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Nature ; 613(7943): 251, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627423
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(suppl 1): 27-46, 2023.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629669


The article deals with the presence of artistic manifestations of inmates of the Hospício de Pedro II, the first psychiatric institution in Latin America (1852-1902). The methodological framework chosen focused on the historicisation of the framing processes of mental illness, in order to demonstrate its consequences for the notion of the subject and the art he produces and in the process of circulation of this knowledge in Brazil. Derrida's concept of archive fever was used to analyse the reasons why such manifestations and the therapies used based on them were ignored by local narratives about the artistic manifestations of individuals in asylums.

O artigo trata da presença de manifestações artísticas de internos do Hospício de Pedro II, primeira instituição psiquiátrica da América Latina (1852-1902). O referencial metodológico escolhido centrou-se na historicização dos processos de enquadramento das doenças mentais, com vistas a demonstrar suas consequências para a noção de sujeito e da arte que ele produz e no processo de circulação desses saberes no Brasil. O conceito de mal de arquivo, de Derrida, foi utilizado para analisar os motivos pelos quais tais manifestações e as terapêuticas utilizadas a partir delas foram ignoradas pelas narrativas locais acerca das manifestações artísticas de indivíduos internados em asilos.

Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Brasil , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Arquivos , Registros
Technol Cult ; 63(4): 1140-1156, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341611


When COVID-19 prevented scholars from traveling to libraries, archives, and museums, staff at those institutions devised creative strategies for providing remote access to their holdings. This article examines one such initiative launched by the Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering, and Technology in Kansas City, Missouri. The Library's prioritization of print over archival materials, experience fulfilling document delivery requests, and investments in digitization infrastructure facilitated the transition to a completely virtual fellowship program during the 2021-22 academic year. Although virtual fellowships could not replicate every aspect of in-person residencies, they nonetheless supplied scholars with much-needed funding, research materials, and membership in a scholarly community. Based on the program's initial success, the Library plans to continue offering virtual fellowships to scholars otherwise unable to conduct research on site.

COVID-19 , Bibliotecas Médicas , Humanos , Bolsas de Estudo , Engenharia , Arquivos
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 7135132, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36200083


A significant amount of electronic documents have been produced as a result of the quick advancements in computer and network technology as well as the ongoing promotion of e-government, and the amount of material available in digital archives has significantly expanded. It is challenging for traditional archives focused on entity management to fulfil modern demands. It is essential to gradually encourage the creation of digital archives in order to meet the utilization needs of archival information resources in the information age. Many issues that are not favourable to the development and utilization of information resources of digital archives have gradually emerged in the course of the development and utilization of information resources of digital archives. These issues are influenced by a number of factors, including service concept and personnel information literacy. The related attributes of information resources are sorted and processed using the ID3 algorithm in this study. Decision-making attributes of management techniques are identified, and the data mining Apriori algorithm is used to address the issue of increasing the retrieval speed of users of digital archives. When the new software system is finished, archive resources can be developed and used in a complete and practical way, increasing the utilization efficiency of archive information resources by 37.32 percent. As a result, it is possible to fully exploit the information resources of the digital archives, further appreciate their value, and ensure their long-term growth.

Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9948


No dia 09 de setembro de 2021 ocorreu o lançamento do livro Locura en el archivo: fuentes y metodologías para el estudio de las disicplinas psi, editado pela Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Na ocasião do lançamento, o Encontro às Quintas, promovido pela Casa de Oswaldo Cruz, recebeu as pesquisadoras Teresa Ordorika (Universidade Nacional Autônoma do México), Alejandra Golcman (Universidade Nacional de Tucumán, Argentina) e Cristina Sacristán (Instituto Mora, México) para falarem sobre fontes e metodologias no estudo das disciplinas psi.

Arquivos , Psiquiatria/história
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(3): 833-851, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074365


This article shows how images relating to chemistry sets express the predominance of the male gender in toys that simulate technical, gestural, and laboratory-related aspects of science, creating patterns of conduct towards the professional vocation of being a scientist. Priority is given to documents produced by the companies Gilbert (1920) and Chemcraft (1922) that are kept in the archives of the Chemical Heritage Foundation in the USA. What Joan Scott calls the social organization of sexual difference is discussed and the illustrations are analyzed, demonstrating a predominance of male figures showing how to "be a child," playing at being a scientist.

O artigo apresenta o modo como as imagens relativas aos conjuntos de química expressam as representações sobre a predominância do gênero masculino nas brincadeiras que simulam aspectos técnicos, gestuais, de laboratório, criando padrões de conduta que direcionam para a vocação profissional: o ser cientista. Foram privilegiadas as documentações produzidas pelas empresas Gilbert (1920) e Chemcraft (1922), presentes no acervo da Chemical Heritage Foundation (EUA). Discute-se o que Joan Scott chama de organização social da diferença sexual, enquanto são analisadas as ilustrações que privilegiam a dominância do gênero masculino, nas formas de "ser criança", brincando de cientista.

Arquivos , Médicos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos , Comportamento Sexual
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(3): 853-861, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074366


The material memory of the 12th International Congress of Zoology, held in Lisbon in 1935 includes insignias - the starfish - and caricatures of zoologists. Through an investigation of the archives at the University of Lisbon's National Museum of Natural History and Science, we intend to investigate the material landscape as conceived by the zoologist Artur Ricardo Jorge by drawing epistemologically on the potentialities of the biography of scientific objects. This research note reveals a scientific discourse translated into materialities circulated in public spaces in the globalized Europe of the 1930s, with references from scientific power, in the context of Portugal's Estado Novo regime, enshrined in its 1933 constitution.

O 12º Congresso Internacional de Zoologia realizou-se em Lisboa, em 1935. Da sua memória concreta constam insígnias ­ estrela-do-mar ­ e caricaturas de zoólogos. A partir de investigação no Arquivo do Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência/Universidade de Lisboa, pretendemos interrogar a cenografia material, pensada pelo zoólogo Artur Ricardo Jorge pela aproximação epistémica às potencialidades da biografia de objetos científicos. Esta nota de pesquisa pretende deixar a marca de um discurso científico traduzido em materialidades de circulação em espaço público, na Europa globalizante dos anos 1930, com referências de poder científico, no contexto do Estado Novo português, inaugurado, constitucionalmente, em 1933.

História Natural , Zoologia , Arquivos , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XX , Museus
Ber Wiss ; 45(3): 508-516, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086840


[I] want to single out one phenomenon that could be called the 'politics of sources'. It points to the extent to which the histories that both scientists and historians can write are artifacts of the available sources. The Rockefeller Foundation not only opened its archives very early on for historical work but also invested a lot in making the archives readily available for historical exploration. During the 1980s, many young historians took advantage of this opportunity. Thus, in a relatively early phase of the professional historiography of molecular biology, one could have gained the impression that the development of the new biology as a whole was a bio-politically directed enterprise of the Rockefeller Foundation sustained by the vision that social processes could ultimately be controlled by biological processes.

Historiografia , Bibliotecários , Arquivos , Humanos , Biologia Molecular , Política
Ber Wiss ; 45(3): 499-507, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086842


This essay reflects on how technological changes in biomedicine can affect what archival sources are available for historical research. Historians and anthropologists have examined the ways in which old biomedical samples can be made to serve novel scientific purposes, such as when decades-old frozen tissue specimens are analyzed using new genomic techniques. Those uses are also affected by shifting ethical regimes, which affect who can do what with old samples, or whether anything can be done with them at all. Archival collections are subject to similar dynamics, as institutional change and shifts in ethical guidelines and privacy laws affect which sources can be accessed and which are closed. I witnessed just such a change during my research into human genetics using archives in the Wellcome Collection. A few years into my project, those archives had their privacy conditions reassessed, and I saw how some sources previously seen as neutral were now understood to contain personal sensitive information. This paper describes the conditions of this shift-including the effects of technological change, new ethical considerations, and changing laws around privacy. I reflect on how these affected my understanding of the history of human genetics, and how I and others might narrate it.

Arquivos , Privacidade , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Informações Pessoalmente Identificáveis
Malays J Pathol ; 44(2): 163-164, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043579


No abstract available.

Arquivos , Registros Médicos , Humanos
Ber Wiss ; 45(1-2): 189-199, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680615


This welcome set of original and instructive papers illuminates and enriches the history of twentieth-century ethology in multiple ways. It adds a wealth of actors, animals, methods, and places to those featured in previous treatments of ethology's development. Some of the papers extend the chronology beyond the heyday of ethology's disciplinary construction to consider exciting developments in the 1970s and beyond. Others consider animal behavior research programs pursued contemporaneously with but independently of mainline ethology's development from the 1930s through the 1960s. Another paper takes us inside an ethologist's archive of visual images to examine the importance of such images (and such a setting) for ethological practice. Collectively, the papers provide new opportunities to contemplate how research programs and disciplines evolve; the relations between concepts, practices, and places; ethology and politics, and much more. At the same time, the individuality of the papers is conspicuous. They have not been constructed on the same model. The authors have followed their own approaches, corresponding to their own, respective interests. A short commentary is not sufficient to do justice to each of them. Rather than attempt to review them one by one, I will consider a pair of themes that may help relate the papers to each other and to the history of ethology: (1) the ongoing challenge of defining ethology and identifying who the ethologists were (or are); (2) the practices and places of animal behavior study.

Comportamento Animal , Etologia , Animais , Arquivos , Etologia/história , Individualidade
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(2): 531-550, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674626


This study investigates the potential of the Virgínia Portocarrero archive, at Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz. It was donated in life by Portocarrero, a Brazilian nurse and Second World War veteran. The documents include records from her education and training and show evidence of a determination to preserve her memories from the frontline and after the war, in a symbolic battle to record an essentially female story in a characteristically male setting. The archive contains a broad variety of types of historical sources, notably a diary on her participation in the conflict, demonstrating everyday and unusual aspects of her work as a health professional at that dramatic time in human history.

Objetivou-se apontar as potencialidades do Fundo Virgínia Portocarrero, da Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz. O acervo foi doado em vida por sua titular, enfermeira brasileira veterana da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Dessa documentação constam registros de sua formação profissional e acadêmica, e é percebida sua determinação em preservar as reminiscências do front de batalha e do período pós-guerra, numa luta simbólica pelo registro de uma história essencialmente feminina em um cenário emblematicamente masculino. Integra o acervo ampla variedade de tipologias de fontes históricas, com destaque para um diário de sua participação no conflito, demonstrando aspectos cotidianos e peculiares de sua atuação profissional na saúde naquele momento dramático da história da humanidade.

Arquivos , II Guerra Mundial , Brasil , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Virginia
Technol Cult ; 63(2): 483-493, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531811


Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, many groups initiated crowd-sourced archives that invite members of the public to upload personal material connected to the pandemic. By archiving and publishing how "ordinary" people experienced and perceived the pandemic, these platforms influence how the pandemic is remembered and how historians will write about it. This article presents the example of and compares contributions to this platform from Luxembourg with others from German speaking countries. Analyzing users' thoughts about empty streets and skies and their experiences with computers and phones for work and leisure at home, this article discusses the potential and the limitations of crowdsourced archives for future historians of technology.

COVID-19 , Crowdsourcing , Arquivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Tecnologia
Ambix ; 69(2): 139-162, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350967


The Baltic-German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) was nominated several times for the Nobel Prize in chemistry between 1904 and 1909. Many of these nominations were based on his pedagogical works. The appreciation of Ostwald's pedagogical activity can shed light on how science pedagogy was seen in the early twentieth century and how Ostwald was considered by his contemporaries. Based on sources from the Nobel Prize archives and other documents, in this paper we discuss the views of the Nobel Prize nominators on Ostwald's pedagogical works as presented in the nomination letters and the evaluation of The Nobel Committee for Chemistry on the merits of pedagogy.

Arquivos , Prêmio Nobel , História do Século XX
J Hist Behav Sci ; 58(2): 236-243, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262937


This article explores what it means to work with decontextualized or mysterious archival traces within collections that already contain obscured provenance. In particular, it compels us to consider what a single object can tell us about the individual, Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, and what it can teach us about the larger queer community from which it may have originated. Astrology, the occult, and new forms of spirituality proliferated in Weimar Germany, emerging from the late 19th century psy sciences and evolving within Berlin's urban landscape. The extent to which these occult and alternative pathways held a queer dimension is unknown, but not improbable.

Astrologia , Arquivos , Astrologia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos