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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817615

RESUMO

Maple syrup, made by boiling the sap of Acer saccharum, is an important agriculture commodity in eastern Canada and New England. Although the collection season is relatively short, a rich progression in the sensory qualities of maple syrup can occur throughout the season. A risk associated with maple syrup production at the end of a season is the development of off-flavors that result in syrup with little to no commercial value. Maple syrup producers in Canada and the USA call this 'buddy syrup'. In this study, sugar maple (Acer saccharum) sap was collected in sequential samples through the harvest season from stands across Ontario. Metabolomics analysis of the sap samples was performed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. This revealed an evolution of the chemical composition, mainly occurring 30 days prior to leaf emergence. The major chemical constituent of maple syrup, sucrose, decreased sharply in late season sap, driven by microbial activity. The alditol mannitol increased in late season sap to concentrations ≥2 mg/mL and is likely an indicator of the start of photosynthesis. Amino acids, notably methionine and asparagine were present in higher amounts in late season sap. Non-targeted analysis revealed a series of related compounds that contained quaternary ammonium moieties including choline, hercynine, trigonelline, glycine betaine and carnitine increased in late season sap. These classes of compounds could act as methyl donors during the heating/evaporation of sap into syrup, affecting taste. Based on descriptions of the nature of buddy syrup and an extensive literature on flavors in foods, the amino acids methionine and asparagine were found as likely precursors to the compounds responsible for buddy syrup.


Assuntos
Acer/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Acer/química , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Alimentos , Metabolômica , Ontário , Exsudatos de Plantas/química , Estações do Ano
2.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1642-1650, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430953

RESUMO

The effects of different mucor strains (Mucor racemosus, Actinomucor, and Mucor wutungkiao) on aroma and taste profiles based on proteolysis, lipolysis, and their catabolism in oil furu were studied. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and relative odor activity were used to monitor the changes of key volatile compounds and the differences in the characteristic aroma contents of oil furu. Using principal component analysis, the different fermentation strains had an effect on aroma profiles. The volatile compounds from metabolism of protein and fatty acid contributed to the aroma of oil furu with different contribution from the different strains, presumably due to their different enzymes. The electronic tongue and free amino acid profiles also showed strain differences of taste. Based on these results, optimization of the amount of each of the different mucor strains during cofermentation might achieve better flavor.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Mucor/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/química , Soja/microbiologia , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Nariz Eletrônico , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Mucorales/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
3.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(1): 63-70, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265130

RESUMO

Japanese sake production involves three processes: rice koji fermentation, seed mash fermentation, and main mash fermentation. Traditional seed mash (kimoto) production utilizes natural lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria for pure cultures of only sake yeast, preventing the growth of wild yeast and other unwanted bacteria. Recently, because kimoto production requires substantial time and labor, sake yeast mass-cultured in usual liquid medium has been used as a seed mash alternative. Sake quality is highly similar to that of kimoto, suggesting that they share similar component profiles. However, comparative component analyses of sake brewed with kimoto and sake brewed with cultured yeast are lacking. In this study, a time-course analysis of hydrophilic compounds in the main mash brewed with kimoto and with cultured yeast as well as a sensory evaluation of the products were performed. As a result, differences in various compounds and in umami taste level between sake brewed with kimoto and cultured yeast were detected. This is the first comparative analysis of changes in the component profile during sake main mash brewing using kimoto seed mash and cultured sake yeast; our results clarify the effects of kimoto seed mash on main mash brewing and sake quality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Leveduras/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Paladar
4.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1565-1575, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282071

RESUMO

We evaluated the temporal profile of the flavor enhancers monosodium glutamate (MSG), disodium inosinate (IMP), disodium guanylate (GMP), and monoammonium glutamate (MAG). We also evaluated the ability of these flavor enhancers to enhance salty taste in solutions containing different reductions of sodium chloride. Four experiments were conducted using Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD) with focus on two objectives: concentration of flavor enhancers (0% to 1%) and reduction of sodium chloride content (0% to 100%). A 0.75% saline solution of NaCl was used as a control. In each experiment, the treatments were evaluated by the intensity of salty and umami tastes using an intensity scale. Treatments, selected according to the results of CCRD, were analyzed using time-intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) analyses. Glutamates (MSG/MAG) showed greater capacity to enhance salty taste than treatments containing nucleotides (IMP/GMP). The intensity of umami taste, using all the examined flavor enhancers, showed a similar sensory profile. Temporal perception curves (TI and TDS) of salty and umami tastes also showed a similar temporal profile. The glutamic acid amino acids were better able to improve salty taste than nucleotides in any range of sodium chloride reduction. Flavor enhancers showed greater ability to increase salty taste in smaller reductions in sodium chloride content. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research expand the knowledge about the ability to enhance the salty taste of flavor enhancers in different reductions in sodium content, Beside that, will provide information about the time profile of flavor enhancers. This study provides scientific technical information on the ability to intensify the salty taste of flavor enhancers and can assist the industry to develop new low sodium products and encourage the scientific community to conduct future research on this subject.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Inosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análise , Humanos , Inosina Monofosfato/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Glutamato de Sódio/análise , Paladar
5.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 129(5): 581-587, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901317

RESUMO

Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. cajuputi is one of the Australian Melaleuca species commonly found in Pulau Buru (Maluku, Indonesia). Its oil, the M. cajuputi essential oil (MCEO), has been utilized as the main flavor of the Indonesian functional food, Cajuputs Candy. However, the availability of MCEO is becoming limited. On the other hand, Indonesia has many other potential MCEO sources which can be developed as flavor ingredient. Thus, it is noteworthy to explore these new MCEO sources by studying their sensory characteristics and metabolite profiles. This study was conducted to identify potential metabolites that are correlated to sensory attributes of MCEO by using the metabolomics approach. The metabolite profiles of thirteen MCEOs from different origins were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry while sensory analyses on Cajuputs Candy were conducted by difference-from-control and rate-all-that-apply tests. Sixty metabolites from the MCEO were annotated that includes 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, caryophyllene, α-pinene, and γ-terpinene. Sensory analysis revealed cooling aftertaste and sweet taste as favorable attributes. Further analysis using Orthogonal Partial Least Square indicated that 1,8-cineole and γ-terpinene were correlated with cooling aftertaste, while 1,8-cineole and caryophyllene were also correlated with sweet taste. In contrast, linalool and nerolidol were associated with the feature of the most characteristic manufacturer's products which have unfavorable attributes such as floral, iodophor-like, metallic, and soapy attributes. The identification of these metabolites will be useful for the selection of MCEOs that can potentially be used as flavor.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Melaleuca/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Austrália , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Indonésia , Melaleuca/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Paladar
6.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 640-648, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895399

RESUMO

Aspergillus oryzae is a common starter in the soy sauce industry and struggles to grow under complex fermentation conditions. However, little is known about the flavor formation mechanism under osmotic conditions (low-temperature and high-salt) in A. oryzae. This work investigated the flavors and the relative protein expression patterns by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proteomic analysis. Low-temperature and a high-salt content are unfavorable to the secretion of hydrolases and the formation of fragrant aldehydes. The aldehyde contents under osmotic conditions were reduced to 1.4-3.7 times lower than that of the control. Besides, copper amine oxidases which decreased under low-temperature stress and salt stress were shown to be important in catalyzing the oxidative deamination of several amine substrates to fragrant aldehydes. Furthermore, alcohol dehydrogenase and polyketide synthase are beneficial to the formation of alcohols and aromatic flavors under low-temperature stress and salt stress. Particularly, the ethanol content under 16 °C stress was 3.5 times higher than that under 28 °C.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/química , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Osmose , Proteômica , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 165-172, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898817

RESUMO

Sufu is a form of food derived from traditional Chinese fermented soybean. It has a unique flavor and contains abundant nutrients. With demands for healthy food on the rise, a higher level of sufu functionality is required. In fermentation of soybean-derived products, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as an adjunct culture, which provides health benefits and enhances flavor of food. Among LAB, Lactobacillus brevis has the potential to generate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is well-known for its physiological functions. In this study, L. brevis was added to bacteria-fermented sufu to evaluate its impacts on sufu quality. Sufu was produced via co-inoculation with Bacillus subtilis and L. brevis (group A sufu) or a single inoculation with B. subtilis (group B sufu). Metabolite changes in the two groups during fermentation were investigated and physicochemical changes were observed. The results indicated that the addition of L. brevis increased the concentration of GABA and decreased the concentrations of histamine and serotonin. The concentrations of volatile compounds, such as esters and acids, especially 2-methyl-butanoic acid ethyl ester, as well as the concentrations of phenylethyl alcohol and 3-methyl-butanol were significantly higher in group A. Inoculation of L. brevis changed the metabolite profile of sufu and improved its functionality and safety of edibility. The current study explored the potential of applying L. brevis to the manufacture of bacteria-fermented sufu.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análise , Lactobacillus brevis/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Ésteres/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 36-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898814

RESUMO

Miracle fruit's potential benefit is encouraging as a powerful antioxidant and sweetness enhancer due to its novel ability to modify sour taste to sweet. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the practicality of different miracle fruit products. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the taste modification effects of different miracle fruit products on different sour foods. For this, 10 trained subjects (80% female, 50% white, Mean ± SE = 27.3 ± 3.9 years old) performed a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis using a Latin Square design with three replications. One session was composed of pre- and posttest for miracle fruit administration. Five food samples (green apple, goat cheese, lemonade, plain fat-free yogurt, and cucumber pickle) and four miracle fruit products (three different brands of miracle fruit pill-Y, G, M and one powder product-P) were used and data were analyzed using analysis of variance and principal component analysis. The typical effects of miracle fruit, sweetness increase and sourness suppression were observed for all food samples albeit to different degrees. Y and M pills were most impactful while powder product was least, and goat cheese and yogurt had the most pronounced impact at increasing sweetness. Prior Miracle Fruit administration significantly decreased bitterness and increased creaminess in yogurt. However, it increased off-flavor in lemonade and pickle. Results suggest that miracle fruit usage for increasing sweetness is effective but the degree of taste-modifying effect differs according to the types of miracle fruit product and food samples applied. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research confirms miracle fruit's unique taste-modifying abilities and demonstrates a high potential as a sweetness enhancer to benefit human health. The results can be used to optimize miracle fruit's application and can be applied by food industry and health care provider to develop clinical remedies or disease prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Synsepalum/metabolismo , Adulto , Queijo/análise , Cor , Feminino , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar , Iogurte/análise , Adulto Jovem
9.
Food Chem ; 312: 126084, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901820

RESUMO

The pit mud (PM) prokaryotic communities with obvious difference between old and young PM is essential for solid-fermentation of Chinese Strong-Flavor Baijiu. The bottom-PM (BPM) is considered more important. In this study, the multidimensional prokaryotic communities of old and young BPMs were investigated. The old BPM presented stratified difference within the depth of 0-7 cm, especially, the surface 0-1 cm was characteristic of dominant Caproiciproducens (34.79%). The young BPM showed significant difference between quarter/center and deep corner (1-7 cm), the former were characteristic of abundant Lactobacillus (12.80%-42.72%), while the deep corner was distinctive of dominant Caproiciproducens (17.85%-64.45%). The lactic acid, pH and soluble Ca2+ were considered as the 3 most significant environmental factors through redundancy analysis (RDA). This study may help illuminate the BPM aging process, and allow the future artificial regulation of young BPM.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillus , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1436-1447, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) is a recently discovered DNA virus, which was demonstrated to be responsible for grapevine red blotch disease (GRBD). Its presence has been confirmed in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and South Korea in white and red Vitis vinifera cultivars, including Chardonnay. It has been shown that the three-cornered alfalfa treehopper (Spissistilus festinus) was able to both acquire the GRBV from a grapevine infected and transmit it to healthy grapevines in glasshouse conditions. Studies found that GRBD impacts fruit price, grapevine physiology, and grape berry composition and metabolism in red cultivars. This study evaluated the impact of GRBD on V. vinifera L. Chardonnay grape and wine composition and sensory properties from one vineyard during the 2014, 2015 and 2016 seasons. RESULTS: Grapes from symptomatic red blotch diseased grapevines were lower in total soluble solids, flavan-3-ol, and total phenolic content, and higher in flavonol content when compared to grapes from healthy grapevines. Wines made with grapes from symptomatic grapevines resulted mostly in lower ethanol content and higher pH when compared to wines made from healthy grapevines. Analysis of volatile compounds and descriptive analysis demonstrated that GRBD can impact wine style by altering aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel attributes. CONCLUSIONS: The impacts of GRBD on grape composition directly influenced wine chemistry. The decreased ethanol content impacted not only the levels of volatile compounds but the sensory perception during descriptive analysis. The extent of GRBD impact on the grape composition and wine composition and sensory attributes varied between seasons. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Geminiviridae/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vitis/virologia , Vinho/análise , Vinho/virologia , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Paladar , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 584-590, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623437

RESUMO

Flavor stability is a significant concern to brewers as the staling compounds impart unpleasant flavor to beer. Thus, yeasts with antistaling ability have been engineered to produce beer with improved flavor stability. Here, we proposed that increasing the NADH availability of yeast could improve the flavor stability of beer. By engineering endogenous pathways, we obtained an array of yeast strains with a higher reducing activity. Then, we carried out beer fermentation with these strains and found that the antistaling capacities of the beer samples were improved. For a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, we compared the flavor profiles of these strains. The production of staling components was significantly decreased, whereas the content of antistaling components, such as SO2, was increased, in line with the increased antistaling ability. The other aroma components were marginally changed, indicating that this concept was useful for improving the antistaling stability without changing the flavor of beer.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Fermentação , Engenharia Genética , Odorantes/análise , Saccharomyces/genética
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1405-1417, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The full flavor of grape berries is determined by the interaction of sugars, acids, volatile compounds, and other berry properties, such as astringency. Sugars and acids are important for berry taste, whereas volatile compounds are important for the unique berry flavors, e.g., monoterpenes for the Muscat varieties. RESULTS: We explored the basis for 'fruity' flavor perception in table grapes. Samples were collected from 134 new table grape lines and commercial varieties and tested chemically for their volatile profiles and organoleptically by tasting panels. At the sensory level, flavor impression was strongly correlated with berry preference, whereas among 'fruity', 'neutral', 'herbaceous,' and 'Muscat', only the 'fruity' flavor was correlated with berry preference. At the chemical level, 114 volatile compounds were detected in the 81 breeding lines and cultivars examined, and grouped into 'core' and 'unique' categories. The typical berry flavor seemed to depend on the major volatile aldehydes - 1-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal - accounting for up to an average 85% of the berry's core volatile concentration. We found four volatile compounds - α-bergamotene, geranyl formate, aristolene and α-penansinene - previously undetected, to our knowledge, in fresh grape berries. CONCLUSIONS: High 'fruity' flavor scores were related to three independent factors: (i) presence of unique volatile compounds, such as the sesquiterpene α-copaene, (ii) higher total concentration of volatile compounds, (iii) optimal maturity associated to high total soluble solids (TSS) levels, interacting with berry volatile composition. These combined sensory and analytical data on the flavor of table grapes improve our understanding of the complex interface between chemical and sensory perception in fruit. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
13.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(9): 1496-1514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740987

RESUMO

Deep-fried flavor, involving fatty, sweet, burnt, and grilled odors, is an important factor leading to the popularity of deep-fried foods. Comparing with flavors from other conventional and innovative thermal treatments, deep-fried flavor is characterized by a rich variety of volatile species (e.g. aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, furans, pyrazines, and pyridines), intricate formation mechanisms, and a stronger attraction to consumers. By means of comprehensively literature research, this article critically reviews deep-fried flavor deriving from lipid oxidation, Maillard reaction, hydrolysis and amino acid degradation, with a special emphasis to discuss the involvement of lipid oxidation products in the Maillard pathway to form fried volatiles via secondary processes (e.g. fragmentation, rearrangement, and degradation). The reactions are interacted and influenced by various factors, such as frying oils (e.g. fatty acid composition and oil type), food components (e.g. amino acid and sugar), frying conditions (e.g. oxygen concentration, frying time, temperature, pH, and moisture content), and frying types (e.g. vacuum frying and air frying). Overall, well understanding of chemistry origins of deep-fried volatiles is meaningful to economically manipulate the frying process, optimize the fried flavor, and improve the safety and consumer acceptance of deep-fried foods.


Assuntos
Culinária , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Oxirredução , Paladar
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 2948-2954, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854856

RESUMO

One of the most accepted mechanisms of astringency consists of the interaction between polyphenols and some specific salivary proteins. This work aims to obtain further insights into the mechanisms leading to a modulation of astringency elicited by polyphenols. The effect of the presence of different chemical species (present in food and beverages as food additives) on the polyphenol-protein interaction has been evaluated by means of techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and cell cultures using a cell-based model of the oral epithelium. Results obtained showed that several chemicals, particularly sodium carbonate, seem to inhibit polyphenol binding to salivary proteins and to oral epithelium. These results point out that polyphenol-saliva protein interactions can be affected by some food additives, which can help to better understand changes in astringency perception.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Polifenóis/química , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/química , Vinho/análise , Adulto , Feminino , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Taninos/química , Taninos/metabolismo , Paladar
15.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(5): 844-858, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614265

RESUMO

Amino acids are the main contributors to tea (Camellia sinensis) flavor and function. Tea leaves contain not only proteinaceous amino acids but also specialized non-proteinaceous amino acids such as L-theanine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Here, we review different regulatory mechanisms of proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous amino acid formation in tea. The key findings were: (1) High accumulations of proteinaceous amino acids mainly result from protein degradation, which occurs in each tea stage, including preharvest, postharvest, manufacturing, and deep processing; (2) L-Theanine is the most represented non-proteinaceous amino acid that contributes to tea taste and function. Its accumulation is influenced more by the variety than by exogenous factors; and (3) GABA is the second most represented non-proteinaceous amino acid that contributes to tea function. Its formation, and resulting accumulation, are responses to stress. The combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for a high GABA accumulation. An understanding of the biosynthesis, metabolism, and regulatory mechanisms of the proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous amino acids during the whole process from raw materials to tea products is necessary to safely and effectively alter tea flavor and function.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Paladar , Chá/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Chá/química
16.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103326, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703871

RESUMO

This study focused on the microbial communities found in JIUYAO, the fermentation starter traditionally used in Shaoxing-jiu, and elucidated their relationship with the fermentation activities and volatile compounds involved in winemaking. The microbial communities found in all JIUYAO samples tested were dominated by Pediococcus and Weissella bacteria and Saccharomycopsis and Rhizopus fungi. Saccharifying power showed significant positive correlations with the presence of Pedioccoccus, Saccharomycopsis, and Rhizopus, whereas acid production capacity was strongly associated with Pedioccoccus, Weissella, and Rhizopus. Alcohol production capacity positively correlated with the presence of Pedioccoccus and Rhizopus. Fifteen important volatile compounds (odor-activity values ≥ 1) including esters, alcohols, acids, and aldehydes were identified in Huangjiu samples fermented with JIUYAO. Positive correlations were found between Saccharomycopsis and phenylethanol/ethyl butyrate, Rhizopus and ethyl propionate/ethyl laurate/ethyl butyrate, Pedioccoccus and ethyl laurate/acetic acid, and Weissella and decanoic acid/isopentanol. These results imply that these microorganisms significantly contribute to the fermentation activities and flavor of Shaoxing-jiu. Finally, the results showed that a combination of five core microbes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be used as a starter in winemaking. To conclude, this study provides a comprehensive overview of the core microbes found in JIUYAO and strategies for the selection of beneficial microorganisms to improve the quality and flavor of Shaoxing-jiu.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Rhizopus/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Metagenoma , Rhizopus/genética , Rhizopus/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia
17.
Food Chem ; 307: 125529, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644982

RESUMO

Ten lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains of different species isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough were investigated on their volatile compounds in sourdough fermentation. Sourdoughs fermented with different LAB species were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) based on their volatiles. Furthermore, the in situ gene expressions of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis during sourdough fermentation were investigated by using RNA sequencing for the first time. PCA could discriminate between the sourdoughs fermented by homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB, the former containing more aldehydes and ketones with more than 6 carbon atoms, while the latter featuring ethanol and esters. The Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented sourdough was characterized by high C4-C6 volatiles content, while L. sanfranciscensis showed a unique volatile profile without explicit explanatory compounds. The RNA sequencing suggested that, compared to the sourdough fermented for 6 h, L. sanfranciscensis enhanced carbohydrate metabolism and self-protection activities, but decreased cell proliferation in sourdough at 12 h.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13496-13505, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724402

RESUMO

Despite being used chiefly for fermenting the sugars of grape must to alcohol, wine yeasts (most prominently Saccharomyces cerevisiae) play a pivotal role in the final aroma profiles of wines. Strain selection, intentionally incorporating non-Saccharomyces yeast in so-called mixed-culture fermentations, and genetic modifications of S. cerevisiae have all been shown to greatly enhance the chemical composition and sensory profile of wines. In this Review, we highlight how wine researchers employ fermenting yeasts to expand on the aroma profiles of the wines they study.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Vitis/química , Vitis/microbiologia
19.
J Food Sci ; 84(12): 3445-3453, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762038

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of functional amino acid on meat flavor and eating quality, 60 growing-finishing pigs (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were dietarily supplemented with or without 1.0% l-arginine, glutamic acid, or l-arginine plus glutamic acid for 2 months. After animals were slaughtered, the muscle fatty acid profile, flavor compounds, and meat sensory quality were comparatively investigated. The results showed that dietary supplementation with arginine, glutamic acid, or arginine plus glutamic acid had little effect on free amino acids, no effect on 5'-nucleotides and meat sensory taste traits, but supplementation with arginine plus glutamic acid significantly increased (P < 0.05) fat accumulation and fatty acid content in muscle, increased (P < 0.05) the formation of multiple fatty acid oxidation-derived volatile compounds, and improved the tenderness, juiciness, and overall eating quality of meat. This study revealed that dietary supplementation with 1.0% l-arginine and glutamic acid could be used to improve meat eating quality in pork production.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Paladar
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12219-12227, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613626

RESUMO

Quantification, using an accurate analytical approach, of capsinoids and capsaicinoids was performed on three chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes: "Chiltepín", "Tampiqueño 74", and "Bhut Jolokia" at various stages of fruit development. The accumulation of capsinoids, in all these peppers started between 10 to 20 days post-anthesis (dpa), increased and reached the highest capsinoid amount at 40 dpa, and then decreased until 60 dpa. Conversely, capsaicinoids could already be determined at 10 dpa in "Bhut Jolokia" and their accumulation pattern was different from that of the capsinoids in this genotype. The capsiate/dihydrocapsiate ratio presented a higher variation between genotypes and developmental stages than the capsaicin/dihydrocapsaicin ratio. Capsinoid ratios (4-24%) and Pun1/pAMT genotyping were determined. These results provide information on the progress of the accumulation of capsinoids in the aforementioned pungent and superhot cultivars and could support future breeding studies toward the understanding of the factors affecting their accumulation.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Capsaicina/análise , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aromatizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
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