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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 245-257, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to assess whether there are differences in consumer liking of beef. Samples were collected from different groups and analyses were conducted, including quantitative descriptive analysis, consumer panels and instrumental analyses. Palatability traits, such as aroma liking, tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking (OL), were rated by consumers. RESULTS: Warner-Bratzler shear force was negatively associated with tender mouthfeel and consumer tenderness score. Cluster analysis identified four groups of clusters, which were described as 'easily pleased', 'bull beef liker', 'tender beef liker' and 'fastidious' consumers. Cluster group 2 awarded a higher score for bulls and located in a separate region on the external preference map. CONCLUSION: External preference mapping showed the association between consumer liking of beef and sensory attributes. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Carne/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Paladar
2.
Food Chem ; 305: 125480, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522125

RESUMO

Milk samples from 1264 cows in 85 farms were authenticated for different farming-systems using a 10-fold cross-validated linear-discriminant-analysis using Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIRS) and gas-chromatographic fatty-acid (FA) profiles. FTIRS gave correct classification greater than FAs (97.4% vs. 81.1%) during calibration, but slightly worse in validation (73.5% vs 77.3%) and their combination improved the results. All milk samples were processed into ripened model-cheeses, and analyzed by near-infrared-spectrometry (NIRS), by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometry for their volatile organic compound (VOCs) fingerprint and by panel sensory profiling (SENS). Farming-system authentication on cheese samples was less efficient than on milk, but still possible. The instrumental methods yielded similar validation results, better than SENS, and their combination improved the correct classification rate. The efficiency of the different technics was affected by specific farming systems. In conclusion, dairy products could be discriminated for farming-systems with acceptable accuracy, but the methods tested differ in sampling procedure, rapidity and costs.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 307: 125529, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644982

RESUMO

Ten lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of different species isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough were investigated on their volatile compounds in sourdough fermentation. Sourdoughs fermented with different LAB species were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) based on their volatiles. Furthermore, the in situ gene expressions of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis during sourdough fermentation were investigated by using RNA sequencing for the first time. PCA could discriminate between the sourdoughs fermented by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, the former containing more aldehydes and ketones with more than 6 carbon atoms, while the latter featuring ethanol and esters. The Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented sourdough was characterized by high C4-C6 volatiles content, while L. sanfranciscensis showed a unique volatile profile without explicit explanatory compounds. The RNA sequencing suggested that, compared to the sourdough fermented for 6 h, L. sanfranciscensis enhanced carbohydrate metabolism and self-protection activities, but decreased cell proliferation in sourdough at 12 h.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , /análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 308: 125607, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677599

RESUMO

Lipid sources as alternatives to fish oil could alter the nutritional value and flavor quality of crab meat affecting consumer preferences. Herein, an 8-week nutritional trial was designed to investigate the effects of dietary lipid sources including fish oil (FO), krill oil (KO), palm oil, rapeseed oil, soybean oil and linseed oil on profiles of amino acids, fatty acids and volatiles in muscle of swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus). Volatiles of crab muscle were characterized by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results revealed that crabs fed FO and KO had significantly higher levels of protein, indispensable amino acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in muscle. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated that muscle volatiles of crabs fed different dietary oils exhibited significant variations. Dietary FO and KO significantly increased the relative levels of 3-methylbutanal, heptanal, benzaldehyde and nonanal in muscle, which may produce more pleasant flavors.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Natação , Paladar
5.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2961-2972, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612540

RESUMO

The high sodium content of kimchi is a contradicting factor from its fame as a healthy food. With the aim of reducing the sodium content of kimchi, the objective of this study was to understand the effect of providing "sodium-reduced" information on the acceptance of kimchi according to the age of consumption. Six sodium-reduced kimchi samples, prepared with different percentages of sodium reduction (25% and 50%) and potassium chloride concentration (none, 0.47%, and 0.93%), were compared to control kimchi (2.0% w/v NaCl). Sensory characterization of the samples was obtained using descriptive analysis. A total of 167 kimchi consumers with balanced proportion of the young (below 40) and the old (above 40) evaluated seven kimchi samples in either of the two conditions: blind testing condition or informed testing condition where each of the samples was provided with a label that informed about "sodium reduction percentage" and "whether a salt replacer was used or not." The results showed that in terms of healthiness perception, Korean female consumers believed that kimchi with a high sodium reduction rate would contribute to health in general, though an unfavorable notion of using a salt replacer was also observed. Also, the results suggested that promoting information about sodium reduction in kimchi would generally increase consumer acceptance. However, this phenomenon was influenced not only by the sample for which the information was provided, but also by the age of consumers with different health interests and kimchi experience. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings of this study showed simply reducing sodium and promoting it with a health claim showed limitation in achieving a high level of sodium reduction, such as a 50% reduction rate, which implied the importance of using supplementary material such as potassium chloride that can fulfill the missing saltiness and flavors of the original product. Promotion of "sodium-reduced" claims in kimchi generally results in increased consumer acceptance. However, the effectiveness of the information was dependent on which sample was provided and the age of the consumers, among whom health interests and kimchi experience differ.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Hipossódica/psicologia , Cloreto de Potássio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Verduras/química , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12219-12227, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613626

RESUMO

Quantification, using an accurate analytical approach, of capsinoids and capsaicinoids was performed on three chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes: "Chiltepín", "Tampiqueño 74", and "Bhut Jolokia" at various stages of fruit development. The accumulation of capsinoids, in all these peppers started between 10 to 20 days post-anthesis (dpa), increased and reached the highest capsinoid amount at 40 dpa, and then decreased until 60 dpa. Conversely, capsaicinoids could already be determined at 10 dpa in "Bhut Jolokia" and their accumulation pattern was different from that of the capsinoids in this genotype. The capsiate/dihydrocapsiate ratio presented a higher variation between genotypes and developmental stages than the capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin ratio. Capsinoid ratios (4-24%) and Pun1/pAMT genotyping were determined. These results provide information on the progress of the accumulation of capsinoids in the aforementioned pungent and superhot cultivars and could support future breeding studies toward the understanding of the factors affecting their accumulation.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Capsaicina/análise , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
7.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3275-3283, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602667

RESUMO

This research aimed to compare the effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and its alternatives on sensory characteristics of chicken soup. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was carried out to quantify umami substances in potential MSG alternatives. Two mushroom extracts (CE and MC), one tomato extract (TC), and one yeast extract (YE) powders were selected due to their high equivalent umami concentration (EUC). These extracts together with MSG were then applied individually at four different levels (CE, MC, TC, MSG: 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%; YE: 0.0125%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%) in chicken soup in order to compare their impact on major sensory attributes using the degree of difference from control (DODC) test. Our results showed that all four extracts at all the usage levels exhibited an enhancement effect on the overall flavor, meaty flavor, saltiness, and umami taste. The extent of enhancement depended on the type of the alternative and its usage level. Higher levels of MSG alternatives (except YE) suppressed the chicken flavor. YE had similar enhancement effects as MSG on umami and salty tastes already at lower usage levels. At the lowest concentration, TC showed a stronger enhancement effect than MSG, but its effect on most attributes decreased as the usage dose increased. Compared to CE, the other mushroom extract MC resembled MSG at most levels. Overall, the closest synergistic effect in chicken soup was noted with 0.1% MSG, 0.1% MC, and 0.025% YE. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study compared the enhancement effects of MSG and selected alternatives in chicken soup. Results will help food manufacturers who would like to replace MSG with natural umami substances in soup products to enhance flavor and reduce sodium chloride.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Glutamato de Sódio/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Paladar
8.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3246-3263, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609472

RESUMO

The acceptability of Moro, Tarocco, Cara Cara, Shahani, Bream Tarocco, Boukhobza, and Sanguinelli oranges from both commercial and research orchards was tested with adult (n = 152) and child (n = 72) consumers. Qualitative focus groups were also conducted to understand consumer familiarity and thoughts about the fruit. Sensory descriptive and chemical analyses were carried out to identify drivers of liking. Overall, consumers preferred the lighter colored varieties consisting of Tarocco, Cara Cara, and Boukhobza. One cluster of adults (n = 80) showed preferences towards sweet and fruity flavors and away from sourness and citric acid. The second adult cluster (n = 72) was tolerant of the sour fruit but did not like fruit high in bitterness and flavonoid content. The largest child cluster (n = 42) showed preferences for samples higher in orange and tropical flavors (Cara Cara, Tarocco, and Boukhobza varieties). The appearance of the Cara Cara was strongly liked by the consumer population in both quantitative and qualitative settings. Hunter scale a color values strongly correlated to the higher berry/dried fruit flavors, and concentrations of naringenin. Focus group participants noted that they were relatively unfamiliar with blood oranges. Growers and producers may want to invest in the lighter colored varieties, such as Cara Cara, Tarocco, Boukhobza and Shahani, as these were liked by a majority of consumers and were low in less desirable sensory characteristics, such as bitterness and sourness. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Through consumer tests, sensory evaluation, and chemical analyses, this research uncovered which sensory properties may drive consumer acceptance of blood and Cara Cara oranges, and informed potential production and marketing strategies for increasing their consumption. This information should benefit the citrus industry as a whole and may enhance the use of specialty oranges by the food, beverage, and food service industries.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/química , Comportamento do Consumidor , Paladar , Adulto , Idoso , California , Citrus sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise por Conglomerados , Cor , Flavonoides/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 3009-3017, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509247

RESUMO

Despite their nutritional benefits, consumption of red meat from alternative sources such as bison, elk, and horse is low when compared to beef. Sensory attributes and drivers of liking were identified for these meats using the Preferred Attributes Elicitation (PAE) and Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) methods. For the PAE study, 25 panelists evaluated beef, horse, bison, and elk meats in three different group sessions (n = 7, 7, and 11), whereas 63 panelists participated in the CATA study. Consumers in both PAE and CATA studies associated horse meat with dry and fibrous appearance, whereas beef was associated with meaty/beefy flavor and aroma: bison with metallic and livery aroma and intense aftertaste and elk meat with livery, fishy, metallic flavor, musky aroma, and bloody aftertaste. Penalty analysis on the CATA data identified similar drivers of meat liking as the PAE groups. The attributes were juiciness, meaty/beefy aroma, tender texture, meaty/beefy flavor, and mild flavor and aroma. Attributes with significantly negative mean impact on liking were dryness, tough texture, livery flavor, and aftertaste. Association of these attributes with horse and elk meats has implication on drivers of dislike for these meat types. Cluster analysis identified a small group of consumers with preference for horse and elk meats, and this may present niche market opportunities for these meat types. Results showed that the PAE method was comparable to CATA for the evaluation of meat from different species and for identification of drivers of liking and that both methods are effective for meat sensory characterization. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Lean red meat from unconventional sources such as elk, bison, and horse has unique sensory attributes that may influence acceptance. This study characterized the sensory attributes of these meats and their impact on liking using two rapid consumer descriptive profiling methods-PAE and CATA. Undesirable flavor and aftertaste attributes were identified as the major drivers of disliking for these unconventional meats. Both methods gave similar description of the samples, thus confirming the suitability of PAE for descriptive meat profiling by consumer panels.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Carne/análise , Paladar , Adulto , Animais , Bison , Bovinos , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise
10.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2983-2994, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518452

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to monitor and characterize Greek coffee staling during home storage (secondary shelf life, SSL) using sensory evaluation techniques. Storage temperature (T) and product water activity (aw ) are considered as the major factors affecting SSL. Water sorption isotherms fitted to Guggenheim Anderson-de Boer model were used to predict product stability; coffee samples were stable at aw < 0.52. Coffee samples equilibrated at aw = 0.15 (the fresh sample), 0.22, 0.33, and 0.52 were stored at T = 25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C under simulated home storage conditions. Samples were obtained at appropriate times for each T and aw condition and sensorially evaluated. Greek coffee brews were prepared and freshly served during sensory evaluation. The use of Weibull hazard analysis provided an effective approach to SSL determination as a function of T and aw . SSL values ranged from 20 (Τ = 45 °C, aw = 0.52) to 104 days (Τ = 25 °C, aw = 0.15). Quality loss based on coffee aroma changes (aroma quality, aroma intensity, aftertaste, off-flavor) was also studied (Si , sensory scoring using 9-point magnitude scale) and kinetically modeled. Quality loss rates (ki ) were calculated and used to predict SSL values. Based on the results of both Weibull hazard analysis and sensory scoring of individual aroma characteristics, it was concluded that the lowest SSL was calculated for aw = 0.52 at T = 35 °C to 45 °C. The temperature dependence of aftertaste, aroma quality loss, and off-flavor production was not statistically significant for 0.15 < aw < 0.33 (P > 0.05); the aroma intensity was the most sensitive parameter. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Secondary shelf life (SSL) represents the time after pack opening during which a food maintains an acceptable quality level. During home/catering usage, coffee is not consumed immediately after pack opening. During consumption, quality degradation reactions proceed with higher rates due to variable storage conditions mainly related to atmosphere changes in the pack, leading to the entrance of oxygen/moisture and temperature. Therefore, SSL is important, and can be used as a tool for product management during consumption reducing food waste. There is a lack of studies dealing with SSL prediction of coffee, while no studies have been carried out on Greek coffee.


Assuntos
Café/química , Água/química , Adulto , Culinária , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Temperatura Ambiente , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2973-2982, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546291

RESUMO

The study developed traditional and light chocolate-flavor frozen dessert formulations, aimed at the general public, lactose intolerants, and vegans, and evaluated influences on quantitative sensory profiles and consumer acceptance with the replacement of sucrose by sweeteners in low-calorie versions. Twelve samples with different matrices were studied, sweetened with sucrose, sucralose, and stevia. The ideal concentration of sucrose (9%: dairy samples and 15%: vegan samples) was determined by the JAR scale. The sweetness equivalence was determined by the magnitude estimation method. The physical-chemical parameters were evaluated: pH, overrun, melting, and texture. The sensory profile evaluated through Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The QDA data were correlated with acceptance data by partial least squares regression (PLS). The results showed that the substitution of traditional milk by lactose-free milk in the formulation did not change the characteristics of the chocolate ice cream. The use of sweeteners presented differences for milk flavor, bitter taste, bitter residual, and melting. The use of stevia extract was characterized by the presence of bitter taste, residual sweet and bitter that inhibited the perception of milk flavor, but not directly impacting the acceptance by consumers. The sucralose presented a profile closer to the sucrose, presenting lower intensity for the undesirable attributes such as bitter taste and residual bitter. There was no significant difference in the use of soy or rice protein in vegan versions, however, the use of sweeteners and body agents negatively impacted consumers' acceptance by attenuating the flavor of vegetable protein and raising gummy coating during the melting. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study shows the development and sensory profile of frozen chocolate desserts. Traditional and modified samples have also been produced for consumers with dietary restrictions such as vegans, vegetarians, lactose intolerants, and diabetics. Throughout the sensory and statistical analysis, it was identified how to replace sucrose by the natural glycoside sweetener of steviol, as well as the impact on the sensory profile and the acceptance of the different formulations. The results found may provide important information for researchers in food industries who need to produce frozen chocolate desserts for vegans, vegetarians, lactose intolerant, and diabetic consumers. Stevia and sucralose were good substitutes for sucrose in the formulation of frozen desserts without lactose, but not in vegan versions (with rice and soy protein).


Assuntos
Chocolate/análise , Comportamento do Consumidor , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Lactose/análise , Edulcorantes/análise , Adulto , Animais , Doces/análise , Diterpenos de Caurano/análise , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Sorvetes/análise , Masculino , Stevia/química , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/análise , Paladar , Veganos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2944-2954, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553057

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms, especially yeasts and molds, related to the improvement of beef quality during dry-aging of beef through microbiome analysis, and to examine the possibility of using them as starter culture strains to improve the efficiency of dry-aging beef production. Beef sirloins were dry-aged for 28 days using different wind speeds (0, 2.5, and 5 m/s) at 1 to 3 °C and 75% relative humidity, and microbial compositions were confirmed by microbiome analysis. Mold and yeast samples were plated on potato dextrose agar supplemented with 10% tartaric acid, and the isolated colonies were identified by DNA sequencing. The isolates were subjected to microbial characterization (morphological characterization, growth condition, and enzyme activity). Microbiome analysis showed that the dominant microorganisms were molds and yeasts identified as Pilaira anomala SMFM201611 and Debaryomyces hansenii SMFM201707. Pilaira anomala SMFM201611 and D. hansenii SMFM201707 were inoculated into 24 sirloins of the lowest grade. All samples were dry-aged for 0, 14, 21, and 28 days and analyzed for microbial growth, pH, shear force, ultrastructure, and flavor compounds (free amino acids and free fatty acids). Inoculation with P. anomala SMFM201611 and D. hansenii SMFM201707 improved tenderness and cause the breakdown of myofibrils by proteolysis. Both microorganisms also produced free amino acids and fatty acids through proteolytic and lipolytic activities. These results indicate that P. anomala SMFM201611 and D. hansenii SMFM201707 isolated and identified from dry-aged beef can improve the quality of low-grade beef during dry-aging. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: During dry-aging, mold and yeast improve the quality of dry-aged beef. Pilaira anomala SMFM201611 and Debaryomyces hansenii SMFM201707 isolated from dry-aged beef can improve tenderness by breaking down myofibrils. Both microorganisms improve flavor by producing free fatty acids and amino acids, and the taste and aroma characteristics of low-grade beef may be improved during the dry-aging process.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Aromatizantes/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Odorantes/análise , Melhoria de Qualidade , Carne Vermelha/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Paladar , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487796

RESUMO

Flavored cigar use is common among cigar smokers, particularly those at younger ages. Several US localities have implemented policies restricting the sale of flavored tobacco products, including cigars. We estimated the population health benefits of removal of flavored cigars throughout the US in terms of reductions in cigar smoking-attributable mortality due to increased cessation and reductions in cigar smoking prevalence due to decreased initiation and continuing use. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate possible ranges for these values. We used published estimates of cigar use and attributable mortality in the US, as well as prior study conclusions on the effect of local and national flavor restriction policies. We estimated that removal of flavored cigars would result in approximately 800 (90% prediction interval = 400-1200) fewer cigar smoking-attributable deaths in the US each year and 112,000 fewer cigar smokers (90% prediction interval = 76,000-139,000) in each cohort of 18 year olds. The removal of characterizing flavors in cigars sold in the US is thus projected to have substantial public health benefits over time.


Assuntos
Fumar Charutos/mortalidade , Aromatizantes/análise , Saúde Pública , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Charutos/tendências , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405026

RESUMO

True lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a critical source of essential oils and a flavouring agent used in numerous industries like foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Its main volatile constituents are linalool and linalyl acetate, which are commonly considered as main odour-active constituents (OACs). Nevertheless, the quality of true lavender flowers is highly dependent on its post-harvest treatment, mainly the preservation method. Recognising that drying is the most frequently used preservation method, the influence of various drying methods, including convective drying (CD) at 50, 60 and 70 °C, vacuum-microwave drying (VMD) with powers 240, 360 and 480 W and combined convective pre-drying at 60 °C followed by vacuum-microwave finish-drying with power 480 W (CPD-VMFD), on the quality of true lavender flowers was verified. The evaluation of influence was carried out by HS-SPME(HS, solid-phase microextraction), GC-MS, GC-MS-O (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry) techniques. Moreover, the sensory panel has assessed the sample odour quality. As a result, the optimal drying methods regarding the requirements for products were established. Overall, for total essential oil recovery, CD at 50 °C is the optimal drying method, while for odour quality concerning the sensory panel evaluation, VMD with power 360 W combined CPD-VMFD and CD at 50 °C is the optimal drying method.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Flores/química , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis , Dessecação , Aromatizantes/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Micro-Ondas , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida
15.
Food Chem ; 301: 125282, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387036

RESUMO

The main contributors to the cooked off-flavor in heat-sterilized lychee juice (HLJ) were studied by means of molecular sensory science. The HLJ which elicited cooked cabbage/potato and onion/garlic off-flavor was compared with fresh lychee juice (FLJ) having desired sensory attributes via chemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitative analysis and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) were conducted on both FLJ and HLJ. The results showed that compared with FLJ, 15 compounds had increased OAVs in HLJ, among which, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), methional, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 2,4-dithiapentane presented cooked cabbage/potato, garlic/onion and sulfurous impression. The omission experiment proved that DMS, methional, DMTS, DMDS, 3-methylbutanal and 2,4-dithiapentane had significantly negative effects on the overall aroma of HLJ. Further studies on HLJs from other varieties of lychee confirmed that DMS, methional, DMTS, DMDS and 3-methylbutanal were responsible for the cooked off-flavor of HLJ in general.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Temperatura Alta , Litchi/química , Culinária , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Esterilização , Paladar
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110727, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377138

RESUMO

Use of the e-liquid flavourings diacetyl and acetyl propionyl has raised concerns that they might cause respiratory diseases amongst vapers. Product surveys show that these compounds, plus a less toxic alternative, acetoin, are widely used in e-liquids. We have investigated the chemistry of acetoin, acetyl propionyl and diacetyl in e-liquids. They are reactive, with concentrations falling substantially over time. Acetyl propionyl is the most reactive, diacetyl less so, and acetoin significantly more stable. Their reactivity is pH-enhanced when nicotine is present in the e-liquid. Of major concern, we found that acetoin generates diacetyl in e-liquids. We found diacetyl formation in all acetoin-containing e-liquids, but it is not an acetoin-contaminant. Diacetyl concentrations were proportional to acetoin content, grew over time, and formation was accelerated by nicotine. E-liquids stored for up to 18 months contained significant diacetyl, and reduced acetoin levels, showing that acetoin is a long-term diacetyl source. Other reaction pathways operate, and we advance mechanisms to explain this area of e-liquid chemistry. Acetoin use in e-liquids is an inevitable source of diacetyl exposure for e-cigarette users. Acetoin, acetyl propionyl and diacetyl are avoidable hazards for vapers, and we recommend e-liquid manufacturers move away from their use in e-liquid formulations.


Assuntos
Acetoína/química , Diacetil/síntese química , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Aromatizantes/química , Acetoína/análise , Diacetil/análise , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Aromatizantes/análise , Glicerol/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nicotina/química , Oxirredução , Pentanonas/análise , Propilenoglicol/química
17.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2313-2324, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313314

RESUMO

This study was the first to evaluate the influence of herb addition in a complex food matrix processed by microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) system for potential salt reduction implications. In a chicken pasta meal, salt concentrations included 100% (full salt) and reduced salt variations (75%, 50%, and 25% of the original salt concentration) and for each meal, a version with and without herb addition. The influence of storage time on sensory perception and acceptance was investigated, along with the odor-induced saltiness enhancement (OISE). Trained sensory panel results showed that the addition of herbs to the chicken pasta meal increased the intensity of many flavors and led to an increased saltiness perception, demonstrating their congruency with salty taste. The addition of herbs allowed for a 50% salt reduction in a processed prepared meal while maintaining the same intensity of saltiness perception as determined by a trained panel and overall meal acceptance by consumers. The OISE was only significant for the 25% salt meal (P < 0.05) suggesting that the influence of herb addition on saltiness perception at lower salt concentrations was more influential than at higher salt concentrations. Over longer storage times, meals processed by MATS and stored at ambient temperature increased in aroma, taste, and flavor intensities as well as in acceptance of many meal attributes. This study contributed an additional strategy of product reformulation, specifically herb addition, to the portfolio of salt-reduction strategies for prepared meals using MATS. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The addition of herbs to prepared meals (chicken pasta) may allow for up to a 50% reduction in salt content while maintaining the same saltiness intensity perception and overall consumer acceptance. This has important implications for the food industry as sodium reduction is a complex task. Furthermore, the additional herbs utilized in this study increased the intensity of certain aromas and flavors, and led to increased saltiness perception; these herbs could be considered in future salt reduction applications as this study demonstrates their congruency with salty taste.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Especiarias/análise , Percepção Gustatória , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Preferências Alimentares , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Micro-Ondas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Esterilização , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
18.
Food Chem ; 298: 125062, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280088

RESUMO

The industrial transformation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) produces processed foods, such as dried tomatoes. In this study two varieties (SaAb and PerBruzzo), grown in three cropping systems (one conventional and two organic ones), were processed by two types of small-scale drying (oven or sun drying), over two years of production. The dried samples were analyzed for their non-volatile and volatile composition, relating the results with sensory analysis. The multivariate analysis performed on collected data allowed a detailed comparison of the effects of processing, year-to year variation and cropping systems. Results indicated that drying methods mainly influenced the composition and flavor profile, also affected by the production year. The cropping system significantly influenced some quality indices, such as the acid and sugar amounts, and the aldehydes, respectively higher and lower in organic samples. The comprehensive PCA analysis allowed discrimination of drying methods and, to a lesser extent, cropping systems.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Agricultura Orgânica , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265983

RESUMO

Today, rape and sexual assault cases are mainly solved using evidence such as medical evidence or DNA analysis. Condom traces have been found to be present in 10% of assaulted women, when no DNA is found [1]. Numerous studies have emphasized the interest of analysing the composition of male condoms and their traces, and developing specific methods for the analysis of this type of evidence. However, transfer and persistence of condom traces in a specific matrix are rarely referenced. Therefore, forensic scientists have no complete knowledge of the trace and what could be expected in a real case. The purpose of this article is to review the literature addressing the composition of condoms and their traces as well as its influence on the transfer and persistence from a forensic point of view. Peer-reviewed literature, patents, professional literature, data from international administrations and international organisations' reports have been used to track the composition and the problematics of transfer and persistence of condom traces. The results of this review show that the composition of male condoms and their traces are complex systems, with numerous compounds originating from the condom at the moment of the transfer and evolving over time according to specific persistence patterns. Although numerous types of analyses have already been proposed and tested for condom traces, forensic evidence considerations have not been fully studied yet. Considering the fact that sexual assaults without the detection of DNA are increasingly frequent, there is a definite medical and forensic need to improve our knowledge of the processes involved in the development of condom traces in order to better understand analytical results.


Assuntos
Preservativos , Delitos Sexuais , Vagina/química , Anestésicos Locais/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/análise , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Látex/análise , Lubrificantes/análise , Masculino , Nitrosaminas/análise , Odorantes/análise , Polietileno/análise , Polietilenoglicóis/análise , Pós , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/análise , Espermicidas/análise , Amido/análise
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1603: 67-82, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272730

RESUMO

A dynamic headspace (DHS) with DVB/CAR/PDMS trapping materials was coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the separation and identification of volatile-flavor compounds in bos grunniens (yak) milk. The principal components analysis coupled with response surface methodology optimized the main variables of the device (10 g sample quality, 5 min desorption time, 3.0 g adding sodium chloride, 72 °C extraction temperature, 28 min pre-equilibrium time and 86 min extraction time). Total 235 volatile components were identified. The limit of detections and quantifications of volatile components were 0.01-5.35 mg kg-1 and 0.01-9.41 mg kg-1, respectively, with relative standard deviation from 0.2% to 6.4%. The method performed well during volatile-flavor components analysis from the yak milk sample, producing excellent extraction parameters for the volatile components. Eighty-two volatile components identified in yak milk belonged to a broad range of chemical classes (ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, acids, alkanes, and estes), and 73 of them were at trace levels. Meanwhile, using gas chromatography-olfactometry technique, 11 volatile components were identified as contributors to the aroma of yak milk. In conclusions, a sensitive, convenient and reliable method was developed for the accurate determination of volatile-flavor compounds in yak milk utilizing DHS-GC/MS analyses.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Leite/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Polivinil/química
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