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1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127721, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763731

RESUMO

The major aroma-active compounds in clear red raspberry juice were identified by molecular sensory science approaches. Thirty-one aroma-active compounds were identified using detection frequency analysis and aroma extract dilution analysis. Among them, 18 volatiles with aroma activity in red raspberry were identified for the first time, while 14 volatiles with odor activity values (OAVs) ≥ 1 were confirmed as the major aroma-active compounds. Three C6 aldehydes showed the highest detection frequencies of 8, and ß-ionone exhibited the highest OAV of 9507 and flavor dilution factor of 512, which indicated that the floral and grassy note could be dominant in overall aroma. Quantitative descriptive analysis suggested that the grassy, floral, woody, and caramel-like notes can be simulated using aroma recombination model 1. Electronic nose analysis also demonstrated that model 1 had closer similarity to the original juice than others. The combination strategy used here would help improve the knowledge of red raspberry aroma.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Rubus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Análise Discriminante , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Norisoprenoides/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Rubus/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
2.
Food Chem ; 335: 127643, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745841

RESUMO

The current study was focused on new approaches for debittering of by-products like kinnow pomace and kinnow pulp residue by using various food grade mild chemical methods, such as alkali treatment, acid treatment, and solventogenesis. Whereas in the studied various chemical treatments, the solventogenesis method with acetone resulted in maximum extraction of naringin and limonene from kinnow pomace and pulp residue and showed high acceptability for food product development. The acetone treatment was further optimized by RSM for the maximum extraction of naringin and limonene. Under optimized conditions, the maximum amount of naringin and limonene extracted were found to be 8.955, 2.122 mg/g from kinnow pomace and 9.971, 3.838 mg/g from pulp residue, respectively. This process can not only result in the effective utilization of agro-industrial by-product but also provide a sustainable solution to the environmental pollution caused by kinnow juice industry.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise , Flavanonas/análise , Flavanonas/isolamento & purificação , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Limoneno/análise , Limoneno/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Paladar
3.
Food Chem ; 333: 127451, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683255

RESUMO

Castration may decrease off-odors and improve meat flavor. Meat flavor is generated through complex chemical reactions that involve hydrophilic and hydrophobic flavor precursors. In this study, we investigated the flavor precursors in psoas major muscles of castrated and intact sheep using lipidomics and targeted metabolomics. Castration decreased testosterone levels and increased intramuscular fat content. Six hundred fourteen lipid molecules confirmed showed a separation between castrated and intact sheep based on principal component analysis. Fourteen lipid species and 224 lipid molecules increased in castrated sheep. Targeted metabolomics analysis showed that 18 hydrophilic metabolites were affected by castration; however, only hypoxanthine significantly increased in the castration group. Among 45 volatiles identified, 1-octen-3-ol and hexanal were significantly higher in castrated sheep. These results revealed that lipids, hydrophilic metabolites, and volatile compounds in lamb were affected by castration, which might be beneficial in lamb quality.


Assuntos
Carne , Orquiectomia , Músculos Psoas/química , Músculos Psoas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Paladar , Animais , Estradiol/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Carne/análise , Metabolômica , Odorantes/análise , Testosterona/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461191, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540059

RESUMO

Trapping volatiles is a convenient way to study aroma compounds but it is important to determine which volatile trapping method is most comprehensive in extracting the most relevant aroma components when investigating complex food products. Awareness of their limitations is also crucial. (Un)targeted metabolomic approaches were used to determine the volatile profiles of two commercial flavourings. Four trapping techniques were tested as was the addition of salt to the mixture. Comprehensiveness and repeatability were compared and SBSE proved particularly suitable for extracting components such as polysulfides, pyrazines and terpene alcohols, and provided an overall broader chemical spectrum. SPME proved to be more suitable in extracting sesquiterpenes and DHS in extracting monoterpenes. Adding salt to the sample had only quantitative effects on volatiles as detected by SPME. These results help clarify the advantages and limitations of different trapping techniques and hence deliver a valuable decision tool for food matrix analysis.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Metabolômica , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Odorantes , Pirazinas/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sulfetos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 330: 127156, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531631

RESUMO

Rice bran (RB) and wheat bran (WB) fermented with L. plantarum 423 had enhanced odor intensity, especially for sulfides and aromatics. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (73.28 ± 3.18%) and oxygen radical-scavenging activity (2.12 ± 0.08 mmol·TE/g) of RB fermentation broth were better than those of WB fermentation broth. Even at 2 µg/ml, the purified antioxidant fractions from the WB fermentation broth showed strong intracellular ROS-scavenging activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the purified antioxidant fractions (200 µg/ml) from the RB fermentation broth had a good antiaging effect. The dominant antioxidant components in the RB and WB fermentation broths were acids (70.21%) and ketones (10.64%), these components jointly give the RB and WB fermentation broths a variety of antioxidant properties. These results are beneficial for developing RB and WB deep-processing technology and laid the foundation for the preparation of antioxidant fractions with L. plantarum 423.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Células Cultivadas , Nariz Eletrônico , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Oryza/química , Triticum/química
6.
Food Chem ; 328: 127046, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470773

RESUMO

Wheat bran was solid state fermented by Fomitopsis pinicola. The results showed that the processing properties were increased by fermentation and the content of total phenol and alkylresorcinols was 5.91 and 1.55 times of the unfermented bran respectively by the 6th day. The total antioxidant capacity was 5.73 times of the unfermented sample by the 4th day. Electronic nose analysis showed that the fermented wheat bran had a special flavor. GC-MS analysis found that 4-ethyl-2-methoxy-phenol was the main flavor substance, which was sharply increased during the fermentation. Furthermore, the textural properties of the dough and bread containing fermented bran were significantly improved. The content of phytic acid in the bread was significantly decreased, while the protein, total phenol and alkylresorcinols contents were significantly increased. Results suggest that solid state fermentation by Fomitopsis pinicola is a promising way to improve wheat bran to a nutritious and flavorful cereal food ingredient.


Assuntos
Coriolaceae/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Pão/análise , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Resorcinóis/química , Resorcinóis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(2): 159-165, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418725

RESUMO

Soaking is an important process in Chinese rice wine brewing. In this study, the influence of vacuum soaking on Chinese rice wine production was investigated. Rice subjected to a 1-h vacuum soaking process or a traditional 2-days soaking process was steamed and fermented. Our results showed that vacuum soaking led to similar absorbed water but less leached solids compared with traditional soaking and showed limited influence on the physiochemical characteristics of steamed rice. Monitoring of the fermentation process suggested that the content of amino acid nitrogen in the vacuum-soaked group was significantly higher than that of the traditional-soaked group, while the other indexes were similar. The detection of flavor substances in the rice wine indicated that the contents of organic acids and free amino acids were higher in the vacuum-soaked group, and the main kinds of volatile flavor compounds from the two groups were similar. Additionally, sensory evaluation reflected that the rice wine brewed with rice subjected to either of the two different soaking treatments had similar sensory performances. Our research indicated that vacuum soaking could effectively shorten the soaking time of rice in Chinese rice wine production, thus shortening the brewing cycle without sacrificing the quality of the rice wine.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Oryza/química , Vapor , Vácuo , Vinho/normas , Ácidos/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Paladar , Vinho/microbiologia
8.
Food Chem ; 320: 126608, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229396

RESUMO

The postharvest ripening behaviour of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) and particularly the development of colour, volatiles, sensory properties and texture, were investigated. Mangoes cv. Kent from Peru were arranged in a postharvest ripening chamber in two different ways enabling different ventilation of the fruits. Fruit properties were investigated in comparison to reference fruits after postharvest ripening for 78 h. Volatile compounds were analysed by HS-SPME GC-MS; an expert panel performed sensory analysis using descriptive methods. The arrangement of the mangoes significantly impacted the ripening procedures. Dense fruit arrangement induced a degradation of terpenes, a reduced formation of reaction products from the lipoxygenase pathway and less pronounced fruitiness and mango flavour. Principal component analysis based on volatile compounds and sensory properties showed a high correlation with the position in the ripening chamber. These data demonstrate the urgent need for further investigations of the postharvest ripening processes to increase mango quality.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Mangifera/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Peru , Paladar , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/metabolismo
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1338-1343, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232993

RESUMO

Inhalation of odors can affect physiological parameter and change gene expression-related specific function. 2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) is one of the major odor compounds generated by the Maillard reaction. We previously reported that the inhalation of DMHF decreased systolic blood pressure via the autonomic nervous system in rats. The autonomic nervous system is also closely related to appetite regulation. The present study investigated the effects of DMHF on dietary intake and gene expression. The inhalation of DMHF increased the dietary intake of rats during the feeding period. However, body weight did not change after 6 weeks feeding. A DNA microarray analysis showed that DMHF altered gene expression associated with feeding behavior and neurotransmission in the rat brain. DMHF inhalation promotes appetite and changes gene expression in rats. Furthermore, phenotypic changes may regulate neurotransmission and appetite at the mRNA level in addition to controlling the autonomic nervous system. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: DMHF is an important flavor component in the food industry. In this study, we first observed that the inhalation of DMHF promotes appetite. This finding is directly connected with the industrial application.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/química , Furanos/farmacologia , Reação de Maillard , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Apetite , Aromatizantes/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Paladar
10.
Food Chem ; 324: 126883, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344350

RESUMO

Freeze-thaw cycles (FTC) pretreatment was employed before the vacuum freeze-drying of garlic slices, aimed at improving the drying process and the quality of the end product. Cell viability, water status, internal structure, flavor, chemical composition and thermogravimetric of garlic samples were evaluated. The results indicated that FTC pretreatment reduced the drying time (22.22%-33.33%) and the energy consumption (14.25%-15.50%), owing to the water loss, the increase in free water, and the formation of porous structures. The FTC pretreatment improved thermal stability, flavor and chemical composition content of dried products. The antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from FTC pretreated dried products was higher than that of the unpretreated dried product due to the reduction in polysaccharide molecular weight. This research could pave a route for future production of dried garlic slices having good quality by using the FTC pretreatment, with lower energy consumption and shorter drying time.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Liofilização , Alho/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Congelamento , Alho/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Vácuo , Água/química , Microtomografia por Raio-X
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(12)2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276974

RESUMO

Identifying the functional microbes in spontaneous food fermentation is important for improving food quality. To identify the key flavor producers in Chinese liquor fermentation, we propose a novel quantitative microbiome profiling method that uses indigenous internal standards to normalize high-throughput amplicon sequencing results. We screened Lactobacillus acetotolerans and Lactobacillus jinshani as indigenous internal standards based on their high distribution frequencies and relative abundances. After determining the absolute abundance of indigenous internal standards using quantitative PCR with species-specific primers, the liquor-fermented bacterial community and its dynamics were better characterized by internal standards normalization. Based on quantitative microbiome profiling, we identified that Lactobacillus was a key flavor producer correlated with eight flavor compounds. Metatranscriptomic analysis indicated that Lactobacillus was active in transcribing genes involving the biosynthesis of flavor compounds and their precursors. This work has developed a novel and extensible absolute quantification method for microbiota that will alleviate concerns in the statistical analyses based on relative microbiome profiling, and shed insights into the function of Lactobacillus in food fermentation. It can potentially be applied to other microbial ecology studies.IMPORTANCE In this study, we developed a novel strategy using indigenous internal standards to normalize the high-throughput amplicon sequencing results. We chose two Lactobacillus species as indigenous internal standards and characterized the absolute abundance of the bacterial community. Further, we identified Lactobacillus as the key flavor producer using quantitative microbiome profiling combined with multivariate statistics and metatranscriptomic analysis. This work developed a novel strategy for absolute quantitative abundance analysis of microbiota and expanded our understanding of the role of Lactobacillus in food fermentation.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , China , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103408, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336369

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the core functional microbiotas related to flavor compounds involving in a naturally fermented soybean curd (plain sufu). Properties such as physicochemical parameters, flavor compounds (17 free amino acids, 21 fatty acids, and 14 aroma volatiles) and microbiota profiles were investigated, and their correlations were explored at 8 stages during production. Results from principal component analysis, multiple factor analysis, and partial least squares-discrimination analysis showed that these properties varied significantly in the eight stages. Furthermore, based on Pearson correlation coefficients and Variable importance for predictive components values between the microbiota profiles and flavor compounds, nine bacterial (Bacillus, Enterobacter, Lactobacillus, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Tetragenococcus, Trabulsiella, Unclassified, and Weissella) and six fungal (Alternaria, Sterigmatomyces, Actinomucor, Fusarium, Debaryomyces, Candida) genera were identified as core functional microbiotas significantly affecting the production of flavor compounds during the natural production. Overall, this study provided a comprehensive description of the dynamic changes of physicochemical parameters, flavor compounds, and microbiota profiles throughout the natural production of plain sufu. The similarities and variations among different stages, as well as correlation between flavor compounds and microbiotas would help to understand the mechanism of plain sufu production, and further to enhance the quality control of plain sufu.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Fungos/metabolismo , Microbiota , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Aminoácidos/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , China , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
13.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1565-1575, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282071

RESUMO

We evaluated the temporal profile of the flavor enhancers monosodium glutamate (MSG), disodium inosinate (IMP), disodium guanylate (GMP), and monoammonium glutamate (MAG). We also evaluated the ability of these flavor enhancers to enhance salty taste in solutions containing different reductions of sodium chloride. Four experiments were conducted using Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD) with focus on two objectives: concentration of flavor enhancers (0% to 1%) and reduction of sodium chloride content (0% to 100%). A 0.75% saline solution of NaCl was used as a control. In each experiment, the treatments were evaluated by the intensity of salty and umami tastes using an intensity scale. Treatments, selected according to the results of CCRD, were analyzed using time-intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) analyses. Glutamates (MSG/MAG) showed greater capacity to enhance salty taste than treatments containing nucleotides (IMP/GMP). The intensity of umami taste, using all the examined flavor enhancers, showed a similar sensory profile. Temporal perception curves (TI and TDS) of salty and umami tastes also showed a similar temporal profile. The glutamic acid amino acids were better able to improve salty taste than nucleotides in any range of sodium chloride reduction. Flavor enhancers showed greater ability to increase salty taste in smaller reductions in sodium chloride content. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research expand the knowledge about the ability to enhance the salty taste of flavor enhancers in different reductions in sodium content, Beside that, will provide information about the time profile of flavor enhancers. This study provides scientific technical information on the ability to intensify the salty taste of flavor enhancers and can assist the industry to develop new low sodium products and encourage the scientific community to conduct future research on this subject.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Inosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análise , Humanos , Inosina Monofosfato/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Glutamato de Sódio/análise , Paladar
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 926-935, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144771

RESUMO

Microgreens are an emerging functional food crop with promise for sustainably diversifying global food systems, facilitating adaptations to urbanization and global climate change, and promoting human health. Previous work suggests microgreens have high nutritional quality, low environmental impacts, and broad consumer acceptance. For better reception into the global food system and increased per capita consumption, research is needed to elucidate consumer acceptance of various microgreens species, including factors contributing to their acceptance or lack thereof. Using a consumer panel (n = 99), this study evaluated consumer sensory perception and acceptability of six microgreens species (arugula, broccoli, bull's blood beet, red cabbage, red garnet amaranth, and tendril pea), and potential drivers and barriers to consumer acceptance. All microgreens species received high mean liking scores for acceptability by consumers (means ranged from highly acceptable to slightly acceptable), with more distinct differences across microgreens species for flavor and overall acceptability, which appeared to be driven by specific sensory properties. Data from principal component analysis demonstrated that high acceptability scores were associated with higher intent to purchase microgreens and negatively associated with food neophobia. Participants indicated that factors such as knowledge and familiarity of microgreens, cost, access/availability, freshness/shelf life, among other factors, influence their intention to purchase microgreens. These findings suggest that further integration of microgreens into the global food system will be met with high consumer acceptability, but needs to be aligned with enhanced consumer education regarding microgreens, as well as considerations of cost, availability/access, and freshness/shelf life. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Researchers investigated consumer sensory perception and acceptability of six microgreens species (arugula, broccoli, bull's blood beet, red cabbage, red garnet amaranth, and tendril pea), and potential drivers and barriers to consumer acceptance. All microgreens tested had high consumer acceptability, but certain factors such as sensory perception and food neophobia impacted their acceptability. Additionally, participants indicated that factors such as knowledge, access and availability, cost, freshness, and shelf life may impact the purchasing of microgreens and thus are important factors to consider for further integration of this emerging functional food crop into the global food system.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Alimento Funcional/análise , Plântula/química , Percepção Gustatória , Verduras/química , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
15.
Food Chem ; 319: 126564, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163841

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum armatum DC Prodr. pericarp (ZAP) is an important spice because of its unique odor and taste. ZAP oil was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. To characterize potent odorants in ZAP oil, volatiles were isolated by headspace solid-phase microextraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry analyses identified a total of 32 odor-active compounds, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors, ranging from 2 to 4096, were measured by aroma extract dilution analysis. To further determine their contributions to the characteristic odor of ZAP oil, 24 odorants with FD factors ≥8 were quantitated, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Sixteen compounds with OAVs ≥1 contributed to the characteristic aroma profile of ZAP oil. Linalool had the highest FD factor, concentration and OAV, and its chiral structure was identified as S-(+)-linalool.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Zanthoxylum/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Olfatometria , Microextração em Fase Sólida
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 600-610, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017103

RESUMO

This study was the first to evaluate the influence of the combination strategies of flavor addition and microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) processing for salt reduction implications. In freshly prepared mashed potatoes, a 30% and 50% salt reduction (w/w) in comparison to a 100% salt sample with three flavor variations (no additional flavor, garlic, and pepper) were investigated. Also, using the ideal profile method (IPM), the influence of MATS versus retort processing, in comparison to a freshly prepared sample, and flavor addition on mashed potato sensory properties and acceptance was investigated. Chemical characterization using the electronic tongue for nonvolatile compounds and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for volatile analysis was completed. IPM revealed the ideal data were consistent at both the panel and consumer levels from a sensory and hedonic perspective. Results demonstrated the ideal mashed potato product would remain low in bitterness but have more intense pepper and potato aromas and flavors than the current samples evaluated. The salt level could be reduced by 50% while still maintaining flavor and overall acceptance in freshly prepared samples, but this was accompanied by a loss in saltiness intensity perception. The saltiness intensity was not different from the freshly prepared samples when processed via MATS but was different when processed by the retort. For chemical characterization, the electronic tongue showed a high discrimination index (>89%) and correlated highly (>0.8) with many sensory attributes. As salt concentration in the mashed potatoes decreased, the recovery of volatile compounds decreased. The present work contributes to the understanding of product reformulation for the purpose of salt reduction. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Product developers need strategies to bring salt down to target levels while maintaining consumer acceptance. The combination strategies of flavor addition and MATS processing may allow for a new strategy to assist product developers in reaching salt reduction targets. Furthermore, developers should bear in mind that noticeable intensity differences may not alter the preference for the product. Thus, intensity differences that result in changes in acceptance should be the focus of quality insurance rather than utilizing just noticeable differences.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Culinária/instrumentação , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Alho/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Piper nigrum/química , Paladar
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 567-575, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037584

RESUMO

Meat analogues are made from plant proteins using high-moisture extrusion processing, to have the same textural and structural properties as meat. However, meat analogues exhibit very weak aroma and are almost tasteless, which has resulted in limited market success. Maillard-reacted beef bone hydrolysate (MRP) provides important sensory aspects of heat-treated food products, by contributing to their appearance, texture, flavor, and aroma. Therefore, MRP added at different concentrations with the plant proteins before extrusion may produce meat alternatives with high aroma and taste quality while maintaining fibrous structure. This study investigated the effects of MRP at different concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% wet weight) with plant proteins on the physicochemical properties of extruded meat alternatives. The textural, microstructural, chemical, and sensory properties of meat alternatives were studied, where meat alternatives consisting of 40% MRP showed the lowest degree of texturization and observed with multiple segmented layers accompanied with some fibrous microstructure. Results from protein solubility analysis suggested that a large proportion of aggregated proteins was associated with hydrogen bonds. Although the key force in the formation of fibrous structure in meat alternatives was disulphide bonds. Meat alternatives containing 20% MRP obtained highest sensory scores for appearance, meaty aroma, meaty taste, and overall acceptability. Overall results showed that the addition of MRP to produce meat alternatives changed the textural, structural, and sensory properties significantly. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Maillard-reacted beef bone hydrolysate added into meat analogues to form meat alternatives with high aroma and taste quality while maintaining fibrous structure. The work demonstrated an opportunity for greater returns to the meat industry and the potential of hybrid products with less meat content.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Carne/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Animais , Bovinos , Aromatizantes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
18.
Food Chem ; 316: 126353, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044705

RESUMO

The Fondillón is a wine made from overripe grapes of the Monastrell variety, which is characterized by a high alcohol content and a minimum barrel ageing of 10 years. The objective of this study was to analyze the Fondillón volatile composition, key aroma-active compounds, sensory profile and phenolic composition. Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified, quantified and classified as alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes, lactones, phenols, hydrocarbons and ketone. From these compounds, 22 aroma-active compounds were identified, with phenylethyl alcohol, diethyl succinate and ethyl lactate having the highest flavor dilution factor. The Fondillón wines were characterized by having high intensity of alcohol, fruity and toasted odor and flavor notes, and long aftertaste. Besides, 25 phenolic compounds were also identified and quantified; the phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic and syringic acids) were the predominant phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Vinho/análise , Adulto , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1619: 460969, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089290

RESUMO

Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are well established stationary phases (SPs) for gas chromatography (GC) in several fields of applications because of their unique and tunable selectivity, low vapor pressure and volatility, high thermal stability (over 300 °C), and good chromatographic properties. This study is focused on an IL based on a phosphonium derivative (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride, [P66614+] [Cl-]), previously shown to be suitable as a gas chromatographic SP because of its unique selectivity. In particular, it aims to establish the operative conditions to apply [P66614+][Cl-] to routine analysis of samples containing medium to high volatility analytes with different polarity, organic functional groups and chemical structure. In the first part, the study critically evaluates long term [P66614+][Cl-] column stability and maximum allowable operating temperatures (MAOT). The relatively low MAOT (210 °C) requires the adoption of a dedicated approach for analytes eluting above this temperature based on a suitable combination of efficiency and selectivity, and column characteristics (length, inner diameter and film thickness) and operative conditions. The performance of [P66614+][Cl-] as a GC SP have been validated through the Grob test, a model mixture of 41 compounds of different polarity, structure, and with different organic functional groups in the flavor and fragrance field, a standard mixture of 37 fatty acid methyl esters, some essential oils containing pairs or groups of compounds of different volatility critical to separate in particular peppermint, thyme, oregano, sandalwood and frankincense. The above approach has produced highly satisfactory separations with all of the samples investigated.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Perfumes/análise , Santalum , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Temperatura
20.
Food Chem ; 315: 126158, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014672

RESUMO

Rapid, nondestructive, high-throughput testing and screening of volatile ingredients plays an important role in food flavor analysis. Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) is a powerful technique for the separation and sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds. It has a fast response, high sensitivity, easy operation, and low cost. In this article, a brief introduction to the working principle of GC-IMS is presented. A summary of recent studies of different food flavor analysis applications is also provided, including food classification and adulteration, the evaluation of food freshness and spoilage, off-flavor detection, monitoring the processing of food products, and evaluation of aroma changes during food storage. Finally, future directions of GC-IMS are proposed.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Aromatizantes/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Qualidade , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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