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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 943-960, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913614

RESUMO

Diet, especially seafood, is the main source of arsenic exposure for humans. The total arsenic content of a diet offers inadequate information for assessment of the toxicological consequences of arsenic intake, which has impeded progress in the establishment of regulatory limits for arsenic in food. Toxicity assessments are mainly based on inorganic arsenic, a well-characterized carcinogen, and arsenobetaine, the main organoarsenical in seafood. Scarcity of toxicity data for organoarsenicals, and the predominance of arsenobetaine as an organic arsenic species in seafood, has led to the assumption of their nontoxicity. Recent toxicokinetic studies show that some organoarsenicals are bioaccessible and cytotoxic with demonstrated toxicities like that of pernicious trivalent inorganic arsenic, underpinning the need for speciation analysis. The need to investigate and compare the bioavailability, metabolic transformation, and elimination from the body of organoarsenicals to the well-established physiological consequences of inorganic arsenic and arsenobetaine exposure is apparent. This review provides an overview of the occurrence and assessment of human exposure to arsenic toxicity associated with the consumption of seafood.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/análise , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Arsenicais/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco
2.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(27): 7251-7260, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612256

RESUMO

Chloride widely exists in the environment and will cause serious interference for arsenic speciation analysis. The determination of four arsenic species including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsenate (MMA), and dimethylarsonate (DMA) in samples containing high concentrations of Cl- was carried out in this work by coupling of liquid chromatography (LC) with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). The interference of Cl- was successfully eliminated by coupling two anion-exchange chromatographic columns in series and eluting with 35.0 mmol L-1 (NH4)2HPO4 (pH = 6.00). A novel pre-treatment system was subsequently developed to realize on-line column switch and pre-reduction of As(V). The analysis time was shortened by an isocratic elution but programmed flow rate method, and the sensitivity of As(V) was also enhanced by the introduction of pre-reduction using the developed system. The proposed method can resist at least 10 g L-1 Cl- without any pre-treatment operations. Since LC-HG-AFS is low-cost and can be afforded or self-assembled by most labs, the developed method can be adopted as a routine analysis method for arsenic species in chloride-bearing samples, such as urine and seawater. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Arsenitos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arseniatos/urina , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/urina , Arsenicais/urina , Arsenitos/urina , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Metilação , Água do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Espectrofotometria Atômica/instrumentação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 674, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654271

RESUMO

The rice consumption behaviors of Thai citizens vary among regions. However, the influence of different consumption patterns on arsenic (As) exposure has never been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rice consumption behavior on As exposure levels. White rice (n = 96) and sticky rice (n = 63) samples were collected from local households in northern Thailand. The actual rice consumption behavior (type, frequency, and amount of rice consumed) was surveyed from the households where the rice samples were collected and used to calculate individual As exposures. The white rice (2.1%) and sticky rice (6.3%) samples contained inorganic As at higher concentrations than the Codex standard (0.2 mg kg-1). Approximately 58.3% of participants consumed white rice for breakfast and sticky rice for lunch and dinner, while 41.8% of participants consumed only white rice or sticky rice daily. Wide variations of As exposure (1 × 10-4 to 2 × 10-3 mg kg-1 day-1) were found. The average As exposure from only sticky rice consumption and combined rice consumption was 2 times higher than the As exposure from only white rice consumption. The rice ingestion rate was the most important factor affecting the level of As exposure resulting from the white rice-only and combined rice consumption patterns. For the combined rice consumption pattern, 45.7 to 93.5% of the total As exposure was from sticky rice consumption. Regarding individual characteristics, older and lower weight participants tended to consume lower amounts of rice. Thus, lower As exposure and fewer health impacts were found in those participants.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/toxicidade , Arsenicais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Oryza/química , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29896-29907, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407267

RESUMO

To assess the two most toxicologically relevant species of As, namely arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), chromatographic separations often require two separate chromatographic columns to address the co-elution of arsenobetaine (AsB) with As(III). This issue is typically observed using conventional isocratic methods on anion exchange columns, increasing cost and analysis time. Here, we optimize the extraction of inorganic As from a lichen air biomonitor and develop an isocratic method for the chromatographic separation of five common As species on a PRP X-100 anion exchange column, resulting in the complete baseline separation of all species under study. This method was then applied to lichen biomonitors from an urban and rural site to demonstrate its use. In order of abundance, the various arsenic species in lichens from the urban site in South Africa were As(V) > As(III) > AsB > dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) > monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and As(V) > AsB > As(III) > DMA > MMA for the rural site, where MMA was present in extremely low, non-quantifiable concentrations in lichens from both sites. Total concentrations of As were higher in samples from the urban site (6.43 ± 0.25 µg/g) than in those from the rural site (1.87 ± 0.05 µg/g), with an overall extraction efficiency of 19% and 40%, respectively. The optimized method utilized relatively inexpensive solvents and is therefore low-cost and eco-friendly in comparison with conventional chromatographic techniques. This is the first study which addresses the optimized extraction and characterization of As species in a South African lichen biomonitor of air pollution. Graphical abstract .


Assuntos
Arseniatos/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Arsenitos/análise , Líquens/química , /instrumentação , Ácido Cacodílico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , África do Sul , Urbanização
5.
Environ Res ; 177: 108616, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the US occurs mainly through drinking water and diet. Although American Indian (AI) populations have elevated urinary arsenic concentrations compared to the general US population, dietary sources of arsenic exposure in AI populations are not well characterized. METHODS: We evaluated food frequency questionnaires to determine the major dietary sources of urinary arsenic concentrations (measured as the sum of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsinate, ΣAs) for 1727 AI participants in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). We compared geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of urinary ΣAs for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in reported food group consumption. Exploratory analyses were stratified by gender and study center. RESULTS: In fully adjusted generalized estimating equation models, the percent increase (95% confidence interval) of urinary ΣAs per increase in reported food consumption corresponding to the IQR was 13% (5%, 21%) for organ meat, 8% (4%, 13%) for rice, 7% (2%, 13%) for processed meat, and 4% (1%, 7%) for non-alcoholic drinks. In analyses stratified by study center, the association with organ meat was only observed in North/South Dakota. Consumption of red meat [percent increase -7% (-11%, -3%)] and fries and chips [-6% (-10%, -2%)] was inversely associated with urinary ΣAs. CONCLUSIONS: Organ meat, processed meat, rice, and non-alcoholic drinks contribute to ΣAs exposure in the SHFS population. Organ meat is a unique source of ΣAs exposure for North and South Dakota participants and may reflect local food consumption. Further studies should comprehensively evaluate drinking water arsenic in SHFS communities and determine the relative contribution of diet and drinking water to total arsenic exposure.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Dieta , Exposição Dietética/análise , Adulto , Ácido Cacodílico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 525, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363866

RESUMO

Arsenic contamination in marine environments is a serious issue because some arsenicals are very toxic, increasing the health risks associated with the consumption of marine products. This study describes the development of an improved rapid method for the quantification of arsenic species, including arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), arsenocholine (AsC), arsenobetaine (AsB), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA), in seaweed, sediment, and seawater samples using high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS). ICP-MS based on dynamic reaction cells was used to eliminate spectral interference. Ammonium nitrate- and phosphate-based eluents were used as the mobile phases for HPLC analysis, leading to shorter overall retention time (6 min) and improved peak separation. Arsenicals were extracted with a 1% HNO3 solution that required no clean-up process and exhibited reasonable sensitivity and peak resolution. The optimized method was verified by applying it to hijiki seaweed certified reference material (CRM, NMIJ 7405-a) and to spiked blank samples of sediment and seawater. The proposed method measured the concentration of AsV in the CRM as 9.6 ± 0.6 µg/kg dry weight (dw), which is close to the certified concentration (10.1 ± 0.5 µg/kg dw). The recovery of the six arsenicals was 87-113% for the sediment and 99-101% for the seawater. In the analysis of real samples, AsV was the most abundant arsenical in hijiki and gulfweed, whereas AsB was dominant in other seaweed species. The two inorganic arsenicals (AsIII and AsV) and AsV were the most dominant in the sediment and seawater samples, respectively.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , República da Coreia , Água do Mar/química , Alga Marinha/química
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 360-370, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153082

RESUMO

Exposure to arsenic (As) through rice consumption potentially threatens millions of people worldwide. Understanding is still lacking the recycling impacts of rice residues on As phytoavailability in paddy soils and is of indisputable importance in providing a sustainable and effective measure to decrease As accumulation in rice grain. Herein, we examined the effects of rice husk biochar (RHB) and rice husk ash (RHA) on As grain speciation, and As dynamics in the soil porewater and solid-phase fractions. The results corroborated that both the RHB and RHA (0.64% w/w) treatments significantly (p < 0.05) decreased inorganic As accumulation in rice grain to 0.27-0.29 mg kg-1, which was below the maximum inorganic As level in husked rice (0.35 mg kg-1) established by the Codex. The residual phase (F6 = 90% of total soil As) as quantified by the sequential extraction was the dominant As pool; the fractions were subsequently transformed into several As pools associated with soluble and exchangeable (F1), organically bound (F2), Mn oxides (F3), poorly crystalline (F4) and crystalline (F5) Fe oxides during the rice growing periods. The Si-rich amendments enhanced the residual phase formation upon soil flooding, which decreased the As availability to rice plant. The inorganic grain-As concentrations were well explained by the soil-extractable As concentrations in the F2, F3, F5, and F6 fractions. The pore-water analysis indicated that Mn oxides were important sources and sinks for As released to the soil solution. Our findings shed light on the beneficial role of RHB and RHA in alleviating inorganic As uptake in paddy rice.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cinza de Carvão/química , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Silício/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/química , Arsenicais/química , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Água Subterrânea/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química
8.
Food Chem ; 293: 1-7, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151588

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility and speciation of arsenic (As) in rice grains have been investigated by the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) method. A total of 42 rice samples were collected from Hunan Province, a typical mine-impacted province in China. The bioaccessibility in the gastrointestinal tract was 71.7 ±â€¯13.5% for the collected rice grains. Arsenite [As(III)] was the predominant As species in the simulated gastric and gastrointestinal solutions, followed by dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenate [As(V)] and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA). The bioaccessible As(V) was irrelevant to As(V) in the rice grains, suggesting that interconversion between As(V) and other species was occurred in the simulated gastrointestinal tract. Monte-Carlo simulation was introduced to assess the health risk from exposure to inorganic As. The average values for target hazard quotient (THQ) and bioaccessible THQ were 2.704 and 1.637, respectively. The inclusion of bioaccessibility reduced the probability of non-carcinogenic health risk from 97.32% to 76.86%.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenicais/análise , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Ácido Cacodílico/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Método de Monte Carlo , Oryza/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22929-22944, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177413

RESUMO

Arsenic exposure route for humans is through the drinking of contaminated water and intake of arsenic-contaminated foods, particularly in arsenic-exposed areas of Bengal delta. Transport of the arsenic-contaminated crops and vegetables grown using arsenic-contaminated groundwater and soil in arsenic-exposed areas to the uncontaminated sites and consequent dietary intakes leads to great threats for the population residing in non-endemic areas with respect to consumption of arsenic through drinking water. We have studied the food materials collected from 30 families and their dietary habits, apparently who consume arsenic-free drinking water as well as 9 well-known markets of Kolkata city. The total and inorganic arsenic intake has been estimated from the collected foodstuffs from the market basket survey (n = 93) and household survey (n = 139), respectively for human risk analysis. About 100% of the collected samples contained detectable amount of arsenic (range 24-324 µg/kg), since the origin of the food materials was somewhere from arsenic-endemic areas. The daily consumption of inorganic arsenic (iAs) from rice grain and vegetables for adult and children is 76 µg and 41.4 µg, respectively. Inorganic arsenic (mainly arsenite and arsenate) contributes approximately 88% of the total content of arsenic in vegetable. In most of the cases, insufficient nutrient intake by the studied population may lead to arsenic toxicity in the long run. An independent cancer risk assessment study on the same population indicates that the main risk of cancer might appear through the intake of arsenic-contaminated rice grain and cereals.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adulto , Agricultura , Arsênico/química , Arsenicais/química , Criança , Produtos Agrícolas , Água Potável/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Oryza , Solo , Verduras , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Food Chem ; 292: 129-133, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054656

RESUMO

Arsenic and its inorganic species: As (III), As (V), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) were determined in hypoallergenic formulas and grain porridges commercially available on Polish market, dedicated for infant 0-8 months. After quantitative extraction with 0.5% HNO3, separation of individual species was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and their determination by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Due to relatively low content of As in the analysed samples, it was only possible to determine DMA using the HPLC-ICP-MS mode. HPLC separation coupled with off-line determination by NAA enabled the determination of more extracted As species (especially inorganic) with good accuracy. Certified reference material (CRM) Rice Flour SRM 1568b (NIST) was used for the validation of both procedures.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise de Ativação de Nêutrons/métodos , Arsenicais/análise , Ácido Cacodílico/análise , Humanos , Lactente
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18766-18776, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062237

RESUMO

Sequestration of arsenic to biogenic sulfide minerals is known from As-contaminated anoxic environments. Despite numerous successful laboratory experiments, the process remains difficult to predict in moderate arsenic conditions. We performed microcosm experiments using naturally contaminated groundwater (containing ca. 6 mg/L As) and natural organic matter (NOM) particles both collected from wetland soil. Macroscopic realgar precipitates, occasionally accompanied by bonazziite, a FeS phase, elementary S, calcite, and whewellite, appeared after 4 to 18 months. Realgar only precipitated in microcosms moderately poisoned by azide or antibiotics and those in which oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur took place. The biomineralization process was not affected by the presence of additional carbon sources or the diversity, community structure, and functional composition of the microbial community. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was greater in the realgar-free microcosms, suggesting that arsenic thiolation prevented precipitation of realgar. We compared our data to available microbial community data from soils with different rates of realgar precipitation, and found that the communities from realgar-encrusted NOM particles usually showed limited sulfate reduction and the presence of fermentative metabolisms, whereas communities from realgar-free NOM particles were strongly dominated by sulfate reducers. We argue that the limited sulfate supply and intensive fermentation amplify reducing conditions, which make arsenic sulfide precipitation plausible in high-sulfate, low-arsenic groundwaters.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/análise , Biomineralização , Água Subterrânea/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Microbiota , Sulfetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Oxirredução , Solo/química , Sulfatos/química , Áreas Alagadas
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084458

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the phytoextraction of inorganic (As(III), As(V)) and organic arsenic (Asorg) forms in six tree species: Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Quercus robur, Tilia cordata and Ulmus laevis. Plants were grown in a pot experiment using As-polluted mining sludge for 90 days. Arsenic (Astotal) was accumulated mainly in the roots of all six tree species, which were generally thinner, shorter and/or black after the experiment. The highest concentration of As(III) and As(V) was determined in the roots of A. pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides (174 and 420 mg kg-1, respectively). High concentrations of As(III) were also recorded in the shoots of B. pendula (11.9 mg kg-1) and As(V) in the aerial parts of U. laevis and A. pseudoplatanus (77.4 and 70.1 mg kg-1). With some exceptions, the dominant form in the tree organs was Asorg, present in mining sludge in low concentration. This form has a decisive influence on As phytoextraction by young tree seedlings even though its BCF value was the only one lower than 1. The obtained results highlight the important role of speciation studies in assessing the response of plants growing in heavily polluted mining sludge.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Resíduos Industriais , Mineração , Árvores/metabolismo , Arsênico/análise , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenicais/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Plântula/classificação , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Árvores/classificação , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 651-658, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108298

RESUMO

Dietary arsenic (As) intake from food is of great concern, and developing a reliable model capable of predicting As concentrations in plant edible parts is desirable. In this study, pot experiments were performed with 16 Chinese upland soils spiked with arsenate [As(V)] to develop a predictive model for As concentrations in pepper fruits (Capsicum annum L.). Our results showed that after three months' aging, concentrations of bioavailable As (extracted by 0.05 M NH4H2PO4) in various soils varied widely, depending on soil total As concentrations and soil properties such as soil pH and amorphous iron (Fe) contents. Furthermore, both the bioconcentration factor (BCF, denoted as the ratio of fruit As to soil As) and total As concentrations in pepper fruits were largely determined by concentrations of bioavailable As, which explained 27% and 69% variations in the BCF and fruit As concentrations, respectively. Apart from bioavailable As, soil pH and Fe contents were another two important factors influencing As accumulation in pepper fruits. Taking the three factors into account, concentrations of fruit As can be well predicted using a stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis (R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.17). Arsenic species in soils and edible parts were also analyzed. Although As(V) predominated in soils (>96%), As in pepper fruits presented as As(V) (46%) and arsenite [As(III)] (39%) with small amount of methylated As (<15%). Aggregated boosted tree (ABT) analysis revealed that inorganic As concentrations in pepper fruits were determined by concentrations of bioavailable As, phosphorus (P) and Fe in soils. In contrast to inorganic As, methylated As concentrations were not correlated with those factors in soils. Taken together, this study established an empirical model for predicting As concentrations in pepper fruits. The predictive model can be used for establishing the As threshold in fruit vegetable farming soils.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/farmacocinética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Arsenicais/análise , Arsenicais/química , Arsenicais/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro/análise , Fósforo/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21416-21424, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124065

RESUMO

In this work, fast sequential determination and chemical speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic and antimony in airborne particulate matter collected in outdoor and indoor environments using slurry sampling and detection by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) is proposed. A Doehlert design was applied to optimise the hydride generation conditions of As and Sb for fast sequential determination in the same aliquot of particulate matter samples after preparation of the slurry. The limits of quantification (LoQ) obtained for As and Sb were 0.3 and 0.9 ng m-3, respectively. The accuracy of the analytical method was confirmed by analysis of the certified reference material of urban particulate matter (SRM NIST 1648a), presenting concordance with certified values of 92.7±7.7% for As and 91.2±9.5% for Sb. Precision was expressed as relative standard deviation (% RSD, n=3), with our results presenting values better than 3.4% and 4.2% for total inorganic As and Sb, respectively. For all analysed samples, total As concentrations and its inorganic species were below the LoQ of the analytical method (<0.3 ng m-3). However, the averages of total inorganic Sb concentrations in airborne particulate matter, collected as total suspended outdoor particles (TSPoutdoor), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), and total suspended indoor particles (TSPindoor), were 3.1±0.5, 2.4±0.6, and 2.6±0.4 ng m-3, respectively. Trivalent Sb (Sb3+) was the predominant inorganic species in all samples investigated, with mean percentages of 76%, 72%, and 73% in TSPoutdoor, PM10, and TSPindoor, respectively. The presence of Sb and its predominant inorganic form (Sb3+) can be attributed to vehicular traffic close to the sampled urban areas. Therefore, fast sequential determination of As and Sb and their inorganic species in particulate matter samples prepared as slurry by FS-HG-AAS is an efficient, accurate, and precise method and can be successfully applied to routine analysis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Antimônio/análise , Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos
15.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(6): 2443-2458, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016607

RESUMO

Among the results of community health impact assessments completed in 2014, residents of the Indae abandoned metal mine area showed high average urinary concentrations of harmful arsenic (As), at 148.9 µg/L. The concentration of harmful As was derived as the sum of As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA concentrations known to be toxic. In this area, mining hazard prevention work was not carried out and the pollution source was neglected, and the health effect of the residents due to arsenic exposure was concerned. We re-assessed As exposure levels and tried to identify exposure factors for residents of this area. Analysis of the soil, sediment, and river water to assess the association between the soil of the Indae abandoned metal mine area and the soil in residential areas confirmed a correlation between Pb and As concentrations in the soil. Since Pb and As behave similarly, the use of the stable Pb isotope ratio for assessment of the pollution source tracking was validated. In the 3-isotope plot (207/206Pb vs. 208/206Pb) of soil samples in this area, a stable Pb isotope ratio was located on the same trend line, which confirmed that the soil in the residential area was within the area of influence of the Indae abandoned metal mine. Therefore, we judged that the pollution source of As was the Indae abandoned metal mine. The results by As species were As (III) 1.45 µg/L, As (V) 0.74 µg/L, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) 2.43 µg/L, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) 27.63 µg/L, and arsenobetaine 88.62 µg/L. The urinary harmful As was 31.92 µg/L, much lower than the 148.9 µg/L reported in a 2014 survey, due to the implementation of a multi-regional water supply in November 2014 that restricted As exposure through drinking river water. However, concerns remain over chronic exposure to As because As in river water used for farming and in agricultural soil still exceeds environmental standards; thus, ongoing work to address hazards from former mining areas and continued environmental monitoring is necessary.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Agricultura , Arsênico/urina , Arsenicais/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Água Doce/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Humanos , Isótopos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Rios/química , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 672: 525-535, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965265

RESUMO

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and total arsenic (tAs) were determined in common food from the Swedish market. Special focus was on rice, fish and shellfish products. For the speciation of iAs the European standard EN:16802 based on anion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS was used. The two market basket food groups cereals (including rice), and sweets and condiments (a mixed group of sugar, sweets, tomato ketchup and dressings), contained the highest iAs levels (means 9 and 7 µg iAs/kg), whereas other food groups, including fish, did not exceed 2 µg iAs/kg. Varying levels of iAs were found in separate samples of tomato ketchup, 2.4-26 µg/kg, and is suggested to be one reason of the rather high average level of iAs in the food group sweets and condiments. Some specific food products revealed iAs levels much higher, i.e. rice crackers 152 and Norway lobster 89 µg iAs/kg. The intake of iAs via food was estimated by data from two national consumption surveys, performed in 2010-11 (1797 adults) and 2003 (2259 children). The estimated median iAs intakes in adults and children were 0.047 and 0.095 µg/kg body weight and day, respectively. The iAs intake for rice eaters was about 1.4 times higher than for non-rice eaters. Validation of the consumption survey-based iAs intake, using food purchase and market basket data mainly from 2015, resulted in a per capita intake of a similar magnitude, i.e. 0.056 µg/kg body weight and day. The estimated cancer risk for adults using low-dose linear extrapolation is <1 per 100,000 per year.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Arsenicais/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Grão Comestível/química , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Oryza/química , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929561

RESUMO

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to the speciation of arsenic [As(III), As(V), and AsB (arsenobetaine)], MMA (monomethylarsonic acid), DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), antimony [Sb(III) and Sb(V)], and chromium [Cr(III) and Cr(VI)] in water and bottom sediment samples collected from the urban Bytomka River (Poland). The main objective of the study was the research of As, Cr and Sb species in the Bytomka River, as well as the simplified three-stage sequential chemical extraction of bottom sediments according to the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (BCR). The contents of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Fe, Ga, and U in the water and bottom sediments were tested using the ICP-MS technique. The risk assessment code (RAC) indicated a medium risk for As and a high risk for Sb to the environment. Sequential chemical extraction of bottom sediments showed that As and Cr were strongly demobilized. Sb was mainly bound with the ion-exchange fraction and posed a serious threat to the environment. Chemometric analysis with the (dis)similarity analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) allowed for visualization of the variability and correlations of the analyzed elements.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Metaloides/análise , Metais/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antimônio/análise , Arsênico/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Ácido Cacodílico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Polônia , Análise de Componente Principal , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/química
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 300: e24-e30, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023496

RESUMO

Realgar (arsenic sulfide) is widely used in combination with other herbs as Chinese patent medicine to treat a variety of diseases in China. As a mineral arsenic, its mild toxicity was also well known. Longtime over-dose usage or wrongly oral intake of realgar can cause chronic arsenic poisoning and/or death, but acute fatal arsenic poisoning resulted from short-term dermal use of realgar-containing medicine was very rare. Here, we present the case of a 35-year-old Chinese man, who was diagnosed with severe psoriasis and died of fatal acute arsenic poisoning after he applied a local folk prescription ointment containing mainly the realgar to the affected skin for about 4 days. The autopsy showed multiple punctate hemorrhages over the limbs, pleural effusion, edematous lungs with consolidation, mild myocardial hypertrophy and normal-looking kidneys. The histopathological examination of renal tissue showed severe degeneration, necrosis and desquamation of renal tubular epithelial cells, presence of protein cast and a widened edematous interstitium with interstitial fibrosis. The presence of arsenic in large amount in the ointment (about 6%), in blood (1.76 µg/mL), and in skin (4.71 µg/g), were confirmed analytically. We also provide the clinical records of the deceased and briefly reviewed 7 similar cases in literature (6 in Chinese and 1 in English) in the past 30 years in China.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico/etiologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Sulfetos/envenenamento , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Intoxicação por Arsênico/patologia , Arsenicais/administração & dosagem , Arsenicais/análise , China , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pomadas , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Pele/química , Sulfetos/administração & dosagem , Sulfetos/análise
19.
Dalton Trans ; 48(13): 4362-4369, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860539

RESUMO

A novel Co(ii)-complex {i.e. [Co(n-BuM)(DPA)(H2O)2]·H2O} [n-BuMH2 = n-butylmalonic acid and DPA = 2,2'-dipyridylamine] was synthesized. The supramolecular feature, i.e. a metal coordinated and free guest water mediated hydrogen-bonding interaction assisted supramolecular ππ assembly, has been observed in the crystal structure of the Co(ii)-complex in the solid state. The role of different water molecules (metal coordinated and free guest water molecules) had also been scrutinized via theoretical studies. The fluorescent nature of the aqueous solution of the Co(ii)-complex has been utilized for selective µM range toxic inorganic As(iii)-sensing in aqueous medium. The Co(ii)-probe is very specific towards toxic As(OH)3 even in the presence of several ions and other arsenic sources like inorganic As(v)-oxoanions and organic arsenic species like cacodylic acid. The bio-relevant nature of the fluorescent probe of the Co(ii)-complex has also been examined. The luminous Co(ii)-probe has been employed for the intracellular tracking of As(iii) in bacterial systems including As(iii)-resistant bacteria Bacillus aryabhattai and As(iii) non-resistant bacteria Bacillus subtilis.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/análise , Bacillus/química , Cobalto/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Ácido Cacodílico/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Água/química
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(4): 199, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824983

RESUMO

Emet and Orhaneli stream basins are characterized by intense mining of colemanite, the main borate mineral in the area. Unlike other global borate deposits, the colemanite of this region contains arsenic minerals (realgar and orpiment). Undoubtedly, improper management of mine wastes causes pollution of water resources, affecting human life and biota. In the present study, spatial and temporal variation in water quality of Emet and Orhaneli streams was assessed. The water quality index (WQI) model was used to rate the overall status of the water, and geographical information systems (GIS) was used to aid the visualization of results. No significant differences in WQIs for the three-monitoring periods (March, July and October 2017) were noted. The WQI in the region is highly influenced by arsenic (As) and boron (B), with a strong positive correlation (p < 0.05, r2 = 0.971). The As and B concentrations in Emet stream were 1.88-1907 µg/L and 0.01-1900 mg/L, respectively. Whereas for Orhaneli stream, respective As and B levels ranged from 5.17 to 116 µg/L and 0.01 to 5.45 mg/L. Globally, the As level in Emet stream basin is comparable to some of the words major contaminated regions such as Rapti River Basin (India) and Xieshui River (China). However, the uniqueness of this basin is seen in B and As trends, and input routes like active geothermal waters and weathering of the realgar (AsS) and orpiment (As2S3) from colemanite nodules. This paper demonstrates the influence of pollutants associated with basin geochemistry and exploration of mineral resources on WQI.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Boro/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Arsenicais/análise , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Mineração , Sulfetos/análise , Turquia
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