. However, the characteristic of aroma-active compounds in CFRO is still unclear. In this study, a new odor monolithic material sorptive extraction method was established to trap volatiles from rapeseed oil. Thirty CFROs were investigated using this method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 29 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry including pyrazines, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds. Further, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (peanut-like), 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine (roasted nut-like), dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage-like), 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene (pungent and pickle-like), butyrolactone (caramel-like), and benzyl nitrile (pungent and sulfur-like) are affirmed as the key odorants for the overall aroma of CFRO, owing to their odor activity values ≥1. This work provides a new insight on acquiring aroma-active compounds from rapeseed oil in a more time-effective process compared to conventional methods. Futhermore, this novel approach is applicable in the field of food flavor.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adsorção , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Olfatometria , Óleo de Brassica napus/economia , Sementes/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2449-2457, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476250

RESUMO

Caper (Capparis spinosa) is an important food ingredient whose fresh parts, particularly the flower buds, are consumed as a starter with olives, cheese, and nuts, or are used as a component in other foods. It is one of the most popular species of aromatic plants grown in the Mediterranean zone. Fermentation makes the caper edible and affects the overall aroma as well as sensory and nutritional characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in aroma, aroma-active, and phenolic compounds of caper as affected by fermentation. Purge and trap method was used for the extraction of the aroma compounds, while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry olfactometry and Liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) were employed for the detection of aroma-active compounds and phenolics, respectively. The results showed that the total amount of aroma compounds decreased drastically (62,616 to 21,471 µg/kg) in fermented sample. Twelve and 10 aroma-active compounds were detected in fresh and fermented caper buds, respectively, for the first time by the application of aroma extract dilution analysis. Among these compounds, methyl isothiocyanate (flavor dilution [FD] factor = 512) in fresh caper and acetic acid (FD factor = 128) in the fermented caper had the highest FD factor. With regard to the phenolic compounds, a total of 16 components were identified in fresh and fermented capers. As observed in aroma compounds, the total phenolic concentration decreased as a result of fermentation. Two phenolic compounds being kaempferol-3-O-glucosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside and isorhamnetin hexoside were newly identified in caper. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Capparis spinosa is one of the most popular sources of different secondary metabolites of interest to consumers. The results of the present study showed that the fermentation process of the capers is highly influential on the neutral composition of the sample. The total concentrations of aroma and phenolic compounds were reduced by 66% and 78%, respectively, in response to fermentation process.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Capparis/química , Aromatizantes/química , Reatores Biológicos , Cromatografia Líquida , Fermentação , Alimentos Fermentados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10694-10701, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476866

RESUMO

Too large of a higher alcohol content has negative effects on the liquor taste and health. Revealing the key microbes and their key driving forces is essential to regulate the higher alcohol content in spontaneous liquor fermentation. Herein, we used high-throughput sequencing associated with a multivariate statistical algorithm to reveal the contributing microbes for higher alcohol production in Chinese light-aroma-type liquor and identified that Saccharomyces and Pichia were the main contributors. In addition, the C/N ratio and microbial interaction were found to significantly affect the production of higher alcohols. Herein, we used response surface methodology to establish a predictive model for higher alcohol production with the regulating factors, and the content of total higher alcohols decreased significantly from 328.80 ± 24.83 to 114.88 ± 5.02 mg/L with the optimized levels of the regulators. This work would facilitate the control of flavor production via regulating microbial communities in food fermentation.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Álcoois/metabolismo , Interações Microbianas , Pichia/fisiologia , Saccharomyces/fisiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Álcoois/análise , Aromatizantes/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10137-10144, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423769

RESUMO

Volatile extractive compounds from high-quality oak wood (Quercus sp.) are responsible for important pleasant olfactory notes, such as coconut, wood, vanilla, caramel, and spice. Recently, a new off-flavor reminiscent of rancid butter has been detected in oak wood. Using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled to several detection modes, such as nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-O-NPD) or mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and multidimensional GC-O coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, six compounds containing nitrogen atoms were identified. The volatiles were suggested to belong to 2,5-disubstituted pyrazines family, which was confirmed by comparison with synthetic reference compounds. For this purpose, symmetric and dissymmetric 2,5-dialkylpyrazines were prepared from methyl esters of corresponding aliphatic amino acids (Val, Leu, and Ile) by a three-step, one-pot reaction under mild reducing conditions. Organoleptic descriptors and odor detection thresholds were also determined, whereas a bacterial origin explaining these off-flavors was hypothesized.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Pirazinas/química , Quercus/química , Madeira/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10195-10206, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436982

RESUMO

Pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) is successfully conjugated with gum arabic (GA) through Maillard-driven chemistry. The effect of cross-linking conjugation on the structure, solubility, volatile substances, emulsification, and antioxidative activity of glyco-PPH is investigated, and found to improve all properties. The formation of glyco-PPH is confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Size exclusion chromatography-multi angle light scattering (SEC-MALS) unveils that the maximum molecular mass of glyco-PPH occurs after 1 day of conjugation and approximately 1.2 mol of gum arabic conjugates on one mole of PPH. Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) reveals the odor changes of glycoprotein before and after cross-linking. We have also prepared oil-in-water emulsions using glyco-PPH, which have enhanced physical stability against pH changes and chemical stability against lipid oxidation. The mechanism proposed involves Maillard-driven synthesis of the cross-linked PPH-GA conjugates, which increase the surface hydrophilicity and steric hindrance of glyco-PPH. These findings could provide a rational foundation for tailoring the physicochemical properties and functionalities of plant-based protein, which are attractive for food and functional materials applications.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/síntese química , Goma Arábica/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Antioxidantes/química , Emulsões/química , Aromatizantes/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Reação de Maillard , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Solubilidade
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 306: 108271, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377413

RESUMO

Fermented vegetables have a long history in many cultures. Jiang-shui and Suan-cai are two of the most well-known instances in North China. They are made by a process of natural lactic acid fermentation. However, they have the different characteristics, i.e. acidity, taste and flavor, which are influenced by the specific bacterial community. Therefore, we used high-throughput sequencing methods to identify the bacterial community structure of Jiang-shui and Suan-cai in this study. Subsequently, we figured out the bacterial differences of these two products using the statistical analysis. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in both Jiang-shui and Suan-cai. However, Lactobacillus was the main genus in Jiang-shui samples, whereas both Lactobacillus and Pediococcus were the major genera in the Suan-cai samples. At the species level, Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus pontis were the major species in Jiang-shui samples, while Pediococcus parvulus, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus parabrevis were the dominant species in the Suan-cai samples. These results suggested that Jiang-shui and Suan-cai had their own unique bacterial community, leading to the specific characteristics. Furthermore, the bacterial communities of both fermented vegetables varied at different locations. This study revealed the flora present in the Jiang-shui and the Suan-cai, providing a deep insight of the microbial species of Chinese fermented vegetables and guidance for the production of the Jiang-shui and the Suan-cai.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Pediococcus/isolamento & purificação , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/microbiologia , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/genética , Pediococcus/genética , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2441-2448, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429494

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the volatile profile of Kedong sufu, which is a typical bacteria-fermented soybean product in China, using solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and to reveal the evolution and diversity of flavor substances for this specialty. A total of 75 compounds were identified, including 35 esters, 4 alcohols, 4 phenols, 4 aldehydes, 7 acids, 10 ketones, and 11 other compounds from sufu samples during ripening. Some volatile compounds increased with ripening time, especially hexadecenoic acid ethyl ester, methoxy acetic acid pentyl ester, benzene propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl 9-hexadecenoate, ethyl oleate, ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 5-methoxy-1-pentanol, and eugenol; these compounds enriched the flavors and provided the typical savory taste of Kedong sufu. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research elucidated the formation of flavor substances in sufu. For traditional fermented foods, this study provides a scientific basis for promoting the generation of typical flavor substances and for the precise determination of maturity time.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Paladar
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2373-2386, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449338

RESUMO

Chinese rice wine (CRW) is an ancient wine with a moderate alcohol content; it has been prized in China for its color, sweet flavor profile, and is a national beverage typically used in banquets. Wheat Qu is the starter used to make CRW, and plays a vital role in the quality and flavor profile. This review details the raw materials and the wheat Qu manufacturing process, and recent information on wheat Qu microbiotas. The volatile compounds in wheat Qus and its flavor are also reviewed. Finally, the enzymes, and metabolites contained in wheat Qu, such as biogenic amines, are also discussed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/química , Microbiota , Oryza/microbiologia , Vinho/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Oryza/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia
14.
Food Chem ; 301: 125282, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387036

RESUMO

The main contributors to the cooked off-flavor in heat-sterilized lychee juice (HLJ) were studied by means of molecular sensory science. The HLJ which elicited cooked cabbage/potato and onion/garlic off-flavor was compared with fresh lychee juice (FLJ) having desired sensory attributes via chemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitative analysis and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) were conducted on both FLJ and HLJ. The results showed that compared with FLJ, 15 compounds had increased OAVs in HLJ, among which, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methional, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 2,4-dithiapentane presented cooked cabbage/potato, garlic/onion and sulfurous impression. The omission experiment proved that DMS, methional, DMTS, DMDS, 3-methylbutanal and 2,4-dithiapentane had significantly negative effects on the overall aroma of HLJ. Further studies on HLJs from other varieties of lychee confirmed that DMS, methional, DMTS, DMDS and 3-methylbutanal were responsible for the cooked off-flavor of HLJ in general.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Temperatura Alta , Litchi/química , Culinária , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Esterilização , Paladar
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10401-10411, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441654

RESUMO

This research applied inhibitors to reduce the content of cooked off-flavor components (dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde) in heat-treated melon juice. The effects of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the formation and release of these four volatile sulfur compounds were also investigated. Results showed that GOD strongly inhibited the formation of the four compounds. In GOD-treated melon juice, S-methylmethionine was strongly protonated and not easily degraded into dimethyl sulfide. Moreover, the release of the dimethyl sulfide that did form was restrained by the hydrophobic interactions of gluconic acid and oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, gluconic acid (or glucose) and hydrogen peroxide could form a stable complex with methionine in an acidic matrix and thus prevented the methionine from producing 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide by the Maillard reaction during heat processing.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Culinária , Cucurbitaceae/enzimologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/enzimologia , Glucose Oxidase/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Paladar
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10713-10725, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453702

RESUMO

Converting peanut protein biomass waste into environmentally friendly meat substitutes by a high-moisture extrusion process can help solve both resource and waste problems and be "double green". A multiscale method combined with some emerging techniques such as atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy and X-ray microscopy was used to make the whole extrusion process visible to show the process of forming a meat-like fibrous structure using two-dimensional and three-dimensional perspectives. The results showed that the protein molecules underwent dramatic structural changes and unfolded in the extruder barrel, which created favorable conditions for molecular rearrangement in the subsequent zones. It was confirmed that the meat-like fibrous structure started to form at the junction of the die and the cooling zone and that this structure was caused by the phase separation and rearrangement of protein molecules in the cooling zone. Moreover, the interactions between hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds formed in the cooling zone maintained the meat-like fibrous structure with an α-helix > ß-sheet > ß-turn > random coil. Of the two main peanut proteins, arachin played a greater role in forming the fibrous structure than conarachin, especially those subunits of arachin with a molecular weight of 42, 39, and 22 kDa.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Aromatizantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Resíduos/análise , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Química Verde , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Raios Infravermelhos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Proteica
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8599-8608, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287302

RESUMO

Because foods are perceived through combined inputs from taste and odor, which are determined by the concentration of the individual odor and taste molecules, the unified high-throughput quantitation of volatile odorants and non-volatile tastants with the very same instrumental setup has been a long-standing but yet unmet dream. The research presented here for the first time demonstrates, after only minimal sample workup, the highly accurate, rapid, and sensitive unified quantitation of odorants and tastants of key flavor molecules in apple juice on a single ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) platform over a large dynamic range of up to 6 orders of magnitude. While flavor-active aldehydes, ketones, and organic acids were analyzed after derivatization with 3-nitrophenylhydrazine, taste-active polyphenols and odor-active esters were directly analyzed by means of UHPLC-MS/MS with and without target analyte enrichment through stir-bar sorptive extraction. This "unified flavor quantitation" approach holds promise to accelerate the transition of today's labor and time-consuming, low-throughput analysis of odorants and tastants into a new era of high-performance quantitation of key flavor molecules.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Aromatizantes/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
18.
Journal of Oral Investigations ; 8(2): 49-58, jul.-dez. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1007257

RESUMO

Objetivos: O condicionamento da superfície dos tecidos dentários duros com ácido fosfórico 35% é normalmente utilizado para fornecer retenção micromecânica para adesivos odontológicos. Quando lavado da superfície, o ácido pode gerar gosto amargo e desagradável ao paladar do paciente. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o efeito da adição de um agente aromatizante à composição do gel de ácido fosfórico 35% e investigar se existe alteração de características fundamentais deste material, como sua capacidade de desmineralizar a superfície dentária. Métodos: Além de um grupo controle (sem flavorizante), foram testados grupos de ácido fosfórico 35% com a adição de 0,5% ou 3% do aromatizante (Aroma Abacaxi Pó; Bio Green Ingredients). Foram realizadas análises de viscosidade, estabilidade do pH e de desmineralização da superfície de esmalte condicionada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, além de teste de resistência de união ao esmalte por microcisalhamento. Resultados: Apesar dos grupos apresentarem pequenas diferenças entre si, nenhuma das alterações se mostrou significativa, exceto o aumento da viscosidade do gel contendo 3% do aromatizante. Conclusões: A adição de agente aromatizante ao gel condicionador de ácido fosfórico 35% parece ser alternativa viável para reduzir os problemas relacionados ao contato com o sabor desagradável do material, uma vez que não promoveu alteração negativa significativa nas características e comportamento do ácido(AU)


Objectives: Etching of dental hard tissues surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid is usually used to provide micromechanical interlocking with dental adhesives. When washed from the surface, the acid can cause a bitter taste unpleasant to the patient. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the addition of a flavoring agent to 35% phosphoric acid gel and investigate whether there is change in the fundamental characteristics of this material, including its ability to demineralize dental surfaces. Methods: In addition to a control group (without flavoring agent), groups were tested with the addition of 0.5% or 3% of the flavoring compound (pineapple flavor powder, Bio Green Ingredients) to 35% phosphoric acid. Analyses of viscosity, pH stability and demineralization of enamel surfaces by scanning electron microscopy were carried out, as well microshear bond strength to enamel. Results: Although the groups had minor differences among themselves, none of the changes were significant, except the increased viscosity of the gel containing 3% of the flavoring agent. Conclusions: The addition of flavoring agent to 35% phosphoric acid gel conditioner seems to be a viable alternative to reduce the problems related to contact with the unpleasant taste of the material, since it promoted no negative changes in the characteristics and behavior of the acid(AU)


Assuntos
Ácidos Fosfóricos , Materiais Dentários , Aromatizantes , Ataque Ácido Dentário , Desmineralização do Dente , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6444-6454, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a close relationship between certain 'aging markers' in wine and the wine's age. This study aimed to characterize all extracted aging markers in Chinese rice wine and distinguish the ages of Chinese rice wine using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). RESULTS: A total of 49 potential aging markers (P ≤ 0.05*) were extracted from 71 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Chinese rice wine across a range of seven different ages. Of all 49 extracted aging markers, all furans, 2/3 aldehydes and ketones maintained significantly increasing levels with age (P ≤ 0.01**), especially sotolon (0.981**) and acetophenone (0.951**). On the other hand, all sulfides decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.01**). Changes in vanillin, guaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG) also suggested a potential synthesis during the aging process. The results of PCA and CA demonstrated that Chinese rice wines with different ages could be clearly distinguished from each other, which was consistent with the evolution of the 49 aging markers during the aging process. CONCLUSION: These 49 potential 'aging markers' successfully distinguished ages using PCA and CA. Our results therefore throw light on the characterization of VOCs during Chinese rice wine aging, and provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the ages of Chinese rice wine. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , China , Aromatizantes/química , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Odorantes/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6644-6648, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apple juice is rich in polyphenolic compounds, especially in chlorogenic acid. A sour and bitter taste has been attributed to the compound. Chlorogenic acid in coffee powder was quickly hydrolysed by a p-coumaryl esterase of Rhizoctonia solani (RspCAE) at its optimal pH of 6.0. It was unknown, however, if RspCAE would also degrade chlorogenic acid under the strongly acidic conditions (pH 3.3) present in apple juice. RESULTS: Treatment of apple juice with RspCAE led to a chlorogenic acid degradation from 53.38 ± 0.94 mg L-1 to 21.02 ± 1.47 mg L-1 . Simultaneously, the caffeic acid content increased from 6.72 ± 0.69 mg L-1 to 19.33 ± 1.86 mg/L-1 . The aroma profile of the enzymatically treated sample and a control sample differed in only one volatile. Vitispirane had a higher flavour dilution factor in the treated juice. Sensory analysis showed no significant difference in the taste profile ( p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated a high stability and substrate specificity of RspCAE. An increase in caffeic acid and a concurrent decrease in chlorogenic acid concentration may exert a beneficial effect on human health. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/química , Esterases/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Malus/química , Rhizoctonia/enzimologia , Aromatizantes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Odorantes/análise , Especificidade por Substrato
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