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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 285: 121840, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115308

RESUMO

Non-destructive preservation state estimation is an essential prerequisite for the preservation and conservation of waterlogged archaeological wooden artifacts. Herein, Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to assess sixty-four waterlogged archaeological woods collected from seven excavation sites in the period range of 2900 BCE-1912 CE, aiming at developing a non-destructive, accurate and rapid preservation state estimation methodology. The role of non-decayed recent wood of relevant species on preservation state estimation was studied in prior, showing the use of non-decayed recent wood could not improve the predictive ability. Besides, the high variability in terms of chemical structure between archaeological softwoods and archaeological hardwoods did affect the preservation state estimation. Thus, a simple OPLS-DA model of non-destructively distinguishing archaeological hardwoods from softwoods, R2Xcum of 0.659, R2Ycum of 0.836 and Q2cum of 0.763, was established to avoid and overcome destructive approach for wood identification. Then, the well-defined three grouped separations of slightly-decayed, moderately-decayed and severely-decayed waterlogged archaeological woods were revealed in OPLS-DA models, providing R2Xcum of 0.793, R2Ycum of 0.738, Q2cum of 0.680, and R2Xcum of 0.780, R2Ycum of 0.901, Q2cum of 0.870, for waterlogged archaeological hardwoods and waterlogged archaeological softwoods respectively. Potential predictive wood spectral bands were screened and tentatively identified as hydroxyls of crystalline cellulose, acetyl groups of hemicelluloses, C-H bands of lignin, which guaranteed the elimination of non-structural compounds, such as water and inorganic components interference. Furthermore, the developed NIR methodology was validated by an extensively used destructive method consisting of anatomical characteristics, maximum water content and basic density analyses. The results indicated that NIR coupled to chemometrics could non-destructively and accurately predict the preservation states of waterlogged archaeological wooden artifacts and avoid the interference of water and inorganic deposits.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Artefatos , Arqueologia/métodos , Lignina/química , Celulose/análise , Água/química
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18956, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347970

RESUMO

Starch grain analysis carried out on 23 ceramic sherds from 6 refuse pits from the site of Nachtigal in central Cameroon is shedding light on a longstanding debate regarding ancient diets in Central Africa during the Iron Age (IA, 2500 years BP) but also more recently during the Modern Period (ca. 150 BP). The results indicate a varied, but balanced diet, consisting of cereals, legumes, oil-rich seeds, and tubers; the latter being very rarely documented in the region. Moreover, we underscore the presence of taxa still consumed today, or in recent times. Rescue archaeology, and the application of specialized methodologies, are critical to better nuancing past dietary practices in this region.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Amido , Grão Comestível , Sementes , Dieta , África Central
3.
Science ; 378(6620): 587, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356150

RESUMO

Body's survival without lucky accidents of climate suggests more ice mummies await.


Assuntos
Clima , Gelo , Múmias , Arqueologia , Cadáver
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361357

RESUMO

The Amur River Basin is located in China's high-latitude and cold border areas. While inheriting the characteristics of Chinese traditional building, combined with its unique geographical and climatic environmental conditions, the local residential buildings have unique architectural features of cold climate adaptability. Outstanding insulation technology has become the main feature of the area, and has greatly affected the development of modern vernacular architecture. According to the archaeological reports and documents, this article selects ancient architectural sites from different historical periods as the research objects. Based on building restoration, AIRPAK software is used to simulate and analyze the indoor temperature of the building site, and to explore the effects of active heating measures, such as different forms of fire hypocaust system, and passive cold protection measures, such as different types of wall structures. According to archaeological information and simulation data, this paper summarizes the characteristics of the cold climate adaptability technology of ancient buildings in China's cold border areas over different historical periods. Because of the relatively lagging development background of the Amur River Basin in modern times, the construction of its vernacular buildings continued to use the traditional low-tech insulation technology of ancient buildings to adapt to the cold environment. Therefore, attention and research on insulation technology of ancient buildings can provide a new perspective of architectural heritage protection in cold regions. Establishing a development model that combines archaeology and cultural heritage protection is an effective way to achieve the goals of architectural cultural heritage research and protection.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Rios , Tecnologia , Calefação
5.
Int J Paleopathol ; 39: 109-114, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To undertake differential diagnosis of scapular bone defects found in two medieval skeletons buried in different necropoles of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) and to evaluate the clinical significance of paralabral cysts in the context of shoulder pathology. MATERIALS: Individual JoT36 is an adult male exhumed from a necropolis belonging to a rural agricultural settlement dated to the 10th to 11th century A.D. Individual CIVT58 is an adult male from a Langobard necropolis dated to 630-670 A.D. METHODS: Macroscopic examination of the skeletons was performed using standard osteological methods and review of pertinent clinical literature to assist differential diagnosis. RESULTS: Between the glenoid cavity and the spinoglenoid notch of the right scapula of JoT36 there is a multilocular circular defect adjacent to the glenoid rim. On the neck of the left scapula of CIVT58, immediately above the spinoglenoid notch, there is a unilocular circular depression. In both cases, the cortical bone appears smooth without any evidence of erosion or sclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal findings and historical/archaeological contexts of both cases are compatible with the diagnosis of paralabral cysts. SIGNIFICANCE: Paralabral cysts are relatively frequently observed in clinical settings but very few examples have been documented in paleopathological literature. This study seeks to improve recognition and interpretation of this pathology in historical/archaeological contexts. LIMITATIONS: Findings from a case report can neither generate epidemiological information nor be generalized. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Identification of new cases may add valuable information about lifestyles and related shoulder pathologies in ancient times.


Assuntos
Cistos , Ombro , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Paleopatologia , Escápula , Arqueologia
6.
Sci Justice ; 62(6): 708-720, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400492

RESUMO

Traditional education in biological anthropology relies primarily on hands-on, highly visual experiences. Forensic anthropologists, bioarchaeologists, and osteologists in general should aim to collaborate in developing widespread digital pedagogy suitable for our discipline, increasing digital technologies used for education and training. Considerations and suggested pathways toward a biological anthropology digital pedagogy include accommodating for varying levels of digital fluency, understanding global perspectives and cultural beliefs, equity in accessibility, ethical strategies, prioritization levels of content that should be made publicly available, appropriate platforms and forms of media for disseminating different types of content, and the necessity of multiple modalities. Using three online resources as case studies, this paper focuses on the discussion of pedagogy, access, and ethics surrounding digital osteology. These three digital tools, 3D MMS, MapMorph, and J-Skel, can be used to teach students topics ranging from human variation methods and theory to juvenile age estimation. Developing a pathway forward, we encourage the anthropology community to think critically about the desired outcome of pedagogical tools in order to properly align the framework with the intended pedagogy, level of accessibility, and ethical codes. The ideal model would aim for equitable access to training materials on a global scale. Implementing these practices can foster a more adaptable and encompassing learning experience for students and researchers in biological anthropology who may have dissimilar access to resources.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Antropologia Forense , Humanos
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18589, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329241

RESUMO

Despite being one of the most important crops in the recent prehistory of Eurasia, the arrival and exploitation of millets in the westernmost part of Europe are still largely underexplored. Here and for the first time, we report multipronged biomolecular evidence of millet consumption along the Atlantic façade of northern Iberia through a combination of radiocarbon dating, stable isotopes, and dental calculus analyses on the human individuals found in the burial site of El Espinoso cave (Asturias, Spain). The high-resolution chronological framework established for individuals placed the burials between 1235 and 1099 cal. BC. The discovery of high δ13C values on their bone collagen and the identification of polyhedral starch grains within their dental plaque underline the relevance of C4 plants in their diet and highlights the timing of the systematic consumption of millets in the Late Bronze Age. Our data support previous regional archaeobotanical evidence and establish a more precise chronology of the dispersal of millets into northern Iberia during the Bronze Age, becoming an essential crop until the arrival of maize from America after AD 1492. This study emphasizes the importance of multidisciplinary methods to ascertain the origin and development of agricultural practices during recent prehistory.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Milhetes , Humanos , Datação Radiométrica , Grão Comestível , Produtos Agrícolas
8.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 582-593, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336451

RESUMO

The need to forensically search soil for small artefacts at a burial site or traces of evidence in a deposition site is a common task shared by investigators and forensic archaeologists. In forensic casework, the importance of finding small pieces of evidence, such as personal effects or ballistic fragments, cannot be overstated as it can assist in the positive identification of the deceased, give an insight into the manner and cause of death, and identify any perpetrators. The soil search methods known as wet and dry sieving, are cumbersome, time-consuming and have limited success for some soil types. This often leads to the decision not to search, resulting in missed opportunities to identify potential evidence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if a dual energy X-ray baggage scanner could be used to search for items of potential forensic interest in soil. A trial was conducted using a Smiths Detection ScanTrailer 100100 V-2is mobile X-ray inspection system to establish if it could be used to detect organic, inorganic, and metallic items located within soil. The soil type and natural variables such as water and organic content were adjusted to simulate different environments. The baggage scanner was found to provide a quick and easy way to detect items contained within various soil types, particularly in a sand rich matrix. It is estimated that using this method to search 1 m3 of soil, when broken down into samples that are < 13 cm in depth, would take around one hour to complete, compared with 100 to 150 person-hours by manual sieving. This is believed to be the first use of dual energy X-ray technology for this purpose and shows the potential for further research and use of this method in forensic archaeology.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Solo , Humanos , Raios X , Sepultamento , Medicina Legal/métodos
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360314

RESUMO

The site of Zhengzhou Shang City (ca. 1509-1315 cal. BC) was the capital of the early Shang Dynasty in China. Archaeological excavations have unearthed a ditch containing approximately one hundred unusual dead human skulls in the rammed-earth foundations of the palace area. The identity and origin of the skulls have long been disputed. In this work, strontium, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were carried out on 11 human skulls and 1 tooth from the ditch, as well as on 11 human bones, 11 human teeth from the ordinary tombs and 10 pig teeth from the Zhengzhou Shang City site. We determined that, in Zhengzhou Shang City, the local strontium isotope ratio ranges from 0.711606 to 0.711884, and ordinary inhabitants consumed mainly C4 plants supplemented by C3 plants. Moreover, humans buried in the ditch have 87Sr/86Sr values from 0.711335 to 0.711741 and consumed only C4 plants. Combining the isotopic data with the archaeological and cultural context, it is concluded that the unusual human skulls in the ditch are most likely those of prisoners of war captured by the central forces conquering the Xiaomintun area of Anyang in the early Shang Dynasty. The results provide valuable insight into the history of violence and military warfare in the early Chinese dynasty.


Assuntos
Militares , Dente , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Isótopos , Arqueologia , Crânio
10.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276088, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288335

RESUMO

The present contribution focuses on investigating the interaction of people and environment in small-scale farming societies. Our study is centred on the particular way settlement location constraints economic strategy when technology is limited, and social division of work is not fully developed. Our intention is to investigate prehistoric socioeconomic organisation when farming began in the Old World along the Levant shores of Iberian Peninsula, the Neolithic phenomenon. We approach this subject extracting relevant information from a big set of ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological cases using Machine Learning methods. This paper explores the use of Bayesian networks as explanatory models of the independent variables-the environment- and dependent variables-social decisions-, and also as predictive models. The study highlights how subsistence strategies are modified by ecological and topographical variables of the settlement location and their relationship with social organisation. It also establishes the role of Bayesian networks as a suitable supervised Machine Learning methodology for investigating socio-ecological systems, introducing their use to build useful data-driven models to address relevant archaeological and anthropological questions.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Arqueologia , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Tecnologia , Grupos Populacionais
11.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276014, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288354

RESUMO

Despite advances in techniques, methods, and theory, northeastern North American archaeologists continue to use early to mid-twentieth century culture historical taxa as units of analysis and narrative. There is a distinct need to move away from this archaeological practice to enable fuller understandings of past human lives. One tool that enables such a move is Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates, which provides a means of constructing continuous chronologies. A large dataset of radiocarbon dates for late prehistoric (ca AD 900/1000-1650) sites in the lower upper Ohio River basin in southwestern Pennsylvania and adjacent portions of Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia is used here as an example. The results allow a preliminary assessment of how the settlement plans of contemporaneous villages varied considerably, reflecting decisions of the village occupants how to structure built environments to meet their needs.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Datação Radiométrica , Humanos , Datação Radiométrica/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Rios , Maryland
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2109321119, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252033

RESUMO

Exchange networks created by Neolithic pastoral transhumance have been central to explaining the distant transport of obsidian since chemical analysis was first used to attribute Near Eastern artifacts to their volcanic origins in the 1960s. Since then, critical reassessments of floral, faunal, and chronological data have upended long-held interpretations regarding the emergence of food production and have demonstrated that far-traveled, nomadic pastoralists were more myth than reality, at least during the Neolithic. Despite debates regarding their proposed conveyance mechanisms, obsidian artifacts' transport has received relatively little attention compared with zooarchaeological and archaeobotanical lines of investigation. The rise of nondestructive and portable instruments permits entire obsidian assemblages to be traced to their sources, renewing their significance in elucidating connections among early pastoral and agricultural communities. Here we share our findings about the obsidian artifacts excavated from the sites of Ali Kosh and Chagha Sefid in the southern Zagros. In the 1960s and 1970s, 28 obsidian artifacts from the sites were destructively tested, and the remainder were sorted by color. Our results emphasize a dynamic, accelerating connectivity among the Early and Late Neolithic communities. Here we propose and support an alternative model for obsidian distribution among more settled communities. In brief, diversity in the obsidian assemblage accelerated diachronically, an invisible trend in the earlier studies. Our model of increasing population densities is supported by archaeological data and computational simulations, offering insights regarding the Neolithic Demographic Transition in the Zagros, an equivalent of which is commonly thought to have occurred around the world.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Vidro , Agricultura/história , Irã (Geográfico) , História Antiga
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2109313118, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251987

RESUMO

Investments in data management infrastructure often seek to catalyze new research outcomes based on the reuse of research data. To achieve the goals of these investments, we need to better understand how data creation and data quality concerns shape the potential reuse of data. The primary audience for this paper centers on scientific domain specialists that create and (re)use datasets documenting archaeological materials. This paper discusses practices that promote data quality in support of more open-ended reuse of data beyond the immediate needs of the creators. We argue that identifier practices play a key, but poorly recognized, role in promoting data quality and reusability. We use specific archaeological examples to demonstrate how the use of globally unique and persistent identifiers can communicate aspects of context, avoid errors and misinterpretations, and facilitate integration and reuse. We then discuss the responsibility of data creators and data reusers to employ identifiers to better maintain the contextual integrity of data, including professional, social, and ethical dimensions.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados
14.
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2109325118, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252027

RESUMO

Direct, accurate, and precise dating of archaeological pottery vessels is now achievable using a recently developed approach based on the radiocarbon dating of purified molecular components of food residues preserved in the walls of pottery vessels. The method targets fatty acids from animal fat residues, making it uniquely suited for directly dating the inception of new food commodities in prehistoric populations. Here, we report a large-scale application of the method by directly dating the introduction of dairying into Central Europe by the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) cultural group based on dairy fat residues. The radiocarbon dates (n = 27) from the 54th century BC from the western and eastern expansion of the LBK suggest dairy exploitation arrived with the first settlers in the respective regions and were not gradually adopted later. This is particularly significant, as contemporaneous LBK sites showed an uneven distribution of dairy exploitation. Significantly, our findings demonstrate the power of directly dating the introduction of new food commodities, hence removing taphonomic uncertainties when assessing this indirectly based on associated cultural materials or other remains.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Ácidos Graxos , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/história , Europa (Continente) , Fazendeiros , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Datação Radiométrica , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2109324119, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252044

RESUMO

Despite the vast array of different geochronological tools available, dating the Paleolithic remains one of the discipline's greatest challenges. This review focuses on two different dating approaches: trapped charge and amino acid geochronology. While differing in their fundamental principles, both exploit time-dependent changes in signals found within crystals to generate a chronology for the material dated and hence, the associated deposits. Within each method, there is a diverse range of signals that can be analyzed, each covering different time ranges, applicable to different materials and suitable for different paleoenvironmental and archaeological contexts. This multiplicity of signals can at first sight appear confusing, but it is a fundamental strength of the techniques, allowing internal checks for consistency and providing more information than simply a chronology. For each technique, we present an overview of the basis for the time-dependent signals and the types of material that can be analyzed, with examples of their archaeological application, as well as their future potential.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Datação Radiométrica , Arqueologia/métodos , Fósseis , Datação Radiométrica/métodos
17.
J Hum Evol ; 172: 103258, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206720

RESUMO

Current knowledge about Paleolithic human plant use is limited by the rare survival of identifiable plant remains as well as the availability of methods for plant detection and identification. By analyzing DNA preserved in cave sediments, we can identify organisms in the absence of any visible remains, opening up new ways to study details of past human behavior, including plant use. Aghitu-3 Cave contains a 15,000-yearlong record (from ∼39,000 to 24,000 cal BP) of Upper Paleolithic human settlement and environmental variability in the Armenian Highlands. Finds from this cave include stone artifacts, faunal remains, bone tools, shell beads, charcoal, and pollen, among others. We applied sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) metabarcoding to the Aghitu-3 sedimentary sequence and combined this with pollen data to obtain a temporal reconstruction of plant assemblages. Our results reveal a stratification of plant abundance and diversity where sedaDNA reflects periods of human occupation, showing higher diversity in layers with increased human activity. Low pollen concentrations combined with high sedaDNA abundance indicate plant remains may have been brought into the cave by animals or humans during the deposition of the lower two archaeological horizons. Most of the recovered plants are reported to be useful for food, flavor, medicine, and/or technical purposes, demonstrating the potential of the environment around Aghitu-3 Cave to support humans during the Upper Paleolithic. Moreover, we identified several specific plant taxa that strengthen previous findings about Upper Paleolithic plant use in this region (i.e., for medicine and the manufacturing and dyeing of textiles). This study represents the first application of plant sedaDNA analysis of cave sediments for the investigation of potential plant use by prehistoric humans.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Hominidae , Humanos , Animais , Armênia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Carvão Vegetal , Cavernas , Hominidae/genética , Arqueologia/métodos , Plantas/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17421, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261487

RESUMO

The authors discuss functional characterization of Mousterian tools on the basis of their use-wear and residue analysis of five lithic tools from Mezmaiskaya cave and Saradj-Chuko grotto in the North Caucasus. The results represent the first comprehensive use-wear and residue analysis carried out on Mousterian stone artefacts in the Caucasus. This study unequivocally confirms the use of bitumen for hafting stone tools in two different Middle Paleolithic cultural contexts defined in the Caucasus, Eastern Micoquian and Zagros Mousterian.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Tecnologia , Artefatos , Arqueologia , Fósseis
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273714, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264956

RESUMO

Amanzi Springs is a series of inactive thermal springs located near Kariega in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Excavations in the 1960s exposed rare, stratified Acheulian-bearing deposits that were not further investigated over the next 50 years. Reanalysis of the site and its legacy collection has led to a redefined stratigraphic context for the archaeology, a confirmed direct association between Acheulian artefacts and wood, as well as the first reliable age estimates for the site. Thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence and post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence dating indicates that the Acheulian deposits from the Amanzi Springs Area 1 spring eye formed during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 at ~ 404-390 ka. At this time, higher sea levels of ~13-14m would have placed Amanzi Springs around 7 km from a ria that would have formed along what is today the Swartkops River, and which likely led to spring reactivation. This makes the Amanzi Springs Area 1 assemblage an unusual occurrence of a verified late occurring, seaward, open-air Acheulian occupation. The Acheulian levels do not contain any Middle Stone Age (MSA) elements such as blades and points that have been documented in the interior of South Africa at this time. However, a small number of stone tools from the upper layers of the artefact zone, and originally thought of as intrusive, have been dated to ~190 ka, at the transition between MIS 7 to 6, and represent the first potential MSA identified at the site.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Madeira , África do Sul , Rios , Isótopos , Fósseis
20.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273984, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269723

RESUMO

Central Asia is positioned at a crossroads linking several zones important to hominin dispersal during the Middle Pleistocene. However, the scarcity of stratified and dated archaeological material and paleoclimate records makes it difficult to understand dispersal and occupation dynamics during this time period, especially in arid zones. Here we compile and analyze paleoclimatic and archaeological data from Pleistocene Central Asia, including examination of a new layer-counted speleothem-based multiproxy record of hydrological changes in southern Uzbekistan at the end of MIS 11. Our findings indicate that Lower Palaeolithic sites in the steppe, semi-arid, and desert zones of Central Asia may have served as key areas for the dispersal of hominins into Eurasia during the Middle Pleistocene. In agreement with previous studies, we find that bifaces occur across these zones at higher latitudes and in lower altitudes relative to the other Paleolithic assemblages. We argue that arid Central Asia would have been intermittently habitable during the Middle Pleistocene when long warm interglacial phases coincided with periods when the Caspian Sea was experiencing consistently high water levels, resulting in greater moisture availability and more temperate conditions in otherwise arid regions. During periodic intervals in the Middle Pleistocene, the local environment of arid Central Asia was likely a favorable habitat for paleolithic hominins and was frequented by Lower Paleolithic toolmakers producing bifaces.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Arqueologia , Ocupações , Água , Ásia , Fósseis
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