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1.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 896-904, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999195

RESUMO

Identifying the optimal atrioventricular (AV) or interventricular (VV) delay is beneficial for patients using cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Ultrasonic echocardiography (UCG) has been the most commonly used method; however, it requires high technical knowledge. Impedance cardiography (ICG) can calculate stroke volume by measuring changes in transthoracic electric impedance. This study sought to assess the clinical utility of ICG in comparison with that of UCG for the optimization of CRT devices.Patients who underwent CRT device implantation were retrospectively analyzed. One week after implantation, optimization of AV delay (AVD) was performed in every patient with ICG (AVD-ICG) and UCG (AVD-UCG). VV delay (VVD) was then determined according to the optimal AVD using these two methods.Forty-two patients were enrolled. Average AVD-ICG was significantly shorter than AVD-UCG (128 ± 49 versus 146 ± 41 milliseconds, P = 0.018). Five patients (12%) had the same optimized AVD with two methods, and the difference between AVD-ICG and AVD-UCG was ≤ 20 milliseconds in 19 patients (45%). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of postoperative mitral regurgitation (MR) was an independent predictor of AVD-ICG/AVD-UCG mismatch, defined as a difference over 20 milliseconds (odds ratio = 10.71; 95% confidence interval = 1.72 to 66.72; P = 0.018). The results of optimized VVD were similar using both methods.ICG might be a promising tool for the rapid optimization of CRT devices. However, in patients with moderate-to-severe MR, ICG may not be able to optimize AVD.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Dispositivos de Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Cardiografia de Impedância , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1524, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmia is a common cardiovascular event that is associated with increased cardiovascular health risks. Previous studies that have explored the association between air pollution and arrhythmia have obtained inconsistent results, and the association between the two in China is unclear. METHODS: We collected daily data on air pollutants and meteorological factors from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2016, along with daily outpatient visits for arrhythmia in Hangzhou, China. We used a quasi-Poisson regression along with a distributed lag nonlinear model to study the association between air pollution and arrhythmia morbidity. RESULTS: The results of the single-pollutant model showed that each increase of 10 µg/m3 of Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), Coarse particulate matter (PM10), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and Ozone (O3) resulted in increases of 0.6% (- 0.9, 2.2%), 0.7% (- 0.4, 1.7%), 11.9% (4.5, 19.9%), 6.7% (3.6, 9.9%), and - 0.9% (- 2.9, 1.2%), respectively, in outpatient visits for arrhythmia; each increase of 1 mg/m3 increase of carbon monoxide (CO) resulted in increase of 11.3% (- 5.9, 31.6%) in arrhythmia. The short-term effects of air pollution on arrhythmia lasted 3 days, and the most harmful effects were observed on the same day that the pollution occurred. Results of the subgroup analyses showed that SO2 and NO2 affected both men and women, but differences between the sexes were not statistically significant. The effect of SO2 on the middle-aged population was statistically significant. The effect of NO2 was significant in both the young and middle-aged population, and no significant difference was found between them. Significant effects of air pollution on arrhythmia were only detected in the cold season. The results of the two-pollutants model and the single-pollutant model were similar. CONCLUSIONS: SO2 and NO2 may induce arrhythmia, and the harmful effects are primarily observed in the cold season. There is no evidence of PM2.5, PM10, CO and O3 increasing arrhythmia risk. Special attention should be given to sensitive populations during the high-risk period.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano
5.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 841-856, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981621
6.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(8): 1053-1066, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819525

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented substantial challenges to patient care and impacted health care delivery, including cardiac electrophysiology practice throughout the globe. Based upon the undetermined course and regional variability of the pandemic, there is uncertainty as to how and when to resume and deliver electrophysiology services for arrhythmia patients. This joint document from representatives of the Heart Rhythm Society, American Heart Association, and American College of Cardiology seeks to provide guidance for clinicians and institutions reestablishing safe electrophysiological care. To achieve this aim, we address regional and local COVID-19 disease status, the role of viral screening and serologic testing, return-to-work considerations for exposed or infected health care workers, risk stratification and management strategies based on COVID-19 disease burden, institutional preparedness for resumption of elective procedures, patient preparation and communication, prioritization of procedures, and development of outpatient and periprocedural care pathways.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Cardiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Assistência Ambulatorial , American Heart Association , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Política Organizacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Retorno ao Trabalho , Medição de Risco , Telemedicina , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(6): 526-536, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was designed to avoid complications related to the transvenous ICD lead by using an entirely extrathoracic placement. Evidence comparing these systems has been based primarily on observational studies. METHODS: We conducted a noninferiority trial in which patients with an indication for an ICD but no indication for pacing were assigned to receive a subcutaneous ICD or transvenous ICD. The primary end point was the composite of device-related complications and inappropriate shocks; the noninferiority margin for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio (subcutaneous ICD vs. transvenous ICD) was 1.45. A superiority analysis was prespecified if noninferiority was established. Secondary end points included death and appropriate shocks. RESULTS: A total of 849 patients (426 in the subcutaneous ICD group and 423 in the transvenous ICD group) were included in the analyses. At a median follow-up of 49.1 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 68 patients in the subcutaneous ICD group and in 68 patients in the transvenous ICD group (48-month Kaplan-Meier estimated cumulative incidence, 15.1% and 15.7%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.39; P = 0.01 for noninferiority; P = 0.95 for superiority). Device-related complications occurred in 31 patients in the subcutaneous ICD group and in 44 in the transvenous ICD group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.09); inappropriate shocks occurred in 41 and 29 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.89 to 2.30). Death occurred in 83 patients in the subcutaneous ICD group and in 68 in the transvenous ICD group (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.70); appropriate shocks occurred in 83 and 57 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.12). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with an indication for an ICD but no indication for pacing, the subcutaneous ICD was noninferior to the transvenous ICD with respect to device-related complications and inappropriate shocks. (Funded by Boston Scientific; PRAETORIAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01296022.).


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Eletrodos Implantados/efeitos adversos , Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese
9.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 31(3): 162-164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627802

RESUMO

Cardiorhythm Africa, the inaugural conference of AFHRA, was conceived during the biennial PASCAR congress held in Johannesburg in November 2019, with the ambition to be the largest ever pan-African conference focused purely on arrhythmia. Significant aims were to (1) bring together arrhythmia specialists from across Africa and from the diaspora; and (2) announce the newly formed African Heart Rhythm Association (AFHRA), an affiliate organisation of PASCAR formed from the amalgamation of the Cardiac Pacing and Arrhythmias taskforces. The meeting held in Nairobi (29-31 January 2020) was organised to provide a focus on resource-constrained arrhythmia management within the African context and novel/advanced and potentially home-grown solutions. There was full representation from all five PASCAR regions (North, East, West, Central and Southern Africa). This report summarises the scope and perspective of the first Cardiorhythm Africa meeting and presents the future directions for this annual meeting.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas , Pesquisa Biomédica , Cardiologia , Sociedades Médicas , África/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional
10.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(8): e007952, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628863

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in medicine are currently areas of intense exploration, showing potential to automate human tasks and even perform tasks beyond human capabilities. Literacy and understanding of AI/ML methods are becoming increasingly important to researchers and clinicians. The first objective of this review is to provide the novice reader with literacy of AI/ML methods and provide a foundation for how one might conduct an ML study. We provide a technical overview of some of the most commonly used terms, techniques, and challenges in AI/ML studies, with reference to recent studies in cardiac electrophysiology to illustrate key points. The second objective of this review is to use examples from recent literature to discuss how AI and ML are changing clinical practice and research in cardiac electrophysiology, with emphasis on disease detection and diagnosis, prediction of patient outcomes, and novel characterization of disease. The final objective is to highlight important considerations and challenges for appropriate validation, adoption, and deployment of AI technologies into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Inteligência Artificial , Diagnóstico por Computador , Eletrocardiografia , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Aprendizado de Máquina , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(7): e006925, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild heart failure (HF) patients without left bundle branch block (LBBB) did not derive a significant reduction in risk of a HF event/death in the MADIT-CRT trial (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy). However, the efficacy of CRT with a defibrillator (CRT-D) may be modified after the development of the first hospitalization for HF (HHF). We aimed to study the effect of CRT-D on long-term risk of recurrent HHF in patients without LBBB in MADIT-CRT. METHODS: Data on recurring HHF were collected for 1818 subjects. The CRT-D versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator-only risk for first and subsequent HHF was assessed by QRS morphology in on-treatment analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. RESULTS: During long-term follow-up, 412 patients had ≥1 HHF and 333 had ≥2 HHF. Multivariate analysis revealed that in LBBB patients, CRT-D, compared with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, was associated with a significant reduction in risk of first and subsequent HHF (first: hazard ratio, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.31-0.54], P<0.001; subsequent: hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.29-0.70], P<0.001). Among patients without LBBB, the benefit of CRT-D was nonsignificant for the first HHF (hazard ratio, 0.96; P=0.808). However, after occurrence of a first HHF, CRT-D therapy was associated with a pronounced 44% reduction in risk of subsequent HHF (hazard ratio, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.32-0.97], P=0.039). Patients without LBBB with ≥1 HHF during the first year of follow-up demonstrated increasing dyssynchrony at 1 year compared with those who had no HHF (P=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: In MADIT-CRT, we show a beneficial effect of CRT-D in patients without LBBB subsequent to development of a first HHF, possibly due to increased dyssynchrony associated with HF progression. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00180271, NCT01294449, and NCT02060110.


Assuntos
Bloqueio de Ramo/terapia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Bloqueio de Ramo/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(7): e009007, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692972
15.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(4): 225-229, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612034

RESUMO

The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel that plays a central role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Abnormal activity of the RyR2 is linked to abnormal Ca2+ signaling in cardiac cells, which often results in cardiac arrhythmias. For example, amino acid mutations in RyR2 have been reported to cause various types of arrhythmias, including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, and left ventricular non-compaction. At present, the total number of disease-associated RyR2 mutations exceeds 300. In addition, in chronic heart failure, modification of RyR2 by phosphorylation, oxidation or S-nitrosylation may cause abnormal channel activity. Arrhythmogenic mechanisms of these various disorders are not yet fully understood. We have recently established a method to quantitatively evaluate the effects of various arrhythmogenic mutations and modifications on RyR2 channels by using HEK293 expression system. We found that arrhythmogenic mutations in RyR2 are classified into two groups: gain-of-function and loss-of-function of the channel. Since they are indistinguishable in clinical diagnosis, our analysis is very useful for diagnosis and choice of treatment strategies for RyR2-linked arrhythmogenic diseases. This review describes the current advances and issues of research on RyR2 mutation-related arrhythmogenic disorders.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas , Cálcio , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mutação , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/genética
16.
Acta Clin Croat ; 59(1): 119-125, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724282

RESUMO

For many years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was contraindicated in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED). Today, there is a growing amount of evidence that MRI can be performed safely in the majority of patients with CIEDs. Firstly, there are devices considered MRI conditional by manufacturers that are available on the market and secondly, there is clear evidence that even patients with MRI non-conditional devices can also undergo MRI safely. Protocols have been developed and recommendations from different cardiac and radiologic societies have been published in recent years. However, the majority of physicians are still reluctant to refer these patients to MRI. Therefore, this document is published as a joint statement of the Croatian Working Group on Arrhythmias and Cardiac Pacing and Department of Radiology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Centre to guide and ease the management of patients with CIED undergoing MRI. Also, we propose a unified protocol and checklist that could be used in Croatian hospitals.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Marca-Passo Artificial , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Humanos
17.
Kardiologiia ; 60(5): 4-8, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593095

RESUMO

The beginning of 2020 was characterized by the development of a new coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Information about the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory diagnostics, as well as prevention and therapy for this disease is constantly being expanded and reviewed. The COVID-19 pandemic creates the need for the emergence of new conditions of specialized care for patients with heart rhythm and conduction disorders [1]. These recommendations are intended for general practitioners, internists, cardiologists, electrophysiologists/arrhythmologists, cardiovascular surgeons, functional diagnostics doctors, anesthesiologists-resuscitators, laboratory diagnostics specialists, health care organizers in the system of organizations and healthcare institutions that provide specialized care to patients with heart rhythm and conduction disorders.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Doença do Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Doença do Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pandemias
18.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(7): e007220, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500721

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019, otherwise known as COVID-19, is a global pandemic with primary respiratory manifestations in those who are symptomatic. It has spread to >187 countries with a rapidly growing number of affected patients. Underlying cardiovascular disease is associated with more severe manifestations of COVID-19 and higher rates of mortality. COVID-19 can have both primary (arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and myocarditis) and secondary (myocardial injury/biomarker elevation and heart failure) cardiac involvement. In severe cases, profound circulatory failure can result. This review discusses the presentation and management of patients with severe cardiac complications of COVID-19 disease, with an emphasis on a Heart-Lung team approach in patient management. Furthermore, it focuses on the use of and indications for acute mechanical circulatory support in cardiogenic and/or mixed shock.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Miocardite/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/complicações , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Coração Auxiliar , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miocardite/complicações , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Tromboembolia
19.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 41(7): 1363-1369, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474736

RESUMO

Children with heart diseases have reduced physical activity (PA) levels relative to their peers, which in turn increases cardiovascular risk. To the best of our knowledge, physical fitness and objectively measured PA levels have not been previously studied in children with pacemakers. We evaluated PA levels and physical fitness in pediatric pacemaker patients compared to their healthy peers. Twenty-eight pediatric patients with pacemakers (15 female, 13 male; mean age 13.43 ± 3.68 years) and 24 healthy subjects (14 female, 10 male; mean age 13.08 ± 3.67 years) were included. Physical fitness was assessed using the Munich Fitness Test (MFT). SenseWear Armband metabolic Holter device was used to record the PA for 7 consecutive days. MFT total and sub-parameter scores were significantly lower in the patient group (p < 0.05). Patients' total and active energy expenditure, PA level, total distance, number of steps, and vigorous PA were significantly lower than those of healthy children (p < 0.05). Sedentary activity and light, moderate, and very vigorous PA durations were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Duration of mean moderate to vigorous PA was higher than 60 min/day recommended in PA guidelines in both patients and healthy subjects. These results provide initial data on PA and fitness in children with pacemakers and suggest that physical fitness and activity levels in children with pacemakers are lower than in healthy peers. Appropriate exercise programs may improve PA levels in pediatric pacemaker patients. Awareness of the importance of PA should be raised among the parents and families of these children.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico , Marca-Passo Artificial , Aptidão Física , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário
20.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 17(11): 718-731, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518358

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease complicates 1-4% of pregnancies - with a higher prevalence when including hypertensive disorders - and is the leading cause of maternal death. In women with known cardiovascular pathology, such as congenital heart disease, timely counselling is possible and the outcome is fairly good. By contrast, maternal mortality is high in women with acquired heart disease that presents during pregnancy (such as acute coronary syndrome or aortic dissection). Worryingly, the prevalence of acquired cardiovascular disease during pregnancy is rising as older maternal age, obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension become more common in the pregnant population. Management of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is challenging owing to the unique maternal physiology, characterized by profound changes to multiple organ systems. The presence of the fetus compounds the situation because both the cardiometabolic disease and its management might adversely affect the fetus. Equally, avoiding essential treatment because of potential fetal harm risks a poor outcome for both mother and child. In this Review, we examine how the physiological adaptations during pregnancy can provoke cardiometabolic complications or exacerbate existing cardiometabolic disease and, conversely, how cardiometabolic disease can compromise the adaptations to pregnancy and their intended purpose: the development and growth of the fetus.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Dissecante/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma Dissecante/terapia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Débito Cardíaco , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/fisiopatologia , Endocardite/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Idade Materna , Obesidade Materna/metabolismo , Obesidade Materna/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez/metabolismo , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Gravidez em Diabéticas/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia
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