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1.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25039, jan.- dez. 2019. Quadros
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048270

RESUMO

Fundamentado no aporte teórico-metodológico da História Oral, este texto analisa os dez Centros de Memória da Educação Física e Esporte existentes nas universidades federais brasileiras, considerando seus objetivos, funções e estratégias de ação. Para tanto, foram realizadas 36 entrevistas com pessoas que criaram e participaram dessas iniciativas, as quais foram cotejadas com outras fontes documentais. Ao analisarmos essas diferentes fontes, identificamos o quanto esses lugares são representados como espaços que guardam, recuperam, preservam, produzem e divulgam memórias. Por estarem vinculados a instituições universitárias outras funções são mencionadas, notadamente, no que se refere à produção de conhecimento e à formação de pessoas


Based on the theoretical-methodological contribution of Oral History, this text analyzes the ten Memory Centers for Physical Education and Sports operating in Brazilian federal universities, considering their goals, functions and action strategies. Thirtysix interviews were conducted with the people who created and participated in those initiatives, which were compared with other documentary sources. In analyzing these different sources, the article discusses how these places are represented as spaces that keep, recover, preserve, produce and disseminate memories. Because they are linked to university institutions, other functions are mentioned, especially regarding knowledge production and training


Fundamentado en el aporte teórico-metodológico de la Historia Oral, este texto analiza los diez Centros de Memoria de Educación Física y Deporte existentes en las universidades federales brasileñas, considerando sus objetivos, funciones y estrategias de acción. Para ello, fueron realizadas 36 entrevistas con personas que crearon y participaron en esas iniciativas, las cuales fueron verificadas con otras fuentes documentales. Al analizar las diferentes fuentes identificamos que esos lugares son representados como espacios que guardan, recuperan, preservan, producen y divulgan memorias. Por estar vinculados a instituciones universitarias, otras funciones son mencionadas, sobre todo en lo que se refiere a la producción de conocimiento y a la formación de personas


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Universidades , História , Arquivos , Bibliotecas , Memória , Museus
2.
Nature ; 570(7760): 224-227, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190014

RESUMO

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a key component of air pollution and an important anthropogenic greenhouse gas1. During the twentieth century, the proliferation of the internal combustion engine, rapid industrialization and land-use change led to a global-scale increase in O3 concentrations2,3; however, the magnitude of this increase is uncertain. Atmospheric chemistry models typically predict4-7 an increase in the tropospheric O3 burden of between 25 and 50 per cent since 1900, whereas direct measurements made in the late nineteenth century indicate that surface O3 mixing ratios increased by up to 300 per cent8-10 over that time period. However, the accuracy and diagnostic power of these measurements remains controversial2. Here we use a record of the clumped-isotope composition of molecular oxygen (18O18O in O2) trapped in polar firn and ice from 1590 to 2016 AD, as well as atmospheric chemistry model simulations, to constrain changes in tropospheric O3 concentrations. We find that during the second half of the twentieth century, the proportion of 18O18O in O2 decreased by 0.03 ± 0.02 parts per thousand (95 per cent confidence interval) below its 1590-1958 AD mean, which implies that tropospheric O3 increased by less than 40 per cent during that time. These results corroborate model predictions of global-scale increases in surface pollution and vegetative stress caused by increasing anthropogenic emissions of O3 precursors4,5,11. We also estimate that the radiative forcing of tropospheric O3 since 1850 AD is probably less than +0.4 watts per square metre, consistent with results from recent climate modelling studies12.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/química , Arquivos , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Atividades Humanas/história , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/química , Ozônio/história , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ozônio Estratosférico/análise , Ozônio Estratosférico/química
3.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 95(10): 1372-1377, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145030

RESUMO

Purpose: Projects evaluating the effects of radiation, within the National Institutes of Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), have focused on risk analyses for life shortening and cancer prevalence using laboratory animals. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in radiation-induced tumors have been also analyzed with the aim of better understanding mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. As well as the economic and practical limitations of repeating such large-scale experiments, ethical considerations make it vital that we store and share the pathological data and samples of the animal experiments for future use. We are now constructing such an archive called the Japan-Storehouse of Animal Radiobiology Experiments (J-SHARE). Methods: J-SHARE records include information such as detailed experimental protocols, necropsy records and photographs of organs at necropsy. For each animal organs and tumor tissues are dissected, and parts are stored as frozen samples at -80 °C. Samples fixed with formalin are also embedded in paraffin blocks for histopathological analyses. Digital copies of stained tissues are being systematically saved using a virtual slide system linked to original records by barcodes. Embedded and frozen tissues are available for molecular analysis. Conclusion: Similar archive systems for radiation biology have also been under construction in the USA and Europe, the Northwestern University Radiation Archive (NURA), and STORE at the BfS, respectively. The J-SHARE will be linked with the sister-archives and made available for collaborative research to institutions and universities all over the world.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Histologia , Radiobiologia/métodos , Experimentação Animal , Animais , Arquivos , Carcinogênese , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Japão , Registros Médicos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Radiobiologia/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco
4.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(2): 258-264, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019396

RESUMO

The Medical Library Association recently announced its commitment to diversity and inclusion. While this is a positive start, critical librarianship takes the crucial concepts of diversity and inclusion one step further by advocating for social justice action and the dismantling of oppressive institutional structures, including white supremacy, patriarchy, and capitalism. Critical librarianship takes many forms, but, at its root, is focused on interrogating and disrupting inequitable systems, including changing racist cataloging rules, creating student-driven information literacy instruction, supporting inclusive and ethical publishing models, and rejecting the notion of libraries as neutral spaces. This article presents examples of the application of critical practice in libraries as well as ideas for applying critical librarianship to the health sciences.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Biblioteconomia , Arquivos , Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Humanos , Biblioteconomia/métodos , Biblioteconomia/organização & administração , Serviços de Biblioteca , Serviços Técnicos de Biblioteca
5.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 95(7): 861-878, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888231

RESUMO

Over the past 60 years a great number of very large datasets have been generated from the experimental exposure of animals to external radiation and internal contamination. This accumulation of 'big data' has been matched by increasingly large epidemiological studies from accidental and occupational radiation exposure, and from plants, humans and other animals affected by environmental contamination. We review the creation, sustainability and reuse of this legacy data, and discuss the importance of Open data and biomaterial archives for contemporary radiobiological sciences, radioecology and epidemiology. We find evidence for the ongoing utility of legacy datasets and biological materials, but that the availability of these resources depends on uncoordinated, often institutional, initiatives to curate and archive them. The importance of open data from contemporary experiments and studies is also very clear, and yet there are few stable platforms for their preservation, sharing, and reuse. We discuss the development of the ERA and STORE data sharing platforms for the scientific community, and their contribution to FAIR sharing of data. The contribution of funding agency and journal policies to the support of data sharing is critical for the maximum utilisation and reproducibility of publicly funded research, but this needs to be matched by training in data management and cultural changes in the attitudes of investigators to ensure the sustainability of the data and biomaterial commons.


Assuntos
Big Data , Radiobiologia/história , Radiobiologia/métodos , Animais , Arquivos , Ecologia , Epidemiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Exposição Ocupacional , Lesões por Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bancos de Tecidos
6.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 47, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813962

RESUMO

Implementation of bioinformatics software involves numerous unique challenges; a rigorous standardized approach is needed to examine software tools prior to their publication.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/normas , Software/normas , Arquivos
9.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(3): 984-999, set.-dez. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-986497

RESUMO

La Sección Pedagógica de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas de la Universidad de La Plata fue a comienzos del siglo XX un importante centro de investigaciones pedagógicas y psicológicas. Los Archivos de Pedagogía y Ciencias Afines (1906-1914), luego denominados Archivos de Ciencias de la Educación (1914-1920), fueron las publicaciones que difundieron los estudios realizados en dichos espacio. En el presente trabajo relevamos las participaciones femeninas, mostramos los perfiles de sus autoras y las características de sus trabajos.(AU)


A Seção Pedagógica da Faculdade de Ciências Jurídicas da Universidade da Plata foi ao inicio do século XX um importante centro de investigações pedagógicas e psicológicas. Os Archivos de Pedagogía y Ciencias Afines (1906-1914), logo Archivos de Ciencias de la Educación (1914-1920), foi a responsável pela divulgação dos estudos feitos na dita seção. No presente trabalho apresentamos as participações femininas, os perfis dos autores e as características de suas obras.(AU)


The Pedagogic Section of the Faculty of Juridical Sciences of the University of La Plata was at the beginning of the 20th century an important center of pedagogic and psychological research. The Archivos de pedagogía y ciencias aines (1906-1914) then called Archivos de ciencias de la educación (1914-1920) were the publications that spread the studies realized in this space. In the present paper we reveal the feminine participations, we show the profiles of their authors and the characteristics of their works.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Arquivos , Argentina , Mulheres/psicologia , Ensino/psicologia , Educação
11.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 48(4): 371-377, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488897

RESUMO

Axes, knives, truncheons and several home-made weapons are some of the feature pieces of a newly deposited collection within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh archive. This paper uses examples from this unusual collection, consisting of 40 weapons and over 400 glass slides, to demonstrate the significance and contribution it has to understanding late 19th- and early 20th-century forensic science and medicine in Scotland. Previously belonging to the late Sir Sydney Smith, these objects and glass slides supplement the Sydney Smith paper collection that contains numerous casefiles spanning his career as a forensic practitioner both in Britain and internationally. The records from these collections offer the potential for understanding developments in early 20th-century forensic practices whilst highlighting some of Britain's macabre criminal history.


Assuntos
Arquivos , Medicina Legal/história , Homicídio/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Escócia , Armas
15.
Hist Psychol ; 21(4): 374-379, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421949

RESUMO

The articles authored by Flis and van Eck (2018) and by Burman (2018) serve as fine examples of the ways in which digital historical methods can illuminate aspects of psychology's past that would probably not be possible otherwise. This success, however, presents no reason to think that digital history is some kind of threat to conventional historiography or that former aims to replace the latter. The two can work complementarily-so closely, in fact, that it sometimes becomes difficult to know which of the two one is practicing at any given moment. Multiple skill sets need not define the historian as being a particular "kind": They just enable any historian to do his or her work more completely than before. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Historiografia , Arquivos
17.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 32(5): 1291-1294, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334428

RESUMO

The palatal rugae, which are anatomically described as folds or wrinkles of the palate, are located on the anterior third of the palate on each side of the palatal raphe and behind the incisive papilla. The use of palatal rugae for personal identification was suggested several years ago, and attracted interest from different researchers which created different classifications, still used in scientific literature. The "identity base" (IB) system has as its object a complex information system and a personal identification protocol by means of three-dimensional palatal scans in digital format. The usefulness of this system is based on the management needs of big data. For example, in the field of forensic odontology, IB can be useful in the identification of a living or cadaver subject; and can estimate the age of a human subject. Moreover, IB stores its associated biometric data. The IB system demonstrated to overcome the issues shown by other similar systems of digital image storage. Furthermore, its high accuracy in the identification process makes IB a reliable tool for institutions in the management of immigrants, as well as in the archiving of people under restrictive measures. Finally, IB is also a system for sharing and processing clinical images, useful in dental prosthetics to reduce the number of steps from the first visit to dental prosthesis. The next generation of big-data archiving will speak the same language as IB: the route has been already set out.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Palato Duro/anatomia & histologia , Software , Envelhecimento , Arquivos , Big Data , Identificação Biométrica/normas , Cadáver , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 106(4): 547-551, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271304

RESUMO

Historical medical collections with privacy-sensitive information are a potentially rich source of social, behavioral, and economic data for a wide array of researchers. They remain relatively undiscoverable and at risk for destruction, however, because of their restricted content and challenging media formats. Team members from two institutions-the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Texas at Austin-present their respective initiatives to create digital archives and databases that address the privacy and technological challenges of such collections. In doing so, they also argue for the importance (and feasibility) of medical libraries and archives to take the initiative to preserve and make accessible historical patient data.


Assuntos
Arquivos , História da Medicina , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Bibliotecas Digitais/organização & administração , Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Antiviral Res ; 158: 127-134, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059721

RESUMO

The European Virus Archive (EVA) was created in 2008 with funding from the FP7-EU Infrastructure Programme, in response to the need for a coordinated and readily accessible collection of viruses that could be made available to academia, public health organisations and industry. Within three years, it developed from a consortium of nine European laboratories to encompass associated partners in Africa, Russia, China, Turkey, Germany and Italy. In 2014, the H2020 Research and Innovation Framework Programme (INFRAS projects) provided support for the transformation of the EVA from a European to a global organization (EVAg). The EVAg now operates as a non-profit consortium, with 26 partners and 20 associated partners from 21 EU and non-EU countries. In this paper, we outline the structure, management and goals of the EVAg, to bring to the attention of researchers the wealth of products it can provide and to illustrate how end-users can gain access to these resources. Organisations or individuals who would like to be considered as contributors are invited to contact the EVAg coordinator, Jean-Louis Romette, at jean-louis.romette@univmed.fr.


Assuntos
Arquivos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Vírus , Pesquisa Biomédica , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Organizações de Serviços Gerenciais , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Saúde Pública , Controle de Qualidade , Segurança/normas , Virologia/métodos , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
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