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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817615

RESUMO

Maple syrup, made by boiling the sap of Acer saccharum, is an important agriculture commodity in eastern Canada and New England. Although the collection season is relatively short, a rich progression in the sensory qualities of maple syrup can occur throughout the season. A risk associated with maple syrup production at the end of a season is the development of off-flavors that result in syrup with little to no commercial value. Maple syrup producers in Canada and the USA call this 'buddy syrup'. In this study, sugar maple (Acer saccharum) sap was collected in sequential samples through the harvest season from stands across Ontario. Metabolomics analysis of the sap samples was performed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. This revealed an evolution of the chemical composition, mainly occurring 30 days prior to leaf emergence. The major chemical constituent of maple syrup, sucrose, decreased sharply in late season sap, driven by microbial activity. The alditol mannitol increased in late season sap to concentrations ≥2 mg/mL and is likely an indicator of the start of photosynthesis. Amino acids, notably methionine and asparagine were present in higher amounts in late season sap. Non-targeted analysis revealed a series of related compounds that contained quaternary ammonium moieties including choline, hercynine, trigonelline, glycine betaine and carnitine increased in late season sap. These classes of compounds could act as methyl donors during the heating/evaporation of sap into syrup, affecting taste. Based on descriptions of the nature of buddy syrup and an extensive literature on flavors in foods, the amino acids methionine and asparagine were found as likely precursors to the compounds responsible for buddy syrup.


Assuntos
Acer/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Acer/química , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Alimentos , Metabolômica , Ontário , Exsudatos de Plantas/química , Estações do Ano
2.
Food Chem ; 332: 127467, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663755

RESUMO

The mood pyramid of cocoa, which was previously proposed as a new concept, consists of four levels (flavan-3-ols, methylxanthines, minor compounds and orosensory properties). Roasting is a crucial process for flavor development in cocoa but is likely to have a negative impact on the phytochemicals. We investigated the effect of roasting time (10-50 min) and temperature (110-160 °C) on the potential mood-enhancing compounds corresponding to the distinct mood pyramid levels. Phytochemicals were analyzed using UPLC-HRMS, while the flavor was mapped via aroma (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and generic descriptive analysis (trained panel). Results revealed that roasting at 130 °C for 30 min did not significantly affect the levels of epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and theobromine, while salsolinol significantly increased. Moreover, bitterness and astringency were reduced and the desired cocoa flavor was developed. Thus, through selection of appropriate roasting time and temperature conditions phytochemicals of interest could be retained without comprising the flavor.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Culinária/métodos , Sementes/química , Biflavonoides/química , Catequina/química , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Polifenóis/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Paladar
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461191, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540059

RESUMO

Trapping volatiles is a convenient way to study aroma compounds but it is important to determine which volatile trapping method is most comprehensive in extracting the most relevant aroma components when investigating complex food products. Awareness of their limitations is also crucial. (Un)targeted metabolomic approaches were used to determine the volatile profiles of two commercial flavourings. Four trapping techniques were tested as was the addition of salt to the mixture. Comprehensiveness and repeatability were compared and SBSE proved particularly suitable for extracting components such as polysulfides, pyrazines and terpene alcohols, and provided an overall broader chemical spectrum. SPME proved to be more suitable in extracting sesquiterpenes and DHS in extracting monoterpenes. Adding salt to the sample had only quantitative effects on volatiles as detected by SPME. These results help clarify the advantages and limitations of different trapping techniques and hence deliver a valuable decision tool for food matrix analysis.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Metabolômica , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Odorantes , Pirazinas/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sulfetos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 329: 127032, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505986

RESUMO

In this work, the effect of oxidation induced by hydroxyl radicals on the binding abilities of myofibrillar protein (MP) gels to aldehydes and ketones and their relationship with MP gel properties were investigated. Mild oxidation (0-0.2 mM H2O2) could induce partial unfolding of MP, thus slightly increasing the salt solubility of MP and enhancing the hardness of MP gels. MP suffering a higher oxidative attack could undergo a reduction in water-holding capacity, with increased mobility of water in MP gels. Oxidation could make MP gel more disordered. The ability of oxidised MP gels to bind to flavours decreased as the carbon chain length of the flavour compound increased. MP oxidation only significantly affected the binding of MP gels to hexanal, heptanal, and 2-octanone, while other flavour compounds were not affected.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Proteínas Musculares/química , Miofibrilas/química , Animais , Géis/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Solubilidade , Suínos
5.
Food Chem ; 328: 126967, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505057

RESUMO

Different particle sizes in cloudy apple juice were obtained following filtration with different mesh sizes (100, 200, 300, and 400-mesh). The effects of cloud particle size on the stability, nutrient content, and volatile flavor of cloudy apple juice were evaluated. With increasing mesh number, particle size decreased (p < 0.05) and particle shape changed. Particle size had an effect on volatile flavor compounds, especially nitrogen oxides, alcohols, and aromatic compounds. The content of pectin and total phenol decreased with decreasing particle size, while the content of soluble protein was not affected. The reduction of cloud particle size increased absolute value of ζ-potential, cloud stability, and apparent viscosity and decreased turbidity and cloud values. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between particle size and quality indicators, except for soluble protein.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Álcoois/análise , Malus/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise , Viscosidade
6.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(1): 63-70, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265130

RESUMO

Japanese sake production involves three processes: rice koji fermentation, seed mash fermentation, and main mash fermentation. Traditional seed mash (kimoto) production utilizes natural lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria for pure cultures of only sake yeast, preventing the growth of wild yeast and other unwanted bacteria. Recently, because kimoto production requires substantial time and labor, sake yeast mass-cultured in usual liquid medium has been used as a seed mash alternative. Sake quality is highly similar to that of kimoto, suggesting that they share similar component profiles. However, comparative component analyses of sake brewed with kimoto and sake brewed with cultured yeast are lacking. In this study, a time-course analysis of hydrophilic compounds in the main mash brewed with kimoto and with cultured yeast as well as a sensory evaluation of the products were performed. As a result, differences in various compounds and in umami taste level between sake brewed with kimoto and cultured yeast were detected. This is the first comparative analysis of changes in the component profile during sake main mash brewing using kimoto seed mash and cultured sake yeast; our results clarify the effects of kimoto seed mash on main mash brewing and sake quality.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Leveduras/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Paladar
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1427-1437, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339265

RESUMO

Wheat bran, an abundant and low-cost by-product from agricultural processing, can be used as an alternative food resource. Biochemical conversion of wheat bran to food ingredient involves pretreatments of bran to enhance its acceptability. In this work, the effects of the Maillard reaction and enzymolysis on flavor properties of wheat bran and sensory evaluation of steamed buns fortified with wheat bran were analyzed using GC-MS combined with sensory evaluation. The results showed that the Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as flavoring process, could effectively improve the flavor profiles of wheat bran. The flavor compounds in modified wheat bran products as well as its fuzzy sensory score increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with those in commercially available dry malt extract. Additionally, steamed buns fortified with wheat bran had enhanced flavor and overall acceptability. The study can be useful in valorization a plethora of grain bran (waste) into valuable resources.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Grão Comestível/química , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Hidrólise , Reação de Maillard , Paladar
8.
Food Chem ; 319: 126564, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163841

RESUMO

Zanthoxylum armatum DC Prodr. pericarp (ZAP) is an important spice because of its unique odor and taste. ZAP oil was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. To characterize potent odorants in ZAP oil, volatiles were isolated by headspace solid-phase microextraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry analyses identified a total of 32 odor-active compounds, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors, ranging from 2 to 4096, were measured by aroma extract dilution analysis. To further determine their contributions to the characteristic odor of ZAP oil, 24 odorants with FD factors ≥8 were quantitated, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Sixteen compounds with OAVs ≥1 contributed to the characteristic aroma profile of ZAP oil. Linalool had the highest FD factor, concentration and OAV, and its chiral structure was identified as S-(+)-linalool.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Zanthoxylum/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Olfatometria , Microextração em Fase Sólida
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1140-1150, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220139

RESUMO

Alterations of aroma properties and aroma-related attributes of sugarcane juice during thermal processing under different temperatures (90, 100, and 110 ℃) and treating time (10 s, 20 s, and 30 s) were assessed in this study. Changes in the volatility of aroma compounds were extremely complicated and respected to thermal processing conditions. Fructose, serine, and glutanic acid of sugarcane juice were increased at first and decreased at the end of treatment at high temperature. Phenolic compounds and PPO activity presented the decrease trends throughout the thermal treatment. The thermal processing of sugarcane juice could be roughly divided into three stages based on the cluster analysis of all the data in this study. Sugars, amino acids, and phenolic compounds might be important potential precursors of aroma deteriorating reactions. The comprehensive analysis of aroma relevant compounds and enzyme activities was beneficial for the investigation of degradation mechanism of aroma for sugarcane juice, and providing a theoretical basis for optimization of juice processing. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrated the changing process of aroma quality and associated compounds in sugarcane juice during thermal processing. This could help to find out the reasons of aroma degradations in sugarcane juice and other thermal sensitive juice. Our manuscript created a paradigm for future studies on the aroma quality control and parameter optimization during the processing of fruit and vegetable juice.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Catecol Oxidase/química , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Saccharum/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Temperatura Alta , Odorantes/análise , Fenóis/química , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/enzimologia , Saccharum/enzimologia , Volatilização
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2718-2727, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013424

RESUMO

Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and aroma recombination-omission experiments led to the identification of the key aroma compounds responsible for the different flavors of raw and roasted peas. The results demonstrated that a total of 30 odorants were identified in raw and roasted peas. Nine and twenty compounds were identified as important odorants in raw and roasted peas with odor activity values (OAVs) greater than 1, respectively. Aroma recombination-omission experiments demonstrated that six aroma compounds significantly contributed to the characteristic aroma of peas (p < 0.05). Among these, 3-methylbutanoic acid (OAV = 382) and hexanal (OAV = 280) significantly contributed to the aroma of peas. Fifteen aroma compounds significantly contributed to the characteristic aroma of roasted peas (p < 0.05). Among these, pyrazines and pyranones showed important contribution to the aroma of roasted peas. Roasting increased the variety of key aroma compounds significantly and contributed a nutty flavor to peas. The comprehensive aroma characterization of peas and determination of the effect of roasting on key aroma compound alteration will be helpful for new pea products' flavor quality control.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adulto , Culinária , Feminino , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria , Ervilhas/química , Olfato , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2738-2746, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020795

RESUMO

A homologous series (C6-C10) of 2-mercapto-4-alkanols was obtained by the addition of thioacetic acid to the respective alkenones and subsequent reduction with LiAlH4. Gas chromatographic separation of the stereoisomers was achieved using chiral stationary phases. Their absolute configurations were assigned by the correlation of 1H NMR data and enzyme-catalyzed kinetic resolutions. Odor thresholds and odor qualities were determined by capillary gas chromatography/olfactometry. Compared to the odor qualities reported for the isomeric 4-mercapto-2-alkanols, the homologous series of 2-mercapto-4-alkanols lacked fruity, tropical notes. There was no consistent correlation between the configurations and the odor qualities. However, the observed odor thresholds indicated the importance of the configuration of the asymmetric center bearing the hydroxyl group and the alkyl substituent. The length of this alkyl chain is a main driver for the odor properties, ranging from pungent, vegetable to earthy, mushroom notes.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Estrutura Molecular , Olfatometria , Estereoisomerismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(9): 2728-2737, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045517

RESUMO

The volatiles isolated by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) from roasted barley tea, prepared from either hulled barley or naked barley, were subjected to a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis, which resulted in 27 odor-active compounds with flavor dilution factors (FD factors) of 64-1024. An additional 5 odorants were detected by static headspace analysis. Quantitation of these 32 compounds revealed 22 and 23 odorants in the naked barley tea and in the hulled barley tea, respectively, that exceeded their odor-threshold values. On the basis of these data, the aromas of both barley tea variants were successfully reconstituted with reference compounds. The calculation of odor-activity values (OAVs = concentration/odor-threshold value) and omission tests suggested 2-methoxyphenol (OAVs 69 and 160) and trans-isoeugenol (OAVs 1.4 and 31) as key compounds responsible for the stronger smoky note in the hulled barley tea. Further important odorants in the naked and hulled barley teas included 2-acetylpyrazine (OAVs 23 and 16), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (OAVs 19 and 16), and 3-methylbutanal (OAVs 12 and 15).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Hordeum/química , Odorantes/análise , Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Japão , Sementes/química , Chá , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
13.
Food Chem ; 315: 126308, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035316

RESUMO

Classification of Feng-flavor Baijiu considering aging category was furnished with a comprehensive fingerprinting strategy which used UPLC-Orbitrap and foodomics, and the most discriminant 29 compounds related to aging, 15 organic acids, 8 esters as well as some carbonyl compounds were discovered. Increase of aromatic organic acids, decline of carcinogenic dibutyl phthalate and generation of numerous aromatic substances in Baijiu were caused by irradiation until the system reached a relatively stable state which needed 28 days. It is similarity of physical and chemical reaction process of natural aging and irradiation maturation that both can facilitate flavor of base Baijiu, while the aging time can be plainly shorten utilizing irradiation for Baijiu, whose outcome has been demonstrated by LC-MS and sensory evaluation. The combination of UPLC-Orbitrap and foodomics was applied as a valid tactic to analyze a complex system and gamma irradiation can be a powerful tool to promote Baijiu aging.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Ácidos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ésteres/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Raios gama , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3220-3227, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066240

RESUMO

Monoterpenes are aromatic compounds that are of great interest to wine as they are related to the quality of varietal wines. However, there is little information available about the impact of monoterpenes on wine odor perception at sub- or peri-threshold concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate odor perception of monoterpene isomers in Pinot Gris wine and determine compositional matrix effects. Monoterpene isomers were quantitated in 46 Pinot Gris wines using headspace solid-phase microextraction-multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and sensory analysis was conducted using three different model wines. Results show that the nonvolatile composition of Pinot Gris wine strongly increased the volatility of monoterpene isomers. However, aromatic compounds suppressed odor perception, especially with the more complex monoterpene profiles. Monoterpenes were found to influence some fruity aromas in Pinot Gris. The knowledge of these interactions will further help in the development of wine styles and our understanding of wine quality.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos/química , Odorantes/análise , Percepção Olfatória , Vinho/análise , Adulto , Feminino , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Isomerismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 657-665, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052448

RESUMO

Red oncom, a fermented product from solid waste of soybean curd process, and black oncom, a similar fermented product but made from defatted peanut cake, have been known to have umami taste. Umami fractions of red oncom and black oncom that are responsible for umami taste have not been investigated yet. The objective of this research was to characterize umami fractions obtained by ultrafiltration and chromatography of both oncoms. The first step, water-soluble extracts of oncoms were ultrafiltered using a membrane with cutoff 3,000 Da and followed by gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-25) to obtain umami fractions. Ultrafiltration fractions of red oncom (molecular weight [MW] less than 3,000 Da) and black oncom (MW more than 3,000 Da) had an intense umami taste. The further fractionation by gel filtration chromatography linked to taste dilution analysis yielded umami fractions. Chemical characterization revealed that free glutamic acid, free phenylalanine, and peptides containing their residual amino acids were present in the fractions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Umami fractions of red and black oncoms can be used as a source of umami compounds for food industries and food services. The information from this paper can be used by other researchers who will explore umami peptides.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Soja/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia em Gel , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Indonésia , Peso Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Paladar
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 771-780, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043600

RESUMO

Consumers consistently note that there is room for improvement in the flavor of commercial strawberries. Fruit flavor and aroma are affected by both genetics and environment. This work tests the hypothesis that sensory quality may be manipulated using postharvest light treatments. Individual detached fruits representing two different cultivars received a 24-hr treatment of 100 µmol m-2 s-1 blue LED light while the control was kept in complete darkness. Following treatment, samples were analyzed for flavor volatiles, sugars, acids, firmness, and sensory differences in human trials. Fruits were rated for overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and overall strawberry flavor intensity (OSFI) on the sensory and hedonic versions of the global intensity scale (GIS). A positive treatment effect was observed for "Strawberry Festival" fruit for the overall liking rating. A triangle test revealed a significant treatment effect, as light-treated fruit tested higher in many flavor volatiles including those known to contribute to sweetness in strawberries. Levels of several volatiles were consistently higher in the treated fruit across all four harvests: acetic acid hexyl ester, butanoic acid octyl ester, methyl isovalerate, and pentanoic acid ethyl ester. The results show that postharvest light treatment can be used to modulate sensory quality of fruit, perhaps offering a means to complement genetic efforts in fruit flavor and aroma improvement. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results indicate that it may be possible to increase the sensory quality of strawberry fruits using an inexpensive and noninvasive light treatment. Light may be applied during transport or storage to improve fruit quality. This concept could also be extended into other realms of storage, such as residential and commercial refrigeration, further increasing the quality impact of the approach.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Fragaria/química , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Fragaria/efeitos da radiação , Frutas/química , Humanos , Luz , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 707-717, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043604

RESUMO

This study evaluated the biological properties of peptides from brown rice protein hydrolyzed by bromelain (eb-RPH) in relation to flavor characteristic. The fractionation into peptides < 1 kDa was observed to improve the DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities (0.19, 2.28, and 24.64 mM Trolox, respectively), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity (IC50 value of 0.20 ± 0.011 mg protein/mL), as well as bitter and umami tastes. The < 1 kDa fraction was further analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry to identify amino acid sequence associated with biological activities and flavor characteristics. Eight peptides were identified. Most of the identified peptides contained features of previously reported ACE inhibitory and antioxidant peptides, especially peptide FGGSGGPGG and FGGGGAGAGG. Evaluation of flavor characteristics using BIOPEP database demonstrated that they had high occurrence frequencies of umami peptides (ESDVVSDL, GSGVGGAK, and SSVGGGSAG) and low Q-value (938.75 to 282.22), suggesting that these peptides may be used as a fortifying health ingredient with good taste. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The fractionated brown rice protein hydrolysate (< 1 kDa) has the potential to serve as a functional food ingredient in nutraceutical food and beverage products that can provide health benefits with good taste. Information on amino acid composition and spatial conformation of peptide may aid us to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in bioactivities and flavor of brown rice peptide for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Bromelaínas/química , Aromatizantes/química , Oryza/química , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Hidrólise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963832

RESUMO

Worldwide use of electronic cigarettes has been rapidly expanding over recent years, but the long-term effect of e-cigarette vapor exposure on human health and environment is not well established; however, its mechanism of action entails the production of reactive oxygen species and trace metals, and the exacerbation of inflammation, which are associated with potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The present study examines the effects of selected liquid chemicals used in e-cigarettes, such as propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin, nicotine and flavorings, on living organisms; the data collected indicates that exposure to e-cigarette liquid has potentially detrimental effects on cells in vitro, and on animals and humans in vivo. While e-liquid exposure can adversely influence the physiology of living organisms, vaping is recommended as an alternative for tobacco smoking. The study also compares the impact of e-cigarette liquid exposure and traditional cigarette smoke on organisms and the environmental impact. The environmental influence of e-cigarette use is closely connected with the emission of airborne particulate matter, suggesting the possibility of passive smoking. The obtained data provides an insight into the impact of nicotine delivery systems on living organisms and the environment.


Assuntos
Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Animais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Aromatizantes/efeitos adversos , Aromatizantes/química , Saúde Global , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vaping/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936132

RESUMO

The volatiles of cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), odor active compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantitation of compounds was performed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for all but one. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 18 odor active regions, with the highest flavor dilution values (FD = 512) noted for ethyl butanoate and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3-one (furaneol). Odor activity values were determined for all 18 compounds and the highest was noted for ethyl butanoate (OAV = 504), followed by linalool, (E)-non-2-enal, (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal, hexanal, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, butane-2,3-dione, and 2-methylpropanal. The main groups of odor active compounds in Physalis peruviana L. were esters and aldehydes. A recombinant experiment confirmed the identification and quantitative results.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Physalis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Aldeídos/química , Ésteres/análise , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Furanos/análise , Furanos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Olfatometria/métodos , Olfato/fisiologia , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Paladar/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1030-1037, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903752

RESUMO

The off-flavor produced after thermal stabilization of mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco) juices has limited the production of commercial juices. Methanethiol, a putrid-smelling sulfur volatile, has been identified for the first time in heated mandarin juices. Identification was achieved using a combination of capillary gas chromatography with two dissimilar columns and a dual sulfur-specific pulsed flame photometric detector and selected ion mass spectrometry detection. Static headspace solid-phase microextraction quantitation found that average odor activity values (OAVs) in heated juices were 25.5 for methanethiol compared to 10.8 for dimethyl sulfide. OAVs for methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in fresh juices were ND (not detected) and 5.5, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were also identified and quantitated. Thermal decomposition studies of nonvolatile sulfur-containing potential precursors indicated that methionine was the major source of methanethiol. Additional heating studies with model juices demonstrated that ascorbic acid greatly accelerated the formation of methanethiol and methional, as well as dimethyl di and tri sulfides.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Odorantes/análise , Sulfetos/análise , Volatilização
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