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1.
Talanta ; 235: 122780, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517638

RESUMO

Archaeological sites often contain accumulations of remains derived from different independent events produced by different agents. Thus, in Palaeolithic sites, it is normal to find alternating occupations between humans and carnivores. The faunal assemblages at these sites usually include hundreds or thousands of bone fragments, which are very difficult to associate them to specific individuals since there are no currently available techniques able to do it in a straightforward and cost-effective way. In this work we present a methodology that allows us to characterise the anatomical remains of a bone accumulation and relate them all back to the specific individuals to which they belong. In order to provide a real world application, we have used a selection of animal bones from different individuals belonging to deer and sheep (fed in a controlled way using the same diet). On the other hand, fossilized faunal remains have also been analysed to verify if these fossilized bones keep some of the fingerprinting of the animal from which they come from. For this purpose, we have developed a protocol using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) together with Neural Networks (NN) implemented here to discriminate and reassemble deer and sheep bones from different individuals, which we subsequently applied for these proposes to fossilized material. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this technique has been applied for individual fingerprinting to actuality and fossil samples. The elemental composition of bones provides enough information to get a correct discrimination of different individuals. The spectral correlation has exceeded 95 %. and all individuals were correctly classified to the individual from which they come from. There have been no instances of false positives or false negatives in our tests or applications.


Assuntos
Cervos , Fósseis , Animais , Arqueologia , Lasers , Ovinos , Análise Espectral
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300394

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative attenuation of VIS, UV and NIR solar radiation through a large pond skylight into the interior of the l'Almoina Archaeological Museum (Valencia, Spain), and to determine how relative attenuation varied throughout the year and time of day. Measurements were taken at 9:00 a.m., 12:00 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. during July 2019 and January 2020. Relative attenuation values were obtained from the measurement of spectral irradiance in the exterior and at different points in the interior by means of two Ocean Optics spectrometers: HR4000CG-UV-NIR for VIS (400-700 nm) and NIR (700-1000 nm) bands, and FLAME-S-UV-VIS for UV-A (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm) bands. The central points of the skylight had relative attenuation at 520 nm, reaching a value of 50% in summer at noon and 38% in the afternoon. At noon in winter, there were two relative attenuation peaks above 33% at 520 nm and at 900 nm. For mean relative attenuation, in the UVB range, the highest relative attenuation (20%) was inside the ruins in the morning in both summer and winter, and the UVA band relative attenuation was quite constant throughout the museum, but lower than that of the UVB band, in the range 0-3%.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Raios Ultravioleta , Arqueologia , Estações do Ano , Espanha
3.
C R Biol ; 344(2): 177-187, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213855

RESUMO

The advent of high throughput sequencing approaches and ancient DNA techniques have enabled reconstructing the history of human populations at an unprecedented level of resolution. The symposium from the French Academy of Sciences "50,000 ans d'épopée humaine dans notre ADN" has reviewed some of the latest contributions from the fields of genomics, archaeology, and linguistics to our understanding of >300,000 years of human history. DNA has revealed the richness of the human journey, from the deep divergences between human populations in Africa, to the first encounters of Homo Sapiens with other hominins on their way to Eurasia and the peopling of Remote Oceania. The symposium has also emphasized how migrations, cultural practices, and environmental pathogens have contributed to shape the genetic diversity of modern humans, through admixture, genetic drift or genetic adaptation. Finally, special attention was also given to how human behaviours have shaped the genome of other species, through the spreading of microbes and pathogens, as in the case of Yersinia Pestis, or through domestication, as elegantly demonstrated for dogs, horses, and apples. Altogether, this conference illustrated how the complex history of human populations is tightly linked with their contemporary genetic diversity that, in turn, has direct effects on their identity and health.


Assuntos
DNA , Genômica , África , Animais , Arqueologia , Cães , Genoma , Genoma Humano , História Antiga , Cavalos , Humanos
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205105

RESUMO

The Late Neolithic palafitte site, Ustie na Drim, in the northern part of Lake Ohrid (North Macedonia), excavated in 1962, offered ceramic fragments of large, flat, elongated pans. These artifacts could be dated by relative chronology to roughly around 5200-5000 BC. According to their shape and technological traits, the ceramic pans were probably used for baking. The attached materials on the surface of studied pan fragments were sampled for consequent chemical and microscopical analyses (i.e., analyses of starch, phytoliths, and microscopic animal remains). An immunological method revealed the presence of pork proteins in samples. The presence of organic residues of animal origin was, moreover, confirmed by the detection of cholesterol using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Analysis of detected microscopic botanical objects revealed starch grains of several plants (i.e., oak, cattail, and grasses). An interesting find was the hair of a beetle larva, which could be interpreted contextually as the khapra beetle, a pest of grain and flour. Based on our data, we suppose that the ceramic pans from Ustie na Drim were used for the preparation of meals containing meat from common livestock in combination with cereals and wild plants.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/análise , Alimentos/história , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proteínas/análise , Animais , Arqueologia , Cerâmica/história , Culinária/história , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , História Antiga , Extratos Vegetais/história , Proteínas/história , República da Macedônia do Norte , Suínos
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206737

RESUMO

An earlier study carried out in 2010 at the archaeological site of L'Almoina (Valencia, Spain) found marked daily fluctuations of temperature, especially in summer. Such pronounced gradient is due to the design of the museum, which includes a skylight as a ceiling, covering part of the remains in the museum. In this study, it was found that the thermal conditions are not homogeneous and vary at different points of the museum and along the year. According to the European Standard EN10829, it is necessary to define a plan for long-term monitoring, elaboration and study of the microclimatic data, in order to preserve the artifacts. With the aforementioned goal of extending the study and offering a tool to monitor the microclimate, a new statistical methodology is proposed. For this propose, during one year (October 2019-October 2020), a set of 27 data-loggers was installed, aimed at recording the temperature inside the museum. By applying principal component analysis and k-means, three different microclimates were established. In order to characterize the differences among the three zones, two statistical techniques were put forward. Firstly, Sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA) was applied to a set of 671 variables extracted from the time series. The second approach consisted of using a random forest algorithm, based on the same functions and variables employed by the first methodology. Both approaches allowed the identification of the main variables that best explain the differences between zones. According to the results, it is possible to establish a representative subset of sensors recommended for the long-term monitoring of temperatures at the museum. The statistical approach proposed here is very effective for discriminant time series analysis and for explaining the differences in microclimate when a net of sensors is installed in historical buildings or museums.


Assuntos
Microclima , Museus , Arqueologia , Espanha , Temperatura
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1954): 20210711, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256002

RESUMO

The earliest widely accepted presence of humans in America dates to approximately 17.5 cal kyr BP, at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Among other evidence, this presence is attested by stone tools and associated cut-marks and other bone surface modifications (BSM), interpreted as the result of the consumption of animals by humans. Claims of an older human presence in the continent have been made based on the proposed anthropogenic modification of faunal remains; however, these have been controversial due to the highly subjective nature of the interpretations. Here, we employ advanced deep learning algorithms to objectively increase the accuracy of BSM identification on bones. With several models that exhibit BSM classification accuracies greater than 94%, we use ensemble learning techniques to robustly classify a selected sample of BSM from the approximately 30 kyr BP site of Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay. Our results confidently show the presence of cut-marks imparted by stone tools on bones at the site. This result supports an earlier presence of humans in the American continent, expanding additional genetic and archaeological evidence of a human LGM and pre-LGM presence in the continent.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos , Humanos , Uruguai
7.
Anal Methods ; 13(26): 2997-3000, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115077

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is ideally suited to the cultural heritage sector due to the ability to apply it minimally or non-destructively with limited sample preparation, fast analysis times (spectra can be obtained in a matter of minutes), relatively low cost, and relative ease of use. FTIR has been applied to answer a range of archaeological research questions through analysis of both organic and inorganic materials. Examples include determining the firing temperatures of archaeological clays or identifying types of textile.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Argila , Análise de Fourier , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148144, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111788

RESUMO

Bones represent a valuable biological archive of environmental lead (Pb) exposure for modern and archaeological populations. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging (SR-XFI) generates maps of Pb in bone on a microstructural scale, potentially providing insights into an individual's history of Pb exposure and, in the context of archaeological bone, the biogenic or diagenetic nature of its uptake. The aims of this study were to (1) examine biogenic spatial patterns for Pb from bone samples of modern cadavers compared with patterns observed archaeologically, and (2) test the hypothesis that there are spatial differences in the distribution of Pb for diagenetic and biogenic modes of uptake in bone. To address these aims, this study used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and SR-XFI on unaltered and experimentally altered cadaveric bone samples (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK) and archaeological bone samples from 18th to 19th century archaeological sites from Antigua and Lithuania. Bone concentrations of modern individuals are relatively low compared to those of archaeological individuals. SR-XFI results provide insights into modern Saskatchewan Pb exposure with some samples demonstrating a pattern of relatively low Pb exposure with higher levels of Pb exposure occurring in bone structures of a relatively older age that formed earlier in life, likely during the era of leaded gasoline (pre-1980s), and other samples demonstrating a pattern of fairly consistent, low-level exposure. Results support hypotheses for the spatial distribution of Pb corresponding to biogenic vs. diagenetic uptake. Diagenetic Pb is mainly confined to the periosteal surface of each sample with some enrichment of cracks and sub-periosteal canals. This may be useful in the future for differentiating diagenetic from biogenic Pb accumulation, analyzing environmental contamination, and informing sampling strategies in archaeological or fossil bone.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Síncrotrons , Idoso , Arqueologia , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Raios X
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148156, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126477

RESUMO

Sr isotopes are a powerful tool used to reconstruct human mobility in archaeology. This requires extensive bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr baselines used as reference for deciphering potential areas of origin. We define the first extensive bioavailable Sr isotope baselines for the different geographical regions and surface lithologies of Greece by combining new Sr data with previously published bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr data. We present 82 new Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr signatures of plants, soil leachates, surface waters and spring waters from Central Greece and combine these with published baseline values from all over Greece. We define individual baselines for ten of the thirteen geographical regions of Greece. We also provide soil leachate 87Sr/86Sr ratios from the two archaeological Bronze Age sites of Kirrha and Ayios Vasileios in Central and Southern Greece and demonstrate the validity and applicability of the new baselines for these sites. The bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr compositions of Central Greece define a narrow range of 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.70768 - 0.71021, with the widest range observed for the soil leachates. Sr derived from carbonate weathering appears to be the most important Sr source sampled by the proxies. There is an overall larger variability in baseline ranges of the different geographical regions, the narrowest is that for West Greece and the widest that for West Macedonia. In addition, we computed statistical Sr isotope ranges for the five main surface lithological groups characterising the sampling sites of the various proxies. Narrowly ranged, unradiogenic bioavailable Sr isotope signatures are typical of areas characterised by igneous outcrops as well as by Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Areas, where Palaeozoic and Precambrian bedrock outcrops dominate, produce significantly wider ranges. Our study promotes the usefulness of multi-proxy baselines for geographical reference purposes and thus their promising applicability for future human mobility studies.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Isótopos de Estrôncio , Grécia , Humanos , Isótopos , Solo , Estrôncio , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise
11.
Nature ; 594(7863): 356-364, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135521

RESUMO

In less than a decade, analyses of ancient genomes have transformed our understanding of the Indigenous peopling and population history of the Americas. These studies have shown that this history, which began in the late Pleistocene epoch and continued episodically into the Holocene epoch, was far more complex than previously thought. It is now evident that the initial dispersal involved the movement from northeast Asia of distinct and previously unknown populations, including some for whom there are no currently known descendants. The first peoples, once south of the continental ice sheets, spread widely, expanded rapidly and branched into multiple populations. Their descendants-over the next fifteen millennia-experienced varying degrees of isolation, admixture, continuity and replacement, and their genomes help to illuminate the relationships among major subgroups of Native American populations. Notably, all ancient individuals in the Americas, save for later-arriving Arctic peoples, are more closely related to contemporary Indigenous American individuals than to any other population elsewhere, which challenges the claim-which is based on anatomical evidence-that there was an early, non-Native American population in the Americas. Here we review the patterns revealed by ancient genomics that help to shed light on the past peoples who created the archaeological landscape, and together lead to deeper insights into the population and cultural history of the Americas.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Mapeamento Geográfico , Migração Humana/história , América , Arqueologia , Genoma Humano/genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Ilhas do Pacífico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
12.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063539

RESUMO

Dental calculus analysis can be a valuable source of archaeological knowledge, since it preserves not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris, as well as metabolic products likely originating from dietary and craft activities. Here we described GC-MS analysis of a set of historic dental calculus samples from the front teeth of the mandibles of seven individuals found in 17th- and 18th-century graves in the city of Rzeszow, located in South-eastern Poland. We have found that only saturated fatty acids, which are characteristic for fats of animal origin, were present in the tested samples. Our preliminary results indicate that the diet of modern-period inhabitants of Rzeszow was rich in animal products, such as meat and dairy products.


Assuntos
Cálculos Dentários/química , Cálculos Dentários/história , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Adulto , Arqueologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
14.
Nature ; 593(7857): 39-40, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953405
16.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(178): 20201044, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034530

RESUMO

Recent discoveries in archaeology and palaeoanthropology highlight that stone tool knapping could have emerged first within the genera Australopithecus or Kenyanthropus rather than Homo. To explore the implications of this hypothesis determining the physical demands and motor control needed for performing the percussive movements during the oldest stone toolmaking technology (i.e. Lomekwian) would help. We analysed the joint angle patterns and muscle activity of a knapping expert using three stone tool replication techniques: unipolar flaking on the passive hammer (PH), bipolar (BP) flaking on the anvil, and multidirectional and multifacial flaking with free hand (FH). PH presents high levels of activity for Biceps brachii and wrist extensors and flexors. By contrast, BP and FH are characterized by high solicitation of forearm pronation. The synergy analyses depict a high muscular and kinematic coordination. Whereas the muscle pattern is very close between the techniques, the kinematic pattern is more variable, especially for PH. FH displays better muscle coordination and conversely lesser joint angle coordination. These observations suggest that the transition from anvil and hammer to freehand knapping techniques in early hominins would have been made possible by the acquisition of a behavioural repertoire producing an evolutionary advantage that gradually would have been beneficial for stone tool production.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Arqueologia , Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Tecnologia
17.
Nature ; 592(7853): 253-257, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828320

RESUMO

Modern humans appeared in Europe by at least 45,000 years ago1-5, but the extent of their interactions with Neanderthals, who disappeared by about 40,000 years ago6, and their relationship to the broader expansion of modern humans outside Africa are poorly understood. Here we present genome-wide data from three individuals dated to between 45,930 and 42,580 years ago from Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria1,2. They are the earliest Late Pleistocene modern humans known to have been recovered in Europe so far, and were found in association with an Initial Upper Palaeolithic artefact assemblage. Unlike two previously studied individuals of similar ages from Romania7 and Siberia8 who did not contribute detectably to later populations, these individuals are more closely related to present-day and ancient populations in East Asia and the Americas than to later west Eurasian populations. This indicates that they belonged to a modern human migration into Europe that was not previously known from the genetic record, and provides evidence that there was at least some continuity between the earliest modern humans in Europe and later people in Eurasia. Moreover, we find that all three individuals had Neanderthal ancestors a few generations back in their family history, confirming that the first European modern humans mixed with Neanderthals and suggesting that such mixing could have been common.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Genoma Humano/genética , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Alelos , América/etnologia , Animais , Arqueologia , Bulgária/etnologia , Cavernas , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798098

RESUMO

Elucidating when Neanderthal populations disappeared from Eurasia is a key question in paleoanthropology, and Belgium is one of the key regions for studying the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Previous radiocarbon dating placed the Spy Neanderthals among the latest surviving Neanderthals in Northwest Europe with reported dates as young as 23,880 ± 240 B.P. (OxA-8912). Questions were raised, however, regarding the reliability of these dates. Soil contamination and carbon-based conservation products are known to cause problems during the radiocarbon dating of bulk collagen samples. Employing a compound-specific approach that is today the most efficient in removing contamination and ancient genomic analysis, we demonstrate here that previous dates produced on Neanderthal specimens from Spy were inaccurately young by up to 10,000 y due to the presence of unremoved contamination. Our compound-specific radiocarbon dates on the Neanderthals from Spy and those from Engis and Fonds-de-Forêt demonstrate that they disappeared from Northwest Europe at 44,200 to 40,600 cal B.P. (at 95.4% probability), much earlier than previously suggested. Our data contribute significantly to refining models for Neanderthal disappearance in Europe and, more broadly, show that chronometric models regarding the appearance or disappearance of animal or hominin groups should be based only on radiocarbon dates obtained using robust pretreatment methods.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Extinção Biológica , Homem de Neandertal , Animais , Arqueologia , Europa (Continente) , Fósseis , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Datação Radiométrica
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249606, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793665

RESUMO

Here we report the discovery of ceramic fragments that form part of a Gorgoneion, a ceramic image representation of the Gorgon Medusa. The fragments were found in a deep part of Gorham's Cave, well known to ancient mariners as a natural shrine, between the 8th and 2nd century BCE. We discuss the context of this discovery, both within the inner topography of the cave itself, and also the broader geographical context. The discovery is situated at the extreme western end of the Mediterranean Sea, where it meets the Atlantic Ocean. The location was known to ancient mariners as the northern Pillar of Herakles, which marked the end of the known world. We relate the discovery, and its geographical and chronological context, to Greek legends that situated the lair of the Gorgon sisters at a location which coincides with the physical attributes and geographical position of Gorham's Cave. We thus provide, uniquely, a geographical and archaeological context to the myth of Perseus and the slaying of the Gorgon Medusa.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Cavernas , Cerâmica/química , Humanos
20.
Nature ; 592(7853): 248-252, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790469

RESUMO

The archaeological record of Africa provides the earliest evidence for the emergence of the complex symbolic and technological behaviours that characterize Homo sapiens1-7. The coastal setting of many archaeological sites of the Late Pleistocene epoch, and the abundant shellfish remains recovered from them, has led to a dominant narrative in which modern human origins in southern Africa are intrinsically tied to the coast and marine resources8-12, and behavioural innovations in the interior lag behind. However, stratified Late Pleistocene sites with good preservation and robust chronologies are rare in the interior of southern Africa, and the coastal hypothesis therefore remains untested. Here we show that early human innovations that are similar to those dated to around 105 thousand years ago (ka) in coastal southern Africa existed at around the same time among humans who lived over 600 km inland. We report evidence for the intentional collection of non-utilitarian objects (calcite crystals) and ostrich eggshell from excavations of a stratified rockshelter deposit in the southern Kalahari Basin, which we date by optically stimulated luminescence to around 105 ka. Uranium-thorium dating of relict tufa deposits indicates sporadic periods of substantial volumes of fresh, flowing water; the oldest of these episodes is dated to between 110 and 100 ka and is coeval with the archaeological deposit. Our results suggest that behavioural innovations among humans in the interior of southern Africa did not lag behind those of populations near the coast, and that these innovations may have developed within a wet savannah environment. Models that tie the emergence of behavioural innovations to the exploitation of coastal resources by our species may therefore require revision.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Casca de Ovo , Pradaria , Invenções/história , Chuva , Struthioniformes , África Austral , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Cavernas , História Antiga , Humanos , Magnésio , Tório , Urânio
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