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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370331

RESUMO

In archaeological research, changes in material culture and the evolution of styles are taken as major indicators for socio-cultural transformation. They form the basis for typo-chronological classification and the establishment of phases and periods. Central European Bronze Age material culture from burials reveals changes during the Bronze Age and represents a perfect case study for analyzing phenomena of cultural change and the adoption of innovation in the societies of prehistoric Europe. Our study focuses on the large-scale change in material culture which took place in the second millennium BC and the emergence at the same period of new burial rites: the shift from inhumation burials in flat graves to complex mounds and simple cremation burials. Paul Reinecke was the first to divide the European Bronze Age (EBA) into two phases, Bz A1 and A2. The shift from the first to the second phase has so far been ascribed to technical advances. Our study adopted an innovative approach to quantifying this phenomenon. Through regressive reciprocal averaging and Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon-dated grave contexts located in Switzerland and southern Germany, we modelled chronological changes in the material culture and changes in burial rites in these regions in a probabilistic way. We used kernel density models to summarize radiocarbon dates, with the aim of visualizing cultural changes in the third and second millennium BC. In 2015, Stockhammer et al. cast doubt on the chronological sequence of the Reinecke phases of the EBA on the basis of newly collected radiocarbon dates from southern Germany. Our intervention is a direct response to the results of that study. We fully agree with Stockhammer's et al. dating of the start of EBA, but propose a markedly different dating of the EBA/MBA transition. Our modelling of radiocarbon data demonstrates a statistically significant typological sequence of phases Bz A1, Bz A2 and Bz B and disproves their postulated chronological overlap. The linking of the archaeological relative-chronological system with absolute dates is of major importance to understanding the temporal dimension of the EBA phases.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Cronologia como Assunto , Cultura , Datação Radiométrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Arqueologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Europa (Continente) , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052915

RESUMO

The flanks of the Caucasus Mountains and the steppe landscape to their north offered highly productive grasslands for Bronze Age herders and their flocks of sheep, goat, and cattle. While the archaeological evidence points to a largely pastoral lifestyle, knowledge regarding the general composition of human diets and their variation across landscapes and during the different phases of the Bronze Age is still restricted. Human and animal skeletal remains from the burial mounds that dominate the archaeological landscape and their stable isotope compositions are major sources of dietary information. Here, we present stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data of bone collagen of 105 human and 50 animal individuals from the 5th millennium BC to the Sarmatian period, with a strong focus on the Bronze Age and its cultural units including Maykop, Yamnaya, Novotitorovskaya, North Caucasian, Catacomb, post-Catacomb and late Bronze Age groups. The samples comprise all inhumations with sufficient bone preservation from five burial mound sites and a flat grave cemetery as well as subsamples from three further sites. They represent the Caucasus Mountains in the south, the piedmont zone and Kuban steppe with humid steppe and forest vegetation to its north, and more arid regions in the Caspian steppe. The stable isotope compositions of the bone collagen of humans and animals varied across the study area and reflect regional diversity in environmental conditions and diets. The data agree with meat, milk, and/or dairy products from domesticated herbivores, especially from sheep and goats having contributed substantially to human diets, as it is common for a largely pastoral economy. This observation is also in correspondence with the faunal remains observed in the graves and offerings of animals in the mound shells. In addition, foodstuffs with elevated carbon and nitrogen isotope values, such as meat of unweaned animals, fish, or plants, also contributed to human diets, especially among communities living in the more arid landscapes. The regional distinction of the animal and human data with few outliers points to mobility radii that were largely concentrated within the environmental zones in which the respective sites are located. In general, dietary variation among the cultural entities as well as regarding age, sex and archaeologically indicated social status is only weakly reflected. There is, however, some indication for a dietary shift during the Early Bronze Age Maykop period.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Dieta/história , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Colágeno/análise , Pradaria , História Antiga , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Federação Russa
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022689

RESUMO

The presence of the 'Keilmesser-concept' in late Middle Paleolithic assemblages of Central and Eastern Europe defines the eponymous 'Keilmessergruppen'. The site of Lichtenberg (Lower Saxony, Germany) was discovered in 1987 and yielded one of the most important Keilmessergruppen assemblages of the northwestern European Plain. At that time, researchers used the bifacial backed knives to define a new type, the 'Lichtenberger Keilmesser', which they characterized by an aesthetic form-function concept with a specific range of morphological variability on the one hand, and a standardized convex cutting edge one the other hand. Thereby, a shape continuum was observed between different form-function concepts in the Lichtenberg assemblage, from Keilmesser through to Faustkeilblätter and handaxes. In a contrasting view, it was recently suggested that the morphology of Keilmesser, including what is defined here as type Lichtenberg, is the result of solutions to establish and maintain edge angles during resharpening. With the intention to evaluate these contrasting hypotheses, I conducted a re-analysis of the Keilmesser from Lichtenberg and their relationship to central German late Middle Paleolithic knives, using 3D geometric morphometric analyses and an automatized approach to measure edge angles on 3D models. Despite a morphological overlap of the tools from both regions, I could show that the Lichtenberg Keilmesser concept refers to one solution to create a tool with specific functionalities, like potentially cutting, prehension, and reusability. To establish and maintain its functionality, certain angles where created by the knappers along the active edges. This behavior resulted in specific shapes and positions of the active parts and created what looks like a standardized or template morphology of this Keilmesser type.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas/classificação , Animais , Europa Oriental , Fósseis/patologia , Hominidae , Tecnologia/métodos , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238439, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866194

RESUMO

Prone burials are among the most distinctive deviant burials during the Middle Ages and early modern period. Despite their worldwide distribution, the meaning of this burial practice is still a matter of debate. So far, a comprehensive analysis of prone burials is lacking for Central Europe. By compiling evidence from Germany, Switzerland and Austria, this study investigates how these findings fit into the scope of medieval funerary practices. 95 prone burials from 60 archaeological sites were analyzed regarding geographical distribution, dating, burial features, body position, age-at-death and sex. We applied descriptive statistics accompanied by multiple correspondence analysis in order to highlight possible multivariate patterns in the dataset. Prone burials occur in funerary and non-funerary contexts, with a predominance of single churchyard burials, followed by favored and exterior location and settlements. In terms of grave features, the majority of churchyard burials do not differ from regular graves. Multivariate patterns appear to reflect diachronic changes in normative burial practices. We found a significant correlation between burial location and dating, due to a higher frequency of high medieval males in favored locations. In these cases, prone position is interpreted as a sign of humility, while similar evidences from late and post-medieval times are seen as an expression of deviancy. Apparent lack of care during burial reveals disrespect and possible social exclusion, with inhumations outside consecrated ground being the ultimate punishment. In some regions, apotropaic practices suggest that corpses should be prevented from returning, as attested in contemporaneous sources and folk beliefs. We hypothesize that the increase of prone burials towards the late and post-medieval period is linked to such practices triggered by epidemic diseases. The multiplicity of meanings that prone position might have in different contexts demands for careful interpretations within the same regional and chronological frame.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Arqueologia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956377

RESUMO

Employing an integrated approach to investigate the use of Late Lower Paleolithic flint tools found at the site of Qesem Cave (Israel), we revealed a particular trace pattern related to the employment of ashes at the site. Using a designated collection of replica items and combining use-wear and residue (morphological analysis, FTIR, SEM-EDX) analyses, we revealed the intentional use of ashes in preserving foods for delayed consumption as well as hide for delayed processing. Our interpretation, we believe is the most plausible one since we were able to delineate the specific use-wear fingerprints of the intentional use of ashes for such purposes, suggesting that our approach might be useful for the recognition of other similar functional-behavioral patterns. Lastly, in support of previous findings at Qesem Cave, our current findings present evidence for the processing of organic matters intentionally mixed with ash, leading us to suggest that the inhabitants of Qesem Cave were proficient not only in the habitual use of fire but also of its main by-product, ash. Hence, we call for a reassessment of the timeline currently assigned to hominins' utilization of ash for storing and processing vegetal foods and hide.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Fogo/história , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/história , História Antiga , Hominidae , Israel , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956385

RESUMO

Palegawra cave, alongside its neighbouring Zarzi, has been an emblematic site of the Epipalaeolithic (Zarzian) cultural horizon in the NW Zagros of Southwest Asia ever since its first exploration in 1951 by Bruce Howe and Robert Braidwood in the context of the Iraq-Jarmo project. At the time scientific excavation, sampling and analysis methods were either under-developed or did not exist. In this paper we present the first results of new excavations at Palegawra conducted in 2016-2017 by the Eastern Fertile Crescent (EFEC) project, a research collaboration of the University of Liverpool and the Sulaymaniyah Directorate of Antiquities and Heritage. Our research has produced the first radiometric evidence pushing back the chronology of the NW Zagros Epipalaeolithic to the Last Glacial Maximum, thus fully aligning it with Epipalaeolithic facies until now known only from the Levant and the south Anatolian coast. We have also unearthed, for the first time in the Palaeolithic of the Zagros, direct archaeobotanical evidence for hitherto elusive Zarzian plant exploitation and the vegetation of the NW Zagros piedmont zone from the LGM to the end of the Lateglacial (~19,600-13,000 cal BP). The new Palegawra chronology alongside our detailed studies of its material culture and faunal and botanical assemblages suggest that the prevailing Epipalaeolithic habitation pattern in the NW Zagros (centred on generalised persistent occupations of small caves and rock-shelters alongside task-oriented ephemeral open-air campsites) remained an enduring characteristic of the Zarzian horizon throughout this period. The Palegawra data clearly show that neither resource levels and climate conditions nor geographic and/or cultural isolation provide adequate explanations for the stability and longevity of Zarzian lifeways during this long timespan. More fieldwork is required, including the discovery, excavation and intensive sampling of other Zarzian sites, for reaching a data-informed understanding of the nature and evolution of the NW Zagros Epipalaeolithic.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Agricultura/história , Animais , Antropologia Cultural , Artiodáctilos , Carnivoridade , Cavernas , Carvão Vegetal , Clima , Manipulação de Alimentos/história , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Fósseis , Geografia , Herbivoria , História Antiga , Humanos , Iraque , Plantas , Datação Radiométrica , Armas/história
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915881

RESUMO

Quantitative analyses of soil and sediment samples are often used to complement stratigraphic interpretations in archaeological and geoscientific research. The outcome of such analyses often is confined to small parts of the examined profiles as only a limited number of samples can be extracted and processed. Recent laboratory studies show that such selectively measured soil and sediment characteristics can be spatially extrapolated using spectral image data, resulting in reliable maps of a variety of parameters. However, on-site usage of this method has not been examined. We therefore explore, whether image data (RGB data and visible and near infrared hyperspectral data), acquired under regular fieldwork conditions during an archaeological excavation, in combination with a sampling strategy that is close to common practice, can be used to produce maps of soil organic matter, hematite, calcite, several weathering indices and grain size characteristics throughout complex archaeological profiles. We examine two profiles from an archaeological trench in Yeha (Tigray, Ethiopia). Our findings show a promising performance of RGB data and its derivative CIELAB as well as hyperspectral data for the prediction of parameters via random forest regression. By including two individual profiles we are able to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of our results, and illustrate the advantages and drawbacks of a higher spectral resolution and the necessary additional effort during fieldwork. The produced maps of the parameters examined allow us to critically reflect on the stratigraphic interpretation and offer a more objective basis for layer delineation in general. Our study therefore promotes more transparent and reproducible documentation for often destructive archaeological fieldwork.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Etiópia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966345

RESUMO

Despite a growing body of evidence concerning accelerated organic degradation at archaeological sites, there have been few follow-up investigations to examine the status of the remaining archaeological materials in the ground. To address the question of archaeo-organic preservation, we revisited the Swedish, Mesolithic key-site Ageröd and could show that the bone material had been subjected to an accelerated deterioration during the last 75 years, which had destroyed the bones in the areas where they had previously been best preserved. To understand why this has happened and to quantify and qualify the extent of the organic degradation, we here analyse the soil chemistry, bone histology, collagen preservation and palaeobotany at the site. Our results show that the soil at Ageröd is losing, or has already lost, its preservative and buffering qualities, and that pH-values in the still wet areas of the site have dropped to levels where no bone preservation is possible. Our results suggest that this acidification process is enhanced by the release of sulphuric acid as pyrite in the bones oxidizes. While we are still able to find well-preserved palaeobotanical remains, they are also starting to corrode through re-introduced oxygen into the archaeological layers. While some areas of the site have been more protected through redeposited soil on top of the archaeological layers, all areas of Ageröd are rapidly deteriorating. Lastly, while it is still possible to perform molecular analyses on the best-preserved bones from the most protected areas, this opportunity will likely be lost within a few decades. In conclusion, we find that if we, as a society, wish to keep this valuable climatic, environmental and cultural archive, both at Ageröd and elsewhere, the time to act is now and if we wait we will soon be in a situation where this record will be irretrievably lost forever.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Fósseis/história , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Botânica , Colágeno/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Características Culturais/história , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , História Antiga , Paleontologia , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Preservação Biológica/história , Datação Radiométrica , Solo/química , Suécia , Áreas Alagadas
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3868, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747648

RESUMO

Archaeological research documents major technological shifts among people who have lived in the southern tip of South America (South Patagonia) during the last thirteen millennia, including the development of marine-based economies and changes in tools and raw materials. It has been proposed that movements of people spreading culture and technology propelled some of these shifts, but these hypotheses have not been tested with ancient DNA. Here we report genome-wide data from 20 ancient individuals, and co-analyze it with previously reported data. We reveal that immigration does not explain the appearance of marine adaptations in South Patagonia. We describe partial genetic continuity since ~6600 BP and two later gene flows correlated with technological changes: one between 4700-2000 BP that affected primarily marine-based groups, and a later one impacting all <2000 BP groups. From ~2200-1200 BP, mixture among neighbors resulted in a cline correlated to geographic ordering along the coast.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Fósseis , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano/genética , Migração Humana , Arqueologia/métodos , Argentina , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Chile , DNA Mitocondrial/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Filogenia , Datação Radiométrica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Dente/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237528, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845899

RESUMO

The Middle to Later Stone Age transition marks a major change in how Late Pleistocene African populations produced and used stone tool kits, but is manifest in various ways, places and times across the continent. Alongside changing patterns of raw material use and decreasing artefact sizes, changes in artefact types are commonly employed to differentiate Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) assemblages. The current paper employs a quantitative analytical framework based upon the use of neural networks to examine changing constellations of technologies between MSA and LSA assemblages from eastern Africa. Network ensembles were trained to differentiate LSA assemblages from Marine Isotope Stage 3&4 MSA and Marine Isotope Stage 5 MSA assemblages based upon the presence or absence of 16 technologies. Simulations were used to extract significant indicator and contra-indicator technologies for each assemblage class. The trained network ensembles classified over 94% of assemblages correctly, and identified 7 key technologies that significantly distinguish between assemblage classes. These results clarify both temporal changes within the MSA and differences between MSA and LSA assemblages in eastern Africa.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , África Oriental , Animais , Humanos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237532, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776982

RESUMO

Resettlement, as a major imperial policy in the Inca empire, appears to have been a widespread mechanism for labor mobilization and the dismantling of rebellions. While multiple ethnohistorical references exist regarding resettlement in the central Andes, the extent of this policy in the imperial provinces is still unknown, especially in cases of economic intensification that might have required more labor force. The δ18O isotope is a good proxy for human mobility when comparing the childhood isotopic signature in the teeth enamel and the local water signature at the place of death. If applied to the study of an archaeological sequence, we can observe the expansion or reduction of a population's displacement within a territory, if they received foreigners, and in general, how their social interaction and networks changed over time. In a marginal provincial setting of the Inca empire, such as Copiapó valley in Chile, the study of δ18O isotope can enable us to observe if the alleged economic intensification in metallurgical production implied the massive arrival of foreign populations. Significantly, the Late Horizon does not evidence a great change in terms of mobility, compared to previous periods in Copiapó valley. Thus, the isotopic evidence can more clearly illuminate the social and political dynamics of an imperial provincial setting, where economic activities demanded by the Inca state were mainly carried out by the local labor force.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Esmalte Dentário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esmalte Dentário/metabolismo , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Peru , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237029, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764793

RESUMO

Paleomagnetic analysis of archaeological materials is crucial for understanding the behavior of the geomagnetic field in the past. As it is often difficult to accurately date the acquisition of magnetic information recorded in archaeological materials, large age uncertainties and discrepancies are common in archaeomagnetic datasets, limiting the ability to use these data for geomagnetic modeling and archaeomagnetic dating. Here we present an accurately dated reconstruction of the intensity and direction of the field in Jerusalem in August, 586 BCE, the date of the city's destruction by fire by the Babylonian army, which marks the end of the Iron Age in the Levant. We analyzed 54 floor segments, of unprecedented construction quality, unearthed within a large monumental structure that had served as an elite or public building and collapsed during the conflagration. From the reconstructed paleomagnetic directions, we conclude that the tilted floor segments had originally been part of the floor of the second story of the building and cooled after they had collapsed. This firmly connects the time of the magnetic acquisition to the date of the destruction. The relatively high field intensity, corresponding to virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 148.9 ± 3.9 ZAm2, accompanied by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination and a positive declination of 8.3°, suggests instability of the field during the 6th century BCE and redefines the duration of the Levantine Iron Age Anomaly. The narrow dating of the geomagnetic reconstruction enabled us to constrain the age of other Iron Age finds and resolve a long archaeological and historical discussion regarding the role and dating of royal Judean stamped jar handles. This demonstrates how archaeomagnetic data derived from historically-dated destructions can serve as an anchor for archaeomagnetic dating and its particular potency for periods in which radiocarbon is not adequate for high resolution dating.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Planeta Terra , Campos Magnéticos , Materiais de Construção/análise , Materiais de Construção/história , Fogo/história , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Israel , Colapso Estrutural/história , Fatores de Tempo , Guerra/história
14.
Hum Biol ; 91(4): 213-223, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767893

RESUMO

The mitochondrial haplotype U5a1 was identified from an Eneolithic grave associated with the Afanasievo archaeological culture in Bayankhongor Province, Erdenetsogt Township, at the site of Shatar Chuluu. This is the earliest appearance of an mtDNA haplotype associated with modern European populations on the Mongol Steppe. This evidence demonstrations that people with "western" mtDNA lived on the Mongol Steppe east of the Altai Mountains before the Bronze Age and refutes the notion that the Altai Mountains were a substantial barrier to gene flow, and definitively expands the acknowledged range of the Afanasievo archaeological culture.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Arqueologia/métodos , DNA Mitocondrial/história , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Haplótipos/genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Esqueleto
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628680

RESUMO

Archaeology has yet to capitalise on the opportunities offered by bioarchaeological approaches to examine the impact of the 11th-century AD Norman Conquest of England. This study utilises an integrated multiproxy analytical approach to identify and explain changes and continuities in diet and foodways between the 10th and 13th centuries in the city of Oxford, UK. The integration of organic residue analysis of ceramics, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of human and animal bones, incremental analysis of δ13C and δ15N from human tooth dentine and palaeopathological analysis of human skeletal remains has revealed a broad pattern of increasing intensification and marketisation across various areas of economic practice, with a much lesser and more short-term impact of the Conquest on everyday lifestyles than is suggested by documentary sources. Nonetheless, isotope data indicate short-term periods of instability, particularly food insecurity, did impact individuals. Evidence of preferences for certain foodstuffs and cooking techniques documented among the elite classes were also observed among lower-status townspeople, suggesting that Anglo-Norman fashions could be adopted across the social spectrum. This study demonstrates the potential for future archaeological research to generate more nuanced understanding of the cultural impact of the Norman Conquest of England, while showcasing a method which can be used to elucidate the undocumented, everyday implications of other large-scale political events on non-elites.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/química , Culinária/história , Dieta/história , Classe Social/história , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Cerâmica/análise , Feminino , Cabras , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos , Suínos , Dente/química , Reino Unido
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628704

RESUMO

An innovative approach to a non-destructive lock mechanism examination by means of X-ray computed tomography (CT) was involved in a careful opening of a locked 19th century chest missing the key, as an interdisciplinary cooperation with the restorers. In regard of the exploration and conservation of such locked objects, their opening is important to the restorers. However, the opening may be complicated, if not impossible, without damaging the object when the key is missing. Moreover, the historical locks might be equipped with protective mechanisms. Despite the exceeding dimensions and the weight of the steel chest, a CT analysis was performed, which enabled a detailed exploration of the lock based on a system of levers and bolts handled by a single key, located in a case on the inside of the chest lid, including the dimensions essential for manufacturing of a new key copy. Moreover, two secret protective mechanisms were revealed, as well as all the damages of the object.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , República Tcheca
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233912, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609779

RESUMO

This article reports Australia's first confirmed ancient underwater archaeological sites from the continental shelf, located off the Murujuga coastline in north-western Australia. Details on two underwater sites are reported: Cape Bruguieres, comprising > 260 recorded lithic artefacts at depths down to -2.4 m below sea level, and Flying Foam Passage where the find spot is associated with a submerged freshwater spring at -14 m. The sites were discovered through a purposeful research strategy designed to identify underwater targets, using an iterative process incorporating a variety of aerial and underwater remote sensing techniques and diver investigation within a predictive framework to map the submerged landscape within a depth range of 0-20 m. The condition and context of the lithic artefacts are analysed in order to unravel their depositional and taphonomic history and to corroborate their in situ position on a pre-inundation land surface, taking account of known geomorphological and climatic processes including cyclone activity that could have caused displacement and transportation from adjacent coasts. Geomorphological data and radiometric dates establish the chronological limits of the sites and demonstrate that they cannot be later than 7000 cal BP and 8500 cal BP respectively, based on the dates when they were finally submerged by sea-level rise. Comparison of underwater and onshore lithic assemblages shows differences that are consistent with this chronological interpretation. This article sets a foundation for the research strategies and technologies needed to identify archaeological targets at greater depth on the Australian continental shelf and elsewhere, building on the results presented. Emphasis is also placed on the need for legislation to better protect and manage underwater cultural heritage on the 2 million square kilometres of drowned landscapes that were once available for occupation in Australia, and where a major part of its human history must lie waiting to be discovered.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/história , Paleontologia/métodos , Austrália , Fósseis , Sedimentos Geológicos , História Antiga , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares , Elevação do Nível do Mar , Tecnologia/métodos , Austrália Ocidental
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234563, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673336

RESUMO

The archaeometallurgical and archaeological research carried out in Anatolia has provided numerous examples of diverse alloying practices representing different levels of societal interaction, from the extraction of ores to the trade of finished goods and high level gift exchange among elites. While discussions abound about the exploitation of mines, mining settlements, possible origins of artifacts, resources of copper, arsenic, and especially tin to improve our knowledge about Anatolian Bronze Age mining and metallurgy, uncommon alloying practices including the use of antimony, nickel, or lead have long remained in the shadows of scholarly research. With the aim of bringing attention to the diversity in alloying practices in Anatolian metallurgy, this article focuses on the use of antimony through an appraisal of archaeological and textual evidence from Bronze Age Anatolia. Archaeometric data from several Early Bronze Age sites are re-examined alongside new data emerging from Resuloglu (Çorum, Turkey) to explain the reduction of the variety of alloy types used. Portable-XRF analysis of artifacts from Resuloglu and mineralogical analysis of an antimony-bearing ore fragment present evidence of use of antimony at the region during the Early Bronze Age. This period is followed by disappearance of antimony in material record until the Iron Age, while textual records weakly refer to its circulation within the region. This paper considers geological, technological, and socio-economic factors to explain why the use of antimony alloys falls dormant after the Early Bronze Age. The political and economic change towards centralization over geological and technological factors is proposed as an explanation.


Assuntos
Ligas/história , Metalurgia/história , Antimônio/química , Arqueologia/métodos , História Antiga , Humanos , Mineração/história , Mineração/tendências , Turquia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520932

RESUMO

The recent identification of cave paintings dated to 42-40 ka BP in Borneo and Sulawesi highlights the antiquity of painted representations in this region. However, no instances of three-dimensional portable art, well attested in Europe since at least 40 ka BP, were documented thus far in East Asia prior to the Neolithic. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved miniature carving of a standing bird from the site of Lingjing, Henan, China. Microscopic and microtomographic analyses of the figurine and the study of bone fragments from the same context reveal the object was made of bone blackened by heating and carefully carved with four techniques that left diagnostic traces on the entire surface of the object. Critical analysis of the site's research history and stratigraphy, the cultural remains associated with the figurine and those recovered from the other archeological layers, as well as twenty-eight radiometric ages obtained on associated archeological items, including one provided by a bone fragment worked with the same technique recorded on the object, suggest a Late Paleolithic origin for the carving, with a probable age estimated to 13,500 years old. The carving, which predates previously known comparable instances from this region by 8,500 years, demonstrates that three-dimensional avian representations were part of East Asian Late Pleistocene cultural repertoires and identifies technological and stylistic peculiarities distinguishing this newly discovered art tradition from previous and contemporary examples found in Western Europe and Siberia.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Arte/história , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Aves , Osso e Ossos , Cavernas , China , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2700, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483115

RESUMO

Northern China harbored the world's earliest complex societies based on millet farming, in two major centers in the Yellow (YR) and West Liao (WLR) River basins. Until now, their genetic histories have remained largely unknown. Here we present 55 ancient genomes dating to 7500-1700 BP from the YR, WLR, and Amur River (AR) regions. Contrary to the genetic stability in the AR, the YR and WLR genetic profiles substantially changed over time. The YR populations show a monotonic increase over time in their genetic affinity with present-day southern Chinese and Southeast Asians. In the WLR, intensification of farming in the Late Neolithic is correlated with increased YR affinity while the inclusion of a pastoral economy in the Bronze Age was correlated with increased AR affinity. Our results suggest a link between changes in subsistence strategy and human migration, and fuel the debate about archaeolinguistic signatures of past human migration.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Arqueologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China , DNA Antigo/análise , Genética Populacional/métodos , Geografia , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
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