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Rev Esp Quimioter ; 31(6): 485-492, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427145


In this article, we present a historical revision of syphilis treatment since the end of the XV century up until the current days. For centuries, it was understood that syphilis had been brought to Spain by Columbus after coming back from America. It became an epidemic soon after. Later on, it was spread all over Europe. The chronologic and geographic origin of this illness have been debated in recent years, however, there has been no agreement about it as yet. Mercury was the main used therapy for four and a half centuries, until the discovery of penicillin in 1943. This discovery changed the therapeutic approach to syphilis since then. Other remedies were used during this period. Guaiacum was one of them, but it was dismissed in the mid-sixteenth century. Iodides were also used, especially in the tertiary symptoms of the disease. The discovery of arsphenamine (Salvarsan) at the beginning of the XX century, used by itself at its onset and associated to mercury or bismuth later on, was a significant therapeutic contribution. Bismuth was in itself a great therapeutic asset. It displaced the use of mercury in an important way until 1943, when the appearance of penicillin became the treatment of choice.

Antitreponêmicos/história , Antitreponêmicos/uso terapêutico , Sífilis/história , Sífilis/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Arsfenamina/uso terapêutico , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , História do Século XV , História do Século XX , Humanos , Compostos de Mercúrio/uso terapêutico , Espanha , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiologia
Folia Med (Plovdiv) ; 58(1): 5-11, 2016 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383872


The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

Política de Saúde/história , Pobreza/história , Trabalho Sexual/história , Sífilis/história , Urbanização/história , Antitreponêmicos/história , Antitreponêmicos/uso terapêutico , Arsfenamina/história , Arsfenamina/uso terapêutico , Península Balcânica/epidemiologia , Bismuto/história , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Regulamentação Governamental/história , Grécia/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Trabalho Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/história , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Guerra
J Invest Surg ; 25(2): 67-77, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22439833


Infections have represented for a long time the leading cause of death in humans. During the 19th century, pneumonia, tuberculosis, diarrhea and diphtheria were considered the main causes of death in children and adults. Only in the late 19th century did it become possible to correlate the existence of microscopic pathogens with the development of various diseases. Within a few years the introduction of antiseptic procedures had begun to reduce mortality due to postsurgical infections. Sanitation and hygiene played a significant role in the reduction of the mortality due to several infectious diseases. The introduction of the first compounds with antimicrobial activity succeeded in conquering many diseases. In this review we analyzed, from a historical perspective, the development of antibiotics and the circumstances that led to their discovery. The first compound with antimicrobial activity was introduced in 1911 by Erlich. He focused his research activity on the discovery of a "magic bullet" to treat syphilis. Afterwards, Foley and colleagues brought penicillin to the forefront. Streptomycin represents the first drug discovered for the treatment of tuberculosis, and its development included the first use of clinical trials. Finally, with the development of cephalosporins, the introduction of new antimicrobial compounds with broad activity against gram-positive and also some gram-negative bacteria began.

Antibacterianos , Antibacterianos/história , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Arsfenamina/história , Arsfenamina/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/história , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Descoberta de Drogas/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções/história , Penicilinas/história , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Estreptomicina/história , Estreptomicina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/história
Subst Use Misuse ; 44(12): 1768-802, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19895306


UNLABELLED: During the Pacific War (World War II), Japan maintained an elaborate system of sexual slavery by implementing certain practices based on institutionalized policies of hygiene, efficiency, and the use of mostly Korean girls and women. Two hygienic techniques were established--vaccination and quarantine. No. 606 injections were given at mandatory regularly scheduled medical examinations to prevent and treat venereal disease, and to also deter pregnancy, induce abortions, and ultimately sterilize sex slaves. METHODS: Secondary textual analysis of data collected from 1995-2000, N = 67 interview transcripts, and participant observation in 2003 and 2006. Geographic area: East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

Arsfenamina/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Higiene/história , Quarentena/história , Problemas Sociais/história , Vacinação/história , II Guerra Mundial , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Gravidez , Punição , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Esterilização Involuntária
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 88(1): 6-19, ene.-mar. 2007. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-634324


El nombre sífilis proviene del griego siph: cerdo y philus: amor. Recuerda al personaje de una obra, llamado Syphilo, que fue castigado por los dioses a sufrir una terrible enfermedad. Se analizan los datos sobre la sífilis en la antigüedad (que difieren según su fuente). Su mención en la Edad Media, su controversial origen, la ayuda de los paleopatólogos para encontrarlo. Luego de la Revolución Francesa y el inicio de la Edad Contemporánea, el porcentaje de enfermos fue creciendo y se acentuó la segregación de los mismos por la sociedad. Desde el año 1500 hasta principios del siglo XX el tratamiento de la sífilis dependía del mercurio. Tenía una gran variedad de formas de aplicación. La vía tópica: el ungüento gris, en calomelano o tabletas, en inyecciones, en fricciones y fumigaciones en donde el mercurio se introducía en el cuerpo por lo pulmones. Se adjudicó a la madera del guayaco pretendidas características curativas, que no poseía. Los ioduros se utilizaron para el terciarismo. Ehrlich en 1907, patentó el compuesto 606 o Salvarsan y en 1910, el Neo-Salvarsan o Arsfenamina (compuesto 914). Por estos descubrimientos recibió el Premio Nobel. En 1887, Julios Wagner Jauregg sugirió que la fiebre terapéuticamente inducida era útil en el tratamiento de enfermos psicóticos. En 1912 publicó sus satisfactorios resultados al tratar la paresias con una combinación de mercurio-iodo y tuberculina de Koch. En 1917 ingresó a su servicio un enfermo de malaria, con cuya sangre escarificaron la piel palúdica de tres paréticos, en lugar de darle inmediatamente quinina. Por ello fue galardona con el Premio Nobel. Se utilizó luego el bismuto, a partir de 1922, pero posteriormente fue sustituido por las sulfamidas, de aplicación dificultosa. El avance terapéutico más importante ocurrió en 1943, año en que se comenzó a utilizar la penicilina por Mahoney y colaboradores. Luego se confirmó la eficacia de la tetraciclina para los alérgicos a la penicilina. Últimamente se confirmó la eficacia de la azitromicina en dosis de 500mg cada día, durante los 10 días o el régimen de 500mg en días alternos.

The name Syphilis comes from greek language: Siph: Pig and Philus: Love, meaning, in honor of the Sheppard of a story where the Character, Named Syphilo, is punished by the gods to suffer a terrible disease. Data about Syphilis was analized in ancient times (which differ according to the source). Its mention in the middle age, its controversial origin, the help provided from paleopathologists to find it. When the French revolution and the beginning of the contemporary age began, the percentage of sick people grew. The segregation of these is proved by the society. From the year 1500 to the beginnings of the XX century, the treatment of Syphilis depended on mercury. There were a great variety of application methods: topical: the grey ointment, in «calomelanos or tabs¼, in injections, in frictions and fumigations where the mercury was introduced in the body by the lungs. Guayacos wood was named with curative features which it did not posses. The iodides were used for tertiary syphilis. In 1907, Ehrlich formulates the 606 compound or Salvarsan and in 1910 the Neo-Salvarsan or Arsfenamina or compound 914.Due to these discoveries he received the nobel prize. In 1887, Julius Wagner of Jauregg suggested that: the inducted therapeutic fiber was useful in the treatment of the psychosis. In 1912 he published his satisfactory results in treating the paresis with a combination of mercury and iodides and tuberculin of Koch. In 1917 he treated a patient who had malaria and instead of giving him immediately quinine, he made a scarification with his paludic blood the skin of 3 paretic patients. Because of this he was awarded with the nobel prize. Since 1922 bismuth was used, but then it was substituted by the sulphamidas of difficult application. The most important therapeutical advance happened in 1943, year in which penicillin was put in use by Mahoney and col. Later it was confirmed the efficiency of the tetracycline for the penicillin-allergic patients. Lately it has been confirmed the efficiency of the azithromizine in 500 mg dosis each day during 10 days or the regimen of 500 mg in alternate days.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/história , Arsenicais/administração & dosagem , Arsenicais/uso terapêutico , Arsfenamina/uso terapêutico , Bismuto/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Iodo/uso terapêutico , Mercúrio/administração & dosagem , Mercúrio/uso terapêutico , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico
Chemotherapy ; 50(1): 6-10, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15084798


On March 14th of this year, the birthday of Paul Ehrlich, the great German researcher and 'founder of chemotherapy', returned for the 150th time. Interestingly, his later colleague Emil von Behring was born one day later in 1854. Both were coworkers in Robert Koch's laboratory and became Nobel Prize laureates (for their work in immunology), making great contributions to antiinfectious treatments. Emil von Behring's approach was through the use of immunological agents, while Ehrlich favored an approach of antiinfectious treatment by chemical agents. Through an ingenious concept that was a clear continuation of his early days in research with dyes, he found the first chemotherapeutic agents. From his dye work, he had concluded the following: if there are dyes that one can use to stain cells, why not develop pharmacological agents that, like stains, also attach to a structure in the living pathogen and kill them. He gave these agents the emotionally charged name 'magic bullets'. This introductory review will initiate a series of papers on the occasion of Ehrlich's 150th birthday and the 'World Conference on Dosing of Antiinfectives: Dosing the Magic Bullets', which is going to be held in Nürnberg, Germany, from September 9 to 11, 2004 (see Apart from the conference topic, this conference will also commemorate a real science giant of the last century and yet a modest human being whom, as Robert Koch put it, 'one had to like'. This article recalls Ehrlich's ingenious concepts, including modern syphilis treatment, one-dose treatment ('therapia magna sterilisans') of Helicobacter pylori infections and introduction of an arsenic compound, arsenic trioxide, as well as experiments and new exciting data on Congo red, a well-known 'non-Ehrlich dye'.

Antitreponêmicos/uso terapêutico , Arsfenamina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Corantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico
J Med Primatol ; 29(2): 85-7, 2000 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10950456


Splenectomised Saimiri sciureus squirrel monkeys are being used increasingly as an experimental host for human malarial studies, notably for the assessment of candidate vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection. Recently, we have reported that colony-reared S. sciureus monkeys are asymptomatic carriers of Haemobartonella sp. and that patent Haemobartonella infection, activated following splenectomy, may interfere with the course of P. falciparum parasitaemia in these animals. For several years, splenectomised S. sciureus monkeys were routinely submitted to oxytetracycline therapy before their use in malarial studies in order to prevent a possible spontaneous Heamobartonella infection. However, we report here that such antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and that neoarsphenamine chemotherapy may be considered as an alternative to cure both latent and patent haemobartonellosis in S. sciureus monkeys.

Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/veterinária , Anaplasmataceae , Arsenicais/uso terapêutico , Arsfenamina/análogos & derivados , Oxitetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Primatas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Arsenicais/efeitos adversos , Arsfenamina/efeitos adversos , Arsfenamina/uso terapêutico , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxitetraciclina/efeitos adversos , Saimiri , Esplenectomia