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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238439, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866194

RESUMO

Prone burials are among the most distinctive deviant burials during the Middle Ages and early modern period. Despite their worldwide distribution, the meaning of this burial practice is still a matter of debate. So far, a comprehensive analysis of prone burials is lacking for Central Europe. By compiling evidence from Germany, Switzerland and Austria, this study investigates how these findings fit into the scope of medieval funerary practices. 95 prone burials from 60 archaeological sites were analyzed regarding geographical distribution, dating, burial features, body position, age-at-death and sex. We applied descriptive statistics accompanied by multiple correspondence analysis in order to highlight possible multivariate patterns in the dataset. Prone burials occur in funerary and non-funerary contexts, with a predominance of single churchyard burials, followed by favored and exterior location and settlements. In terms of grave features, the majority of churchyard burials do not differ from regular graves. Multivariate patterns appear to reflect diachronic changes in normative burial practices. We found a significant correlation between burial location and dating, due to a higher frequency of high medieval males in favored locations. In these cases, prone position is interpreted as a sign of humility, while similar evidences from late and post-medieval times are seen as an expression of deviancy. Apparent lack of care during burial reveals disrespect and possible social exclusion, with inhumations outside consecrated ground being the ultimate punishment. In some regions, apotropaic practices suggest that corpses should be prevented from returning, as attested in contemporaneous sources and folk beliefs. We hypothesize that the increase of prone burials towards the late and post-medieval period is linked to such practices triggered by epidemic diseases. The multiplicity of meanings that prone position might have in different contexts demands for careful interpretations within the same regional and chronological frame.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Arqueologia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Hist Psychol ; 23(3): 226-229, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940504

RESUMO

This comment engages with Henley's (2020) proposal for a history of psychology that addresses important transformations in mind and behavior across all periods of humanity's deep history. To the extent that the history of psychology pays attention to the human past, Henley observes, that history is dominated by evolutionary perspectives focused on the biological changes that took place in the Pleistocene. Using the recent archaeological site of Göbekli Tepe as a case study, his article draws attention to important psychological changes that have taken place in the more recent past and have unfolded over shorter time scales. This comment seeks to amplify some of Henley's claims and, by advocating for a historical metanarrative described here as "psychology in history," proposes an alternative framework for achieving some of the goals that Henley has articulated. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Ciências Humanas , Humanos
3.
Curr Protoc Plant Biol ; 5(3): e20114, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791571

RESUMO

Plant wax lipid molecules, chiefly normal (n-) alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, are frequently used as proxies for understanding paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change. These are regularly analyzed from marine and lake sediments and even more frequently in archaeological contexts, enabling the reconstruction of past environments in direct association with records of past human behavior. Carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements of these compounds are used to trace plant type and water-use efficiency, relative paleotemperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration of leaf and soil moisture, and other physiological and ecological parameters. Plant wax lipids have great potential for answering questions related to human-environment interactions, being for the most part chemically inert and easily recoverable in terrestrial sediments, including those dating back millions of years. The growing use of this technique, and comparison of such data with other paleoenvironmental proxies such as pollen and phytolith analysis and soil carbonate and tooth enamel isotope records, make it essential to establish consistent, best-practice protocols for extracting n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids from archaeological sediments to provide comparable information for interpreting past climatic, ecosystem, and hydrological changes and their interaction with human societies. © 2020 The Authors. Basic Protocol 1: Total lipid extraction Support Protocol 1: Weighing the total lipid extract Support Protocol 2: Cleaning the PSE extraction cells Alternate Protocol 1: Soxhlet total lipid extraction Alternate Protocol 2: Ultrasonic total lipid extraction Basic Protocol 2: Separation of lipids by aminopropyl column chromatography Basic Protocol 3: Separation of lipids by silver-nitrate-infused silica gel column chromatography Support Protocol 3: Preparation of silica gel infused with 10% silver nitrate Basic Protocol 4: Methylation of n-alkanoic acids Basic Protocol 5: Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Basic Protocol 6: Gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS).


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Ecossistema , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lipídeos , Folhas de Planta
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3868, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747648

RESUMO

Archaeological research documents major technological shifts among people who have lived in the southern tip of South America (South Patagonia) during the last thirteen millennia, including the development of marine-based economies and changes in tools and raw materials. It has been proposed that movements of people spreading culture and technology propelled some of these shifts, but these hypotheses have not been tested with ancient DNA. Here we report genome-wide data from 20 ancient individuals, and co-analyze it with previously reported data. We reveal that immigration does not explain the appearance of marine adaptations in South Patagonia. We describe partial genetic continuity since ~6600 BP and two later gene flows correlated with technological changes: one between 4700-2000 BP that affected primarily marine-based groups, and a later one impacting all <2000 BP groups. From ~2200-1200 BP, mixture among neighbors resulted in a cline correlated to geographic ordering along the coast.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Fósseis , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano/genética , Migração Humana , Arqueologia/métodos , Argentina , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Chile , DNA Mitocondrial/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Filogenia , Datação Radiométrica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Dente/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813705

RESUMO

The first excavations on Obi Island, north-east Wallacea, reveal three phases of occupation beginning in the terminal Pleistocene. Ground shell artefacts appear at the end of the terminal Pleistocene, the earliest examples in Wallacea. In the subsequent early Holocene occupation phase, ground stone axe flakes appear, which are again the earliest examples in Wallacea. Ground axes were likely instrumental to subsistence in Obi's dense tropical forest. From ~8000 BP there was a hiatus lasting several millennia, perhaps because increased precipitation and forest density made the sites inhospitable. The site was reoccupied in the Metal Age, with this third phase including quadrangular ground stone artefacts, as well as pottery and pigs; reflecting Austronesian influences. Greater connectivity at this time is also indicated by an Oliva shell bead tradition that occurs in southern Wallacea and an exotic obsidian artefact. The emergence of ground axes on Obi is an independent example of a broader pattern of intensification at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Wallacea and New Guinea, evincing human innovation in response to rapid environmental change.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Ilhas , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Animais , Fósseis
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790731

RESUMO

Seventeen glass vessels and twenty glass beads recovered from the excavations at the ancient city of Malindi and the archaeological site of Mambrui in Kenya, east Africa were analysed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results show that all of the glass samples are soda-lime-silica glass. They belong to the high alumina -plant ash glass type, characterised by high alumina and relatively low calcium contents, widely distributed in eastern (10th- 16th centuries AD) and southern Africa (13th - 15th centuries AD), Central Asia (9th- 14th centuries AD) and southeast Asia (12th- 13th centuries AD), made with plant ashes and sands. This is an understudied glass type for which previous research has indicated there were three types. When compared with published research on such glasses using Zr, Ti, Ba, Cr, La, Li, Cs, Na2O, MgO and CaO we have identified at least four different compositional groups of v-Na-Al glass: Types A, B, C and D. By comparing the results with contemporary v-Na-Al glass vessels and beads from Central Asia, Africa, and southeast Asia we show that most of the Malindi and Mambrui glass share similar characteristics to the compositions of Mapungubwe Oblate and some of the Madagascar glass beads from southern Africa. They belong to Type A v-Na-Al glass which is characterised by an elevated level of Ti and Ba and a relatively high ratios of Cr/La, relatively low Zr concentrations and low ratios of Zr/Ti. Differences in Zr, Li, MgO and Na2O concentrations in Type A glass indicates that there are subgroups which might derive from different glass workshop(s) specialising in Type A v-Na-Al glass production. Comparison with the chemical compositions of glass from Ghazni, Afghanistan and Termez, Uzbekistan, and by using lead isotope analysis, we suggest v-Na-Al glass was manufactured in Central Asia and possibly worked into vessels and beads there.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Vidro/química , Óxidos/química , Plantas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/história , África Oriental , Óxido de Alumínio , Arqueologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , Oceano Índico , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Quênia , Espectrometria de Massas
7.
J Hist Dent ; 68(1): 29-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753096

RESUMO

Many artefacts important to the history of dentistry have disappeared from collections. The missing artefacts represent dental techniques of many cultures and all historical eras. The artifact collections include those of major first world institutions and private collections. Many of the artefacts were collected in the early days of scientific archaeology and museum curation and hopefully are simply lying unforgotten in storage. As if to compensate for the disappointment of such failures, hope lies in literary texts that speak of artefacts that may yet be discovered.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Artefatos , Museus
8.
Science ; 369(6505): 863-866, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792402

RESUMO

Early plant use is seldom described in the archaeological record because of poor preservation. We report the discovery of grass bedding used to create comfortable areas for sleeping and working by people who lived in Border Cave at least 200,000 years ago. Sheaves of grass belonging to the broad-leafed Panicoideae subfamily were placed near the back of the cave on ash layers that were often remnants of bedding burned for site maintenance. This strategy is one forerunner of more-complex behavior that is archaeologically discernible from ~100,000 years ago.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Fogo/história , Horticultura/história , Poaceae , Antropologia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Humanos , África do Sul
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813722

RESUMO

In the Late Middle Paleolithic of Central Europe, two main cultural complexes have been distinguished: the Micoquian or Keilmessergruppe (KMG), and the Mousterian. Their differences mainly consist in the frequence of some retouched tools and the presence of bifacial technology. When these industries coexist, one element of discussion is the application of different concepts to manufacture tools with the same techno-functionality. This is particularly true for backed artifacts, such as Keilmesser (backed, asymmetrical bifacially-shaped knives) opposed to flake-tools equipped with a natural or knapped back. We conducted a techno-functional analysis of the backed tools from the G-Layer-Complex of Sesselfelsgrotte, one of the main Late Middle Paleolithic sequences in Central Europe, characterized by a combination of KMG and Mousterian aspects. In order to better understand the morpho-metrical data, 3D scans were used for recording technical features and performing semi-automatic geometric morphometrics. Results indicate that the techno-functional schemes of Keilmesser show a moderate variability and often overlap with the schemes of other typological groups. Within bifacial backed knives, a process of imitation of unifacial flake tools' functionaly was recognized particularly in the cutting edge manufacturing. Keilmesser proved to be the long-life, versatile version of backed flake-tools, also due to the recurrent valence as both tool and core. This is why Keilmesser represent an ideal strategic blank when a mobile and multi-functional tool is needed. Based on these data, it is assumed that the relationship between Mousterian and KMG is deeply rooted and the emergence of KMG aspects could be related to constrained situations characterizing the long cold stages of the Early Weichselian. A higher regional mobility caused by the comparably low predictability of resources characterized the subsistence tactics of Neanderthal groups especially at the borders of their overall distribution. For this reason, Keilmesser could have represented an ecological answer before possibly becoming a marker of cultural identity.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/instrumentação , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Paleontologia/instrumentação , Tecnologia/instrumentação , Animais , Artefatos , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Humanos , Homem de Neandertal , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas/classificação
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756558

RESUMO

New World archaeologists have amply demonstrated that fluted point technology is specific to Terminal Pleistocene American cultures. Base-fluted, and rarer tip-fluted, projectile points from the Americas have been well-documented by archaeologists for nearly a century. Fluting is an iconic stone tool manufacturing method and a specific action that involves the extraction of a channel flake along the longitudinal axis of a bifacial piece. Here we report and synthesize information from Neolithic sites in southern Arabia, demonstrating the presence of fluting on a variety of stone tool types including projectile points. Fluted projectile points are known from both surface sites and stratified contexts in southern Arabia. Fluting technology has been clearly identified at the Manayzah site (Yemen) dating to 8000-7700 cal. BP. Examination of fluted points and channel flakes from southern Arabia enable a reconstruction of stone tool manufacturing techniques and reduction sequences (chaines opératoires). To illustrate the technological similarities and contrasts of fluting methods in Arabia and the Americas, comparative studies and experiments were conducted. Similarities in manufacturing approaches were observed on the fluting scars of bifacial pieces, whereas technological differences are apparent in the nature and localization of the flute and, most probably, the functional objective of fluting in economic, social and cultural contexts. Arabian and American fluted point technologies provide an excellent example of convergence of highly specialized stone tool production methods. Our description of Arabian and American fluting technology demonstrates that similar innovations and inventions were developed under different circumstances, and that highly-skilled and convergent production methods can have different anthropological implications.


Assuntos
Tecnologia/história , América , Arábia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Invenções/história , Indústria Manufatureira/história , Iêmen
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237532, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776982

RESUMO

Resettlement, as a major imperial policy in the Inca empire, appears to have been a widespread mechanism for labor mobilization and the dismantling of rebellions. While multiple ethnohistorical references exist regarding resettlement in the central Andes, the extent of this policy in the imperial provinces is still unknown, especially in cases of economic intensification that might have required more labor force. The δ18O isotope is a good proxy for human mobility when comparing the childhood isotopic signature in the teeth enamel and the local water signature at the place of death. If applied to the study of an archaeological sequence, we can observe the expansion or reduction of a population's displacement within a territory, if they received foreigners, and in general, how their social interaction and networks changed over time. In a marginal provincial setting of the Inca empire, such as Copiapó valley in Chile, the study of δ18O isotope can enable us to observe if the alleged economic intensification in metallurgical production implied the massive arrival of foreign populations. Significantly, the Late Horizon does not evidence a great change in terms of mobility, compared to previous periods in Copiapó valley. Thus, the isotopic evidence can more clearly illuminate the social and political dynamics of an imperial provincial setting, where economic activities demanded by the Inca state were mainly carried out by the local labor force.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Esmalte Dentário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esmalte Dentário/metabolismo , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Peru , Dinâmica Populacional
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797087

RESUMO

The Late Mesolithic in Southern Europe is dated to the 7th and the first part of the 6th millennia BCE and is marked by profound changes which are mostly evident in the technical know-how and tool-kit of the last hunter-fisher-gatherer societies. The significance of this phase also relates to the fact that it precedes the Early Neolithic, another period of major transformations of human societies. Nonetheless, the Late Mesolithic still remains a poorly known age in this area. A burial discovered at Mondeval de Sora (Northern Italy) in 1987, represents a unique window into this period. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of more than 50 lithic and osseous artifacts associated with this burial. We highlight important contextual data regarding the techno-economic dimension and the notion of personal burial possessions. Based on the association and location of some items, we propose a new interpretation of the social status of this individual and the possible impact of technological innovation on the social organization and symbolic sphere of Late Mesolithic groups.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Lítio/análise , Magnésio/análise , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Sepultamento , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813748

RESUMO

The Upper Palaeolithic is characterised by the appearance of iconographic expressions most often depicting animals, including anthropomorphic forms, and geometric signs. The Late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian saw a flourishing of such depictions, encompassing cave art, engraving of stone, bone and antler blanks and decoration of tools and weapons. Though Magdalenian settlement exists as far northwest as Britain, there is a limited range of art known from this region, possibly associated with only fleeting occupation of Britain during this period. Stone plaquettes, flat fragments of stone engraved on at least one surface, have been found in large quantities at numerous sites spanning the temporal and geographical spread of the Magdalenian, but they have been absent so far from the archaeological record of the British Isles. Between 2015 and 2018, ten fragments of stone plaquettes extensively engraved with abstract designs were uncovered at the Magdalenian site of Les Varines, Jersey, Channel Islands. In this paper, we report detailed analyses of these finds, which provide new evidence for technologies of abstract mark-making, and their significance within the lives of people on the edge of the Magdalenian world. These engraved stone fragments represent important, rare evidence of artistic expression in what is the far northern and western range of the Magdalenian and add new insight to the wider significance of dynamic practices of artistic expression during the Upper Palaeolithic.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Arte , Gravuras e Gravação , Ilhas
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237608, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817620

RESUMO

The application of biomolecular techniques to archaeological materials from the Balkans is providing valuable new information on the prehistory of the region. This is especially relevant for the study of the neolithisation process in SE Europe, which gradually affected the rest of the continent. Here, to answer questions regarding diet and subsistence practices in early farming societies in the central Balkans, we combine organic residue analyses of archaeological pottery, taxonomic and isotopic study of domestic animal remains and biomolecular analyses of human dental calculus. The results from the analyses of the lipid residues from pottery suggest that milk was processed in ceramic vessels. Dairy products were shown to be part of the subsistence strategies of the earliest Neolithic communities in the region but were of varying importance in different areas of the Balkan. Conversely, milk proteins were not detected within the dental calculus. The molecular and isotopic identification of meat, dairy, plants and beeswax in the pottery lipids also provided insights into the diversity of diet in these early Neolithic communities, mainly based on terrestrial resources. We also present the first compound-specific radiocarbon dates for the region, obtained directly from absorbed organic residues extracted from pottery, identified as dairy lipids.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cerâmica/química , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Dieta , Lipídeos/análise , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Arqueologia , Península Balcânica , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Ceras
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237528, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845899

RESUMO

The Middle to Later Stone Age transition marks a major change in how Late Pleistocene African populations produced and used stone tool kits, but is manifest in various ways, places and times across the continent. Alongside changing patterns of raw material use and decreasing artefact sizes, changes in artefact types are commonly employed to differentiate Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) assemblages. The current paper employs a quantitative analytical framework based upon the use of neural networks to examine changing constellations of technologies between MSA and LSA assemblages from eastern Africa. Network ensembles were trained to differentiate LSA assemblages from Marine Isotope Stage 3&4 MSA and Marine Isotope Stage 5 MSA assemblages based upon the presence or absence of 16 technologies. Simulations were used to extract significant indicator and contra-indicator technologies for each assemblage class. The trained network ensembles classified over 94% of assemblages correctly, and identified 7 key technologies that significantly distinguish between assemblage classes. These results clarify both temporal changes within the MSA and differences between MSA and LSA assemblages in eastern Africa.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , África Oriental , Animais , Humanos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237029, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764793

RESUMO

Paleomagnetic analysis of archaeological materials is crucial for understanding the behavior of the geomagnetic field in the past. As it is often difficult to accurately date the acquisition of magnetic information recorded in archaeological materials, large age uncertainties and discrepancies are common in archaeomagnetic datasets, limiting the ability to use these data for geomagnetic modeling and archaeomagnetic dating. Here we present an accurately dated reconstruction of the intensity and direction of the field in Jerusalem in August, 586 BCE, the date of the city's destruction by fire by the Babylonian army, which marks the end of the Iron Age in the Levant. We analyzed 54 floor segments, of unprecedented construction quality, unearthed within a large monumental structure that had served as an elite or public building and collapsed during the conflagration. From the reconstructed paleomagnetic directions, we conclude that the tilted floor segments had originally been part of the floor of the second story of the building and cooled after they had collapsed. This firmly connects the time of the magnetic acquisition to the date of the destruction. The relatively high field intensity, corresponding to virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 148.9 ± 3.9 ZAm2, accompanied by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination and a positive declination of 8.3°, suggests instability of the field during the 6th century BCE and redefines the duration of the Levantine Iron Age Anomaly. The narrow dating of the geomagnetic reconstruction enabled us to constrain the age of other Iron Age finds and resolve a long archaeological and historical discussion regarding the role and dating of royal Judean stamped jar handles. This demonstrates how archaeomagnetic data derived from historically-dated destructions can serve as an anchor for archaeomagnetic dating and its particular potency for periods in which radiocarbon is not adequate for high resolution dating.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Planeta Terra , Campos Magnéticos , Materiais de Construção/análise , Materiais de Construção/história , Fogo/história , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Israel , Colapso Estrutural/história , Fatores de Tempo , Guerra/história
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790702

RESUMO

There is a significant number of funerary contexts for the Early Neolithic in the Iberian Peninsula, and the body of information is much larger for the Late Neolithic. In contrast, the archaeological information available for the period in between (ca. 4800-4400/4200 cal BC) is scarce. This period, generally called Middle Neolithic, is the least well-known of the peninsular Neolithic sequence, and at present there is no specific synthesis on this topic at the peninsular scale. In 2017, an exceptional funerary context was discovered at Dehesilla Cave (Sierra de Cádiz, Southern Iberian Peninsula), providing radiocarbon dates which place it at the beginning of this little-known Middle Neolithic period, specifically between ca. 4800-4550 cal BC. Locus 2 is a deposition constituted by two adult human skulls and the skeleton of a very young sheep/goat, associated with stone structures and a hearth, and a number of pots, stone and bone tools and charred plant remains. The objectives of this paper are, firstly, to present the new archaeological context documented at Dehesilla Cave, supported by a wide range of data provided by interdisciplinary methods. The dataset is diverse in nature: stratigraphic, osteological, isotopic, zoological, artifactual, botanical and radiocarbon results are presented together. Secondly, to place this finding within the general context of the contemporaneous sites known in the Iberian Peninsula through a systematic review of the available evidence. This enables not only the formulation of explanations of the singular new context, but also to infer the possible ritual funerary behaviours and practices in the 5th millennium cal BC in the Iberian Peninsula.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Rituais Fúnebres/história , Animais , Arqueologia , Cavernas , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Portugal , Datação Radiométrica , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Espanha
18.
Nature ; 584(7819): 47-48, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699366
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18359-18368, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661160

RESUMO

Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis provides a powerful means of investigating human migration, social organization, and a plethora of other crucial questions about humanity's past. Recently, specialists have suggested that the ideal research design involving aDNA would include multiple independent lines of evidence. In this paper, we adopt a transdisciplinary approach integrating aDNA with archaeological, biogeochemical, and historical data to investigate six individuals found in two cemeteries that date to the Late Horizon (1400 to 1532 CE) and Colonial (1532 to 1825 CE) periods in the Chincha Valley of southern Peru. Genomic analyses indicate that these individuals are genetically most similar to ancient and present-day populations from the north Peruvian coast located several hundred kilometers away. These genomic data are consistent with 16th century written records as well as ceramic, textile, and isotopic data. These results provide some of the strongest evidence yet of state-sponsored resettlement in the pre-Colonial Andes. This study highlights the power of transdisciplinary research designs when using aDNA data and sets a methodological standard for investigating ancient mobility in complex societies.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , DNA Antigo/química , Migração Humana , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Hispano-Americanos , História Antiga , Humanos , Peru
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