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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111721, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396052

RESUMO

The City of Yellowknife is a known hotspot of arsenic contamination and there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that local wildlife in the vicinity of the abandoned Giant Mine site may be at risk of decreased bone mineralization and various bone disorders. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily measure bone mineral density (BMD) changes and investigate the incidence, pattern, and severity of bone lesions in wild muskrats and red squirrels breeding in three (3) catchment areas at different distances from the Giant Mine Site in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Canada): ~2 km (location 1), ~18 km (location 2), and ~40-100 km (location 3). Full femoral bones of 15 muskrats and 15 red squirrels were collected from the three sampling locations (5 from each location) and subjected to radiographic analysis and densitometric measurements. The patterns and severities of bone lesions, including changes in bone mineral density, were evaluated and compared between groups. As levels were significantly higher in the bones of muskrats caught from location 1 and 2, relative to location 3. Further, As and Cd levels were significantly higher in the bones of squirrels caught from locations 1 and 2 relative to squirrels caught from location 3. The preliminary results from bones revealed that radiographic abnormalities such as bone rarefaction, osteopenia, and thinning of the femoral shafts with significant ossific cystic lesions and bowing were the most common skeletal pathologies found in bones of red squirrels from the three locations. Radiographic appearances of massive sclerosis and dysplasia, including severe osteocondensation and osteopathia striata-like abnormalities, were found in the bones of muskrats from all the sampling locations. Densitometric evaluation showed no significant differences between the three locations in the bone parameters measured. However, there was a statistically significant correlation between As content in the bones of muskrats and percent fat content in the femur samples, which suggests that accumulation of As could have been a causal factor for a change in percent fat in femurs of muskrats.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico/veterinária , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Ósseas/veterinária , Poluentes Ambientais/envenenamento , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Arsênico/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Arsênico/diagnóstico por imagem , Intoxicação por Arsênico/patologia , Arvicolinae , Doenças Ósseas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Densitometria , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/metabolismo , Fêmur/patologia , Territórios do Noroeste/epidemiologia , Sciuridae
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867372

RESUMO

A simplified questionnaire was developed to assess inorganic arsenic (iAs) intake level in a Japanese population. The two page questionnaire included photographs of single serving sizes of rice and cooked hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme: brown algae), and asked subjects about the number of servings of rice and cooked hijiki, two predominant dietary sources of iAs in Japan, they consume in a day. Daily intake of iAs was estimated for 72 Japanese subjects using the questionnaire together with data of iAs content in rice and hijiki seaweed, and the estimated intakes were compared with actual iAs intakes of the subjects as measured for a duplicate diet using liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A highly significant correlation was found between the estimated and measured intakes (r = 0.65, p < 0.001); however, the slope of regression indicated a systematic error in the intake estimation. Possible sources of error are discussed herein. It was concluded that this approach is promising if minor improvements are made to the questionnaire.


Assuntos
Arsênico/administração & dosagem , Arsenicais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Oryza , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Arsênico/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Japão , Vigilância da População , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656654

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) being a signaling molecule inside the plant cells, play significant role in signaling cascades and protection against environmental stresses. However, the protective role of NO in alleviating As toxicity in rice plants is currently not available. In the present study, the level of NO, nitrogen (N), inorganic N (nitrate, ammonium), thiols {TT (Total thiols), NPT (Nonprotein thiol)} and AAs contents along with N assimilating enzymes (NR, GDH, GOGAT) were analyzed after exposure of AsIII/NO treatment alone, and in combination. NO supplementation enhanced the content of N, inorganic N & thiol contents, NR, GOGAT activities, when compared with AsIII exposure alone. In AsIII exposed rice seedlings, content of AAs (except His, Arg, Met) reduced over the control, while supplementation of SNP improved AAs contents, compared to AsIII treatment alone. In conclusion, rice seedlings supplemented with NO tolerate the AsIII toxicity by reducing the N related parameters, thiol contents, altering the AA profile and enhanced the nutritional quality by increasing EAAs (essential amino acids) and NEAAs (non-essential amino acids).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1049-1061, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602832

RESUMO

Introduction. Metal exposure is an important factor for inducing antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Dandelion extracts have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese and Native American medicine.Aim. We assessed the effects of dandelion water extracts and taraxasterol on heavy metal-induced antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli as well as the underlying mechanisms.Methodology. Dandelion extracts were obtained through 4 h of boiling in distilled water. Bacterial growth was monitored with a spectrophotometer. Biochemical assays were performed to assess the activities and gene transcriptions of ß-lactamase and acetyltransferase. Oxidative stress was determined using an oxidation-sensitive probe, H2DCFDA.Results. The present study demonstrated that higher concentrations of nickel (>5 µg ml-1), cadmium (>0.1 µg ml-1), arsenic (>0.1 µg ml-1) and copper (>5 µg ml-1) significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli. Lower concentrations of nickel (0.5 µg ml-1), cadmium (0.05 µg ml-1) and arsenic (0.05 µg ml-1) had no effect on bacterial growth, but helped the bacteria become resistant to two antibiotics, kanamycin and ampicillin. The addition of dandelion root extracts and taraxasterol significantly reversed the antibiotic resistance induced by these heavy metals. The supplements of antibiotics and cadmium generated synergistic effects on the activities of ß-lactamase and acetyltransferase (two antibiotic resistance-related proteins), which were significantly blocked by either dandelion root extract or taraxasterol. In contrast, oxidative stress was not involved in the preventative roles of dandelion root extracts and taraxasterol in heavy metal-induced antibiotic resistance.Conclusion. This study suggests that heavy metals induce bacterial antibiotic resistance and dandelion root extracts and taraxasterol could be used to help reverse bacterial resistance to antibiotics.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esteróis/farmacologia , Taraxacum/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Resistência a Ampicilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cobre/efeitos adversos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Resistência a Canamicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Raízes de Plantas/química
5.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 85(Suppl 1): S79-S107, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087055

RESUMO

The review summarizes the data on the role of metabolic and repair systems in the mechanisms of therapy-related carcinogenesis and the effect of their polymorphism on the cancer development risk. The carcinogenic activity of different types of drugs, from the anticancer agents to analgesics, antipyretics, immunomodulators, hormones, natural remedies, and non-cancer drugs, is described. Possible approaches for the prevention of drug-related cancer induction at the initiation and promotion stages are discussed.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/induzido quimicamente , Carcinógenos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/efeitos adversos , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilestilbestrol/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Fenacetina/efeitos adversos , Medicina de Precisão , Fatores de Risco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of inorganic arsenic (As) in the potable water available to the population to be able to estimate the non-carcinogenic risks for underweight children and the carcinogenic risk for adults exposed to As intake who live in the Mezquital municipality, Durango, Mexico. METHODS: The As content was quantifed in the water supply sources for human use and its intake was estimated in Mezquital population, southern Durango. With the data obtained, the hazard quotient (HQ) was calculated to determine the non-carcinogenic risk to develop chronic systemic effects in underweight children. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference health values estimating As exposure risk are from 0.0003 mg/kg/day (non-carcinogenic) to 1.5 mg/kg/day (carcinogenic risk). RESULTS: The analyzed waters presented as concentrations that varied from 0.3 to 10.2 µg/L, with a mean of 7.35 µg/L (CI 95% 6.27-8.38). The exposure dose was 0.4 to 1.36, and the HQ was 1.90 to 6.48 mg/kg/day, the estimated carcinogenic risk from adults varied from 1.28 to 4.37E-4, with values of 3.74-4.37E-4 mg/kg/day in central area. CONCLUSIONS: The children are at risk to develop chronic systemic effects due to ingestion of As from water.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/análise , Neoplasias , Magreza , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos , Humanos , México , Medição de Risco
7.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 30(4): 421-434, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924685

RESUMO

Arsenic exposure in postnatal life impacts the growth of children, but little is known about the effect of in-utero arsenic exposure on growth very early in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between in-utero arsenic exposure and the growth of infants from birth to 6 months of age using monthly follow-up data. A prospective cohort study was conducted in rural areas of Bangladesh with 108 mother-infant pairs. This study identified a negative association between in-utero arsenic exposure and head circumference of infants 1-6 months of age (coefficient = -1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.97, -0.42), and the effect was more pronounced in the earlier ages of 1-3 months (coefficient = -0.88, 95% CI: -1.70, -0.05). Because head circumference is considered as a surrogate of brain size, our findings suggest that in-utero arsenic exposure influences brain growth during an important developmental period.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/classificação , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 249: 112171, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442622

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Liu-Shen-Wan (LSW) is one of the popular over-the-counter drugs in Asia, which contains realgar (As4S4), used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract inflammation and skin infections. However, the safety and potential risk of this arsenic remain unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to determine total arsenic in tissue and investigate effects of regular dose and overdose LSW exposure on rat liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a target lipidomics approach to quantify inflammatory eicosanoids and employed ICP-MS to determine total arsenic in tissue. RESULTS: The results showed that oral administration of 8 and 40 mg/kg LSW (1 and 5 fold human-equivalent dose) induced light changes of liver lipidomic profile in rats, which was associated with anti-inflammatory function of LSW. In our recent report, we observed that 41 and 134 mg/kg realgar (40 and 132 fold human-equivalent dose) stimulated rat liver inflammation through up-regulation of pro-inflammatory LOX-derived, CYP-derived HETEs and COX-derived PGs. However, we found that LSW in the form of drug combination, containing 41 and 134 mg/kg realger, could not stimulate these similar inflammatory responses in rats, although the liver total arsenic levels of the realger and LSW groups were same. CONCLUSION: The downregulation of pro-inflammatory response showed that the LSW containing realger is safer than realger alone administrated to rats. These results suggested that Chinese medicines combination could reduce realgar-derived arsenic toxicity in rats.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Lipidômica/métodos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 249: 112370, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683032

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Realgar (As2S2), a mineral traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is proved to have great therapeutic effects in clinic and has been widely used in China for hundreds of years. As one of the most popular realgar-containing TCMs, NiuHuangJieDu Tablets (NHJDT) is used as OTC (over-the-counter) drug in daily life for fever relieving, detoxicating, as well as cure of sore throat and gingival swelling. However, the safety of realgar and its-containing TCMs still remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was to investigate the accumulation of arsenic in rat body and evaluate the safety of realgar-containing TCMs in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The health risk of arsenic was evaluated in rats by tissue distribution and histopathology, as well as arsenic speciation in plasma after multiple oral gavage of low and high doses of realgar and NiuHuangJieDu Tablets (NHJDT), respectively. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) and high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS), respectively. RESULTS: Arsenic accumulated in rat tissues especially in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, uterus and ovary. Dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was detected as the predominant species in rat plasma after dosing. In comparison of realgar, NHJDT with co-existing components significantly alleviated tissues injury, and reduced arsenic concentration in rat tissues and plasma. CONCLUSIONS: NHJDT with co-existing components combination was relatively safer than realgar, but the accumulation of arsenic was still significant after long-term medication. Therefore, great attentions should be paid to realgar-containing TCMs to avoid toxicity from arsenic accumulation. Moreover, the dose regimen of realgar-containing TCMs should be designed rationally for clinical application. These results may provide useful references for the application of realgar-containing TCMs and might be helpful for the understanding of TCM compound compatibility.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Feminino , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco/métodos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Comprimidos/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
10.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(7): 2023-2037, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745673

RESUMO

Concentrations of arsenic (As) in 65 drinking water sources in Jiangsu Province of China were analyzed from January 2013 to December 2015. The drinking water sources are classified into five water systems of the Yangze River, the Taihu Lake, the Huai River, the Yishusi River, and other lakes or reservoirs, which are termed as WS-A, WS-B, WS-C, WS-D, and WS-E, respectively. Health risk assessments associated with As in terms of total carcinogenic risk and total hazard index were performed for children (0-5 years), teenagers (6-17 years), and adults (≥ 18 years), respectively. Probabilistic risk assessments were obtained by applying Monte Carlo approach with consideration of uncertainty. The results indicated that in drinking water sources of WS-A, WS-C, and WS-D, maximum concentrations of As were 28 µg/L, 40 µg/L, and 17 µg/L, respectively, which were higher than 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization occurred. Based on the samples investigated in this study, the mean health risks are the highest in drinking water source WS-D and lowest in WS-E for both male and female children, teenagers, and adults. For drinking water source WS-A, the health risks of male children, male teenagers, and female adults are higher than female children and female teenagers, and male adults. However, for drinking water sources WS-B, WS-C, WS-D, and WS-E, the health risks of female children, male teenagers, and female adults are higher than male children, female teenagers, and male adults. The highest health risks occurred in female children consuming drinking water from WS-D. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the concentration of As is the primary factor for carcinogenic risk of all the five water systems. The results obtained can provide meaningful information for risk managers in Jiangsu Province.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lagos/análise , Masculino , Probabilidade , Rios , Incerteza , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1247-1252, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795581

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the burden attributed to the dietary inorganic arsenic exposure with lung cancer, bladder cancer and skin cancer as end points. Methods: Inorganic arsenic, food or diet were used as Chinese keywords and arsenic, food and China were used as English keywords to search for literatures related to the dietary inorganic arsenic exposure published by China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform and PubMed Database. Using the data from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) in 2002 to estimate the dietary inorganic arsenic exposure in Chinese residents. The annual cancer cases attributed to the dietary inorganic arsenic exposure were calculated based on the data from Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report in 2013. The disability adjusted life year (DALY) was calculated using tools built by WHO. Results: The total DALY of cancer caused by the dietary inorganic arsenic exposure was 419.4 thousand, and the DALY rate was 31.47 per 100 000. The DALY of lung cancer in males and females was 237.7 thousand and 102.5 thousand. The DALY of bladder cancer in males and females was 13.2 thousand and 3.9 thousand. The DALY of skin cancer in males and females was 29.4 thousand and 32.8 thousand. Conclusion: In 2013, the Chinese population had a lower burden of cancer due to the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Arsênico/administração & dosagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia
12.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225373, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774844

RESUMO

Arsenic (As), a heavy metal element, causes soil environmental concerns in many parts of the world, and ryegrass has been considered as an effective plant species for bioremediation of heavy metal pollution including As. This study was designed to investigate As content, nutrient absorption and antioxidant enzyme activity associated with As tolerance in the mature leaves, expanded leaves and emerging leaves of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) under 100 mg·kg-1 As treatment. The contents of As, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) in the leaves of both ryegrass species were greatest in the mature leaves and least in the emerging leaves. The nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) contents of both ryegrass species were greatest in the emerging leaves and least in the mature leaves. The As treatment reduced biomass more in the mature leaves and expanded leaves relative to the emerging leaves for annual ryegrass and reduced more in emerging leaves relative to the mature and expanded leaves for perennial ryegrass. Perennial ryegrass had higher As content than annual ryegrass in all three kinds of leaves. The As treatment increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in expanded leaves of two ryegrass species, relative to the control. The As treatment increased the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in the expanded leaves of perennial ryegrass and the mature leaves of annual ryegrass, the catalase (CAT) activity in the mature and expanded leaves of perennial ryegrass and the emerging leaves of annual ryegrass, relative to the control. The As treatment reduced peroxidase (POD) activity in all three kinds of leaves of annual ryegrass and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in expanded leaves of perennial ryegrass, relative to the control. The results of this study suggest that As tolerance may vary among different ages of leaf and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme activity may be associated with As tolerance in the ryegrass.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Lolium/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Lolium/classificação , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnésio/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo
13.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 104, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure through drinking water is an established lung carcinogen. Evidence on non-malignant lung outcomes is less conclusive and suggests arsenic is associated with lower lung function. Studies examining low-moderate arsenic (< 50 µg/L), the level relevant for most populations, are limited. We evaluated the association of arsenic exposure with respiratory health in American Indians from the Northern Plains, the Southern Plains and the Southwest United States, communities with environmental exposure to inorganic arsenic through drinking water. METHODS: The Strong Heart Study is a prospective study of American Indian adults. This analysis used urinary arsenic measurements at baseline (1989-1991) and spirometry at Visit 2 (1993-1995) from 2132 participants to evaluate associations of arsenic exposure with airflow obstruction, restrictive pattern, self-reported respiratory disease, and symptoms. RESULTS: Airflow obstruction was present in 21.5% and restrictive pattern was present in 14.4%. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for obstruction and restrictive patterns, based on the fixed ratio definition, comparing the 75th to 25th percentile of arsenic, was 1.17 (0.99, 1.38) and 1.27 (1.01, 1.60), respectively, after adjustments, and 1.28 (1.02, 1.60) and 1.33 (0.90, 1.50), respectively, based on the lower limit of normal definition. Arsenic was associated with lower percent predicted FEV1 and FVC, self-reported emphysema and stopping for breath. CONCLUSION: Low-moderate arsenic exposure was positively associated with restrictive pattern, airflow obstruction, lower lung function, self-reported emphysema and stopping for breath, independent of smoking and other lung disease risk factors. Findings suggest that low-moderate arsenic exposure may contribute to restrictive lung disease.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Água Potável/análise , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Arsenicais/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Curr Diab Rep ; 19(12): 147, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758285

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In utero influences, including nutrition and environmental chemicals, may induce long-term metabolic changes and increase diabetes risk in adulthood. This review evaluates the experimental and epidemiological evidence on the association of early-life arsenic exposure on diabetes and diabetes-related outcomes, as well as the influence of maternal nutritional status on arsenic-related metabolic effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Five studies in rodents have evaluated the role of in utero arsenic exposure with diabetes in the offspring. In four of the studies, elevated post-natal fasting glucose was observed when comparing in utero arsenic exposure with no exposure. Rodent offspring exposed to arsenic in utero also showed elevated insulin resistance in the 4 studies evaluating it as well as microRNA changes related to glycemic control in 2 studies. Birth cohorts of arsenic-exposed pregnant mothers in New Hampshire, Mexico, and Taiwan have shown that increased prenatal arsenic exposure is related to altered cord blood gene expression, microRNA, and DNA methylation profiles in diabetes-related pathways. Thus far, no epidemiologic studies have evaluated early-life arsenic exposure with diabetes risk. Supplementation trials have shown B vitamins can reduce blood arsenic levels in highly exposed, undernourished populations. Animal evidence supports that adequate B vitamin status can rescue early-life arsenic-induced diabetes risk, although human data is lacking. Experimental animal studies and human evidence on the association of in utero arsenic exposure with alterations in gene expression pathways related to diabetes in newborns, support the potential role of early-life arsenic exposure in diabetes development, possibly through increased insulin resistance. Given pervasive arsenic exposure and the challenges to eliminate arsenic from the environment, research is needed to evaluate prevention interventions, including the possibility of low-cost, low-risk nutritional interventions that can modify arsenic-related disease risk.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Estado Nutricional , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Ratos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Ann Glob Health ; 85(1): 133, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750082

RESUMO

Background: Air pollution in Kazakhstan is caused by many factors and poses serious threats to public health. Ambient air in the cities of Kazakhstan is polluted due to mining and processing of mineral resources, oil and gas production, gasoline and diesel fuel motor vehicles, industrial enterprises. Objective: The study aim is to assess the air pollution degree in most significant settlements of Kazakhstan and define risk levels for the population health. Ambient air monitoring was conducted in 26 cities. Air pollution severity was assessed by the analysis results and processing of air samples taken at the stationary observation posts. Health risk assessment due to chemical factors was calculated according to the approved risk assessment methodology. Findings: There is high risk of acute adverse effects risk from suspended particles, oxides and dioxides of nitrogen and sulfur in almost all of the studied cities. The most unfavorable situation is in Ust-Kamenogorsk. Also, there is the adverse chronic effects risk caused by suspended particles exposure in majority of the studied cities. Extremely high chronic effects risk as a result of heavy metals exposure was detected in Ust-Kamenogorsk, Shymkent, Almaty, Taraz and Balkhash. Unacceptable carcinogenic risk levels have been determined for professional groups and the whole population with respect to cadmium in Shymkent, Almaty, Balkhash; arsenic in Shymkent, Almaty, Balkhash; lead in Taraz; chromium - in Shymkent, Aktobe, Almaty and Balkhash. Thus, the values of the hazard quotients and indices for acute and chronic exposure in most of the studied cities of Kazakhstan exceed the permissible level equal to 1.0. Conclusion: Due to the unacceptable risk levels in the cities it is strongly recommended to conduct a detailed study of the health status of the population depending on the air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Indústrias Extrativas e de Processamento , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Cromo/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Fuligem/análise , Óxidos de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Enxofre/análise , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise
16.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 100, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to arsenic, even at common environmental levels, adversely affects child health. These adverse effects include impaired fetal growth, which can carry serious health implications lifelong. However, the mechanisms by which arsenic affects fetal health and development remain unclear. METHODS: We addressed this question using a group of 46 pregnant women selected from the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS), a US cohort exposed to low-to-moderate arsenic levels in drinking water through the use of unregulated private wells. Prenatal arsenic exposure was assessed using maternal urine samples taken at mid-gestation. Samples of the fetal portion of the placenta were taken from the base of the umbilical cord insertion at the time of delivery, stored in RNAlater and frozen. We used RNA sequencing to analyze changes in global gene expression in the fetal placenta associated with in utero arsenic exposure, adjusting for maternal age. Gene set enrichment analysis and enrichment mapping were then used to identify biological processes represented by the differentially expressed genes. Since our previous analyses have identified considerable sex differences in placental gene expression associated with arsenic exposure, we analyzed male and female samples separately. RESULTS: At FDR < 0.05, no genes were differentially expressed in female placenta, while 606 genes were differentially expressed in males. Genes showing the most significant associations with arsenic exposure in females were LEMD1 and UPK3B (fold changes 2.51 and 2.48), and in males, FIBIN and RANBP3L (fold changes 0.14 and 0.15). In gene set enrichment analyses, at FDR < 0.05, a total of 211 gene sets were enriched with differentially expressed genes in female placenta, and 154 in male placenta. In female but not male placenta, 103 of these gene sets were also associated with reduced birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal multiple biological functions in the fetal placenta that are potentially affected by increased arsenic exposure, a subset of which is sex-dependent. Further, our data suggest that in female infants, the mechanisms underlying the arsenic-induced reduction of birth weight may involve activation of stress response pathways.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , New Hampshire , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 761-768, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585240

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of zinc on inflammation and tight junction (TJ) in different intestinal regions of common carp under sub-chronic arsenic insult. Fish were exposed to zinc (0, 1 mg/L) and arsenic trioxide (0, 2.83 mg/L) in individual or combination for a month. Inflammatory infiltration and TJ structure changes were displayed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscope. To further explore these changes, biochemical indicator (SOD), gene or protein expressions of inflammatory responses (NF-κB, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8) and TJ proteins (Occludin, Claudins and ZOs) were determined. In the anterior intestine, arsenic decreased activity of SOD, mRNA levels of Occludin, Claudins and ZOs, increased mRNA levels of ILs. However, unlike the anterior intestine, arsenic has an upregulation effects of Occludin and Claudin-4 in the mid intestine. These anomalies induced by arsenic, except IL-8, were completely or partially recovered by zinc co-administration. Furthermore, transcription factor (NF-κB) nuclear translocation paralleled with its downstream genes in both intestinal regions. In conclusion, our results unambiguously suggested that under arsenic stress, zinc can partly relieve intestinal inflammation and disruption of tight junction segment-dependently.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Carpas , Enterotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/veterinária , Intestinos/fisiologia , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365547

RESUMO

Exposures to environmental arsenic (As) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been shown to independently cause dysregulation of immune function. Little data exists on the associations between combined exposures to As and PAH with immunotoxicity in humans. In this work we examined associations between As and PAH exposures with lymphoid cell populations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as alterations in differentiation and activation of B and T cells. Two hundred men, participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh, were selected for the present study based on their exposure to As from drinking water and their cigarette smoking status. Blood and urine samples were collected from study participants. We utilized multiparameter flow cytometry in PBMC to identify immune cells (B, T, monocytes, NK) as well as the T-helper (Th) cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tregs) following ex vivo activation. We did not find evidence of interactions between As and PAH exposures. However, individual exposures (As or PAH) were associated with changes to immune cell populations, including Th cell subsets. Arsenic exposure was associated with an increase in the percentage of Th cells, and dose dependent changes in monocytes, NKT cells and a monocyte subset. Within the Th cell subset we found that Arsenic exposure was also associated with a significant increase in the percentage of circulating proinflammatory Th17 cells. PAH exposure was associated with changes in T cells, monocytes and T memory (Tmem) cells and with changes in Th, Th1, Th2 and Th17 subsets all of which were non-monotonic (dose dependent). Alterations of immune cell populations caused by environmental exposures to As and PAH may result in adverse health outcomes, such as changes in systemic inflammation, immune suppression, or autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Cancer Biomark ; 25(4): 351-360, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that inorganic arsenic (iAs) can directly damage cells and result in malignant transformation with unclear complicated mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed to explore the possible molecules, pathways and therapeutic agents by using bioinformatics methods. METHODS: Microarray-based data were retrieved and analyzed to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between iAs-treated lung cells and controls. Then, the functions of DEGs were annotated and the hub genes were filtrated. The key genes were selected from the hub genes through validation in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohorts. Possible drugs were predicted by using CMAP tool. RESULTS: Two datasets (GSE33520 and GSE36684) were retrieved, and 61 up-regulated and 228 down-regulated DEGs were screened out, which were enriched in various pathways, particularly metabolism-related pathways. Among the DEGs, four hub genes including MTIF2, ACOX1, CAV1, and MRPL17, which might affect lung cancer prognosis, were selected as the key genes. Interestingly, Quinostatin was predicted to be a potential agent reversing iAs-induced lung cell malignant transformation. CONCLUSION: The present study sheds novel insights into the mechanisms of iAs-induced lung cell malignant transformation and identified several potential small agents for iAs toxicity prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
20.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 67, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metal exposure is a public health hazard due to neurocognitive effects starting in early life. Poor socio-economic status, adverse home and family environment can enhance the neurodevelopmental toxicity due to chemical exposure. Disadvantaged socio-economic conditions are generally higher in environmentally impacted areas although the combined effect of these two factors has not been sufficiently studied. METHODS: The effect of co-exposure to neurotoxic metals including arsenic, cadmium, manganese, mercury, lead, selenium, and to socio-economic stressors was assessed in a group of 299 children aged 6-12 years, residing at incremental distance from industrial emissions in Taranto, Italy. Exposure was assessed with biological monitoring and the distance between the home address and the exposure point source. Children's cognitive functions were examined using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Linear mixed models were chosen to assess the association between metal exposure, socio-economic status and neurocognitive outcomes. RESULTS: Urinary arsenic, cadmium and hair manganese resulted inversely related to the distance from the industrial emission source (ß - 0.04; 95% CI -0.06, - 0.01; ß - 0.02; 95% CI -0.05, - 0.001; ß - 0.02 95% CI -0.05, - 0.003) while the WISC intellectual quotient and its sub-scores (except processing speed index) showed a positive association with distance. Blood lead and urinary cadmium were negatively associated with the IQ total score and all sub-scores, although not reaching the significance level. Hair manganese and blood lead was positively associated with the CANTAB between errors of spatial working memory (ß 2.2; 95% CI 0.3, 3.9) and the reaction time of stop signal task (ß 0.05; 95% CI 0.02, 0.1) respectively. All the other CANTAB neurocognitive tests did not show to be significantly influenced by metal exposure. The highest socio-economic status showed about five points intellectual quotient more than the lowest level on average (ß 4.8; 95% CI 0.3, 9.6); the interaction term between blood lead and the socio-economic status showed a significant negative impact of lead on working memory at the lowest socio-economic status level (ß - 4.0; 95% CI -6.9, - 1.1). CONCLUSIONS: Metal exposure and the distance from industrial emission was associated with negative cognitive impacts in these children. Lead exposure had neurocognitive effect even at very low levels of blood lead concentration when socio-economic status is low, and this should further address the importance and prioritize preventive and regulatory interventions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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