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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105134, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation within 6 hours of symptoms onset and can be performed with an extended window up to 24 hours in selected patients. Nevertheless, the outcomes of MT with extended window are unknown in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: Explore the safety and efficacy of MT for AIS performed beyond 6 hours from symptoms onset in Brazil. METHODS: We reviewed data from AIS patients treated with MT beyond 6 hours of stroke onset, from 2015 to 2018 in a Brazilian public hospital. Patients had an occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery and/or proximal segment of the middle cerebral artery. CT Perfusion mismatch was evaluated using the RAPID® software. We evaluated the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and mortality at 90 days, and rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were included, with a mean age of 65.6 ± 16.1 years, 55.6% were male, and the median NIHSS score at presentation was 17. Successful recanalization (TICI 2b to 3) was obtained in 92.6% of patients and sICH rate was 11.1%. Overall, 34% of the patients had a good outcome (mRS ≤2) at 90 days and the mortality rate was 20.3%. CONCLUSION: Our study, the first series of MT for AIS treated with extended window reported in Latin America, shows that MT can be performed with safety and lead to adequate functional outcomes in this context. Further studies should explore the barriers to broad implementation of MT for AIS in Latin America.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/terapia , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Trombectomia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105081, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide (ACZ) on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to assess the severity of chronic cerebral ischemia; however, this is an invasive method. We examined whether whole-brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 7T could non-invasively detect impaired CVR in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia by demonstrating the leptomeningeal collaterals (LMCs). METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with symptomatic unilateral cervical stenosis underwent whole-brain time-of-flight MRA at 7T and cerebral perfusion SPECT before/after the ACZ challenge. MRA images were visually assessed based on 6-point grading systems to evaluate the development of LMCs toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and antegrade flow of MCA. CVR of the affected side was calculated from the SPECT data. Subsequently, we compared the LMC grades on MRA with CVR on SPECT. RESULTS: CVR was significantly lower in grades ≥ 2 of LMCs than in grades 0-1 (P < 0.05) when applying LMCs from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and/or posterior cerebral artery (PCA). These differences were more evident than those in the grading of the antegrade MCA flow. The LMC grades from ACA/PCA readily detected reduced CVR (< 18.4%) with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.79/0.82. CONCLUSION: The development of LMCs on whole-brain MRA at 7T can non-invasively detect reduced CVR with a high sensitivity/specificity in patients with unilateral cervical stenosis.


Assuntos
Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Circulação Colateral , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Meninges/irrigação sanguínea , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Perfusão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/fisiopatologia
3.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(4): 396-403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829323

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis is an effective surgical procedure for adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) and is known to have the potential to prevent cerebral ischemia and/or hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral hyperperfusion (CHP) syndrome is one of the serious complications of this procedure that can result in deleterious outcomes, such as delayed intracerebral hemorrhage, but the prediction of CHP before revascularization surgery remains challenging. The present study evaluated the diagnostic value of preoperative three-dimensional (3D)-time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for predicting CHP after STA-MCA anastomosis for MMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The signal intensity of the peripheral portion of the intracranial major arteries, such as the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), MCA, and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) ipsilateral to STA-MCA anastomosis, on preoperative MRA was graded (0-2 in each vessel) according to the ability to visualize each vessel on 97 affected hemispheres in 83 adult MMD patients. Local cerebral blood flow (CBF) at the site of anastomosis was quantitatively measured by N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography 1 and 7 days after surgery, in addition to the preoperative CBF value at the corresponding area. Then, we investigated the correlation between the preoperative MRA score and the development of CHP. RESULTS: The CHP phenomenon 1 day after STA-MCA anastomosis (local CBF increase over 150% compared with the preoperative value) was evident in 27 patients (27/97 hemispheres; 28%). Among them, 8 (8 hemispheres) developed CHP syndrome. Multivariate analysis revealed that the hemispheric MRA score (0-6), the summed ACA, MCA, and PCA scores for the affected hemisphere, was significantly associated with the development of CHP syndrome (p = 0.011). The hemispheric MRA score was also significantly correlated with the CHP phenomenon, either symptomatic or asymptomatic (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The signal intensity of the intracranial major arteries, including the ACA, MCA, and PCA, on preoperative 3D-TOF MRA may identify adult MMD patients at higher risk for CHP after direct revascularization surgery.


Assuntos
Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Revascularização Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Doença de Moyamoya/cirurgia , Artérias Temporais/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome , Artérias Temporais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Temporais/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 104830, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in ischemia and shows potential as a biomarker for ischemia. We measured mixed venous nitrite (NO2-) as a proxy for NO, during controlled cerebral ischemia in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) during direct extracranial/intracranial (EC/IC) bypass surgery with temporary occlusion of the M4 branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) to permit anastomosis with the superficial temporal artery (STA). This small, focal ischemic event is not reliably detected using cerebral oximetry, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) or electroencephalography (EEG). METHODS: We enrolled nine adult MMD patients (n=8 female, n=1 male) undergoing direct EC/IC bypass surgery. Nitrite was measured at least one hour prior to MCA occlusion, and before, during and after anastomosis. Cortical function was monitored using either multi-lead EEG and SSEPs, or frontal EEG activity. RESULTS: Mixed venous NO2- was significantly elevated (p<0.05) within 12 min following arterial occlusion vs. baseline. An M4 branch of the MCA was cross clamped for a median duration of 18 (IQR = 5) minutes during anastomosis. One patient with elevated NO2- showed a transient neurologic deficit that resolved 3 days post-operatively. CONCLUSIONS: Mixed venous NO2- was significantly elevated shortly following cerebral artery occlusion vs. baseline in a majority of the study subjects, suggesting that NO2- is a potential biomarker for ischemia. Since all patients received identical burst suppression anesthesia and vasopressors, the fact that NO2- was not elevated during cross-clamp in all patients supports the conclusion that the NO2- elevation is likely due to ischemia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Revascularização Cerebral , Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Doença de Moyamoya/cirurgia , Nitritos/sangue , Artérias Temporais/cirurgia , Oclusão Terapêutica , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Revascularização Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Circulação Colateral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Doença de Moyamoya/sangue , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Artérias Temporais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Temporais/fisiopatologia , Oclusão Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima , Vasodilatação
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105000, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To date, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has been considered as the gold imaging modality for assessing graft patency after extracranial-intracranial bypass. The utility of a noninvasive and quantitative method of assessing graft flow postoperatively was evaluated by using quantitative ultrasonography. METHOD: All STA-MCA bypass surgery performed over a 5-year period at a single institution were reviewed. Measured by duplex ultrasonography, pre-operative (day1) and post-operative (day1, day7, 3month and 6 month) graft blood flow rates were recorded and analyzed. Results were correlated to Matsushima grade determined by DSA performed within 24 h when ultrasonography was conducted to confirm the graft function. RESULTS: 100 patients with 131 operated hemispheres were included in this study. The mean flow rates in the STA graft on pre-operative day1, post-operative day 1 and 7, at 3- and 6-month postoperatively were 24.1, 106.7, 112.6, 97.4 and 79.7 ml/min respectively. The mean post-operative flow in the STA graft graded as A/B/C were significantly different (168.0 ± 34.8 ml/min, 91.0 ± 15.5, 42.1 ± 17.2 ml/min, respectively, p = 0.000). 124.5 ml/min and 65.5 ml/min are good cut-off value for predicting post-operative graft Matsushima grade. The analysis also showed excellent agreement between ultrasonography and DSA for assessing bypass function (κ = 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: The patency of the STA grafts can be assessed noninvasively by quantitative ultrasonography, which results are comparable to those of conventional DSA. This, therefore, suggest that quantitative ultrasonography may be an alternative method to standard DSA for serial follow up of STA grafts.


Assuntos
Angiografia Digital , Angiografia Cerebral , Revascularização Cerebral , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/cirurgia , Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Artérias Temporais/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Revascularização Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Artérias Temporais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Temporais/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
6.
J Neurol Sci ; 417: 117078, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented increased usage of Personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare-workers. PPE usage causes headache in majority of users. We evaluated changes in cerebral hemodynamics among healthcare-workers using PPE. METHODS: Frontline healthcare-workers donning PPE at our tertiary center were included. Demographics, co-morbidities and blood-pressure were recorded. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring of middle cerebral artery was performed with 2-MHz probe. Mean flow velocity (MFV) and pulsatility index (PI) were recorded at baseline, after donning N95 respirator-mask, and after donning powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), when indicated. End-tidal carbon-dioxide (ET-CO2) pressure was recorded for participants donning PAPR in addition to the N95 respirator-mask. RESULTS: A total of 154 healthcare-workers (mean age 29 ± 12 years, 67% women) were included. Migraine was the commonest co-morbidity in 38 (25%) individuals while 123 (80%) developed de-novo headache due to N95 mask. Donning of N95 respirator-mask resulted in significant increase in MFV (4.4 ± 10.4 cm/s, p < 0.001) and decrease in PI (0.13 ± 0.12; p < 0.001) while ET-CO2 increased by 3.1 ± 1.2 mmHg (p < 0.001). TCD monitoring in 24 (16%) participants donning PAPR and N95 respirator mask together showed normalization of PI, accompanied by normalization of ET-CO2 values within 5-min. Combined use of N95 respirator-mask and PAPR was more comfortable as compared to N95 respirator-mask alone. CONCLUSION: Use of N95 respirator-mask results in significant alterations in cerebral hemodynamics. However, these effects are mitigated by the use of additional PAPR. We recommend the use of PAPR together with the N95 mask for healthcare-workers doing longer duties in the hospital wards.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fluxo Pulsátil , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
7.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2051-2057, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate outcome and safety of endovascular treatment beyond 6 hours of onset of ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, in routine clinical practice. METHODS: From the Italian Registry of Endovascular Thrombectomy, we extracted clinical and outcome data of patients treated for stroke of known onset beyond 6 hours. Additional inclusion criteria were prestroke modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 and ASPECTS score ≥6. Patients were selected on individual basis by a combination of CT perfusion mismatch (difference between total hypoperfusion and infarct core sizes) and CT collateral score. The primary outcome measure was the score on modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. Safety outcomes were 90-day mortality and the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Data were compared with those from patients treated within 6 hours. RESULTS: Out of 3057 patients, 327 were treated beyond 6 hours. Their mean age was 66.8±14.9 years, the median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 16, and the median onset to groin puncture time 430 minutes. The most frequent site of occlusion was middle cerebral artery (45.1%). Functional independence (90-day modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2) was achieved by 41.3% of cases. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 6.7% of patients, and 3-month case fatality rate was 17.1%. The probability of surviving with modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2 (odds ratio, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.43-0.77]) was significantly lower in patients treated beyond 6 hours as compared with patients treated earlier No differences were found regarding recanalization rates and safety outcomes between patients treated within and beyond 6 hours. There were no differences in outcome between people treated 6-12 hours from onset (278 patients) and those treated 12 to 24 hours from onset (49 patients). CONCLUSIONS: This real-world study suggests that in patients with large vessel occlusion selected on the basis of CT perfusion and collateral circulation assessment, endovascular treatment beyond 6 hours is feasible and safe with no increase in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Idoso , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104853, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389556

RESUMO

Giant thrombosed middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms are difficult to treat and sometimes require complex revascularization using allografts. We describe a technical method using revascularization with a natural Y-shaped graft that provides a normal variation for a complex MCA aneurysm. A 65-year-old man with a giant thrombosed MCA aneurysm presented with right hemiparesis and aphasia. The patient had a history of clipping surgery for the ipsilateral side of the MCA aneurysm 25 years before, and a de novo aneurysm developed over the previous 18 years. For the giant thrombosed aneurysm, trapping and revascularization were performed. A natural radial artery Y-graft was used as the graft and anastomosed to both M2 trunks. The symptoms improved after surgery, and the patient was discharged 3 weeks later. This is the first report of a double-barrel bypass using a natural Y-graft. This method attained a normal variation, and the flow of the Y-graft was physiological. For the radical cure of giant thrombosed MCA aneurysms, multiple revascularizations might be required. With this natural Y-graft, complex transpositions could be avoided.


Assuntos
Bioprótese , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Revascularização Cerebral/instrumentação , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Trombose Intracraniana/cirurgia , Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Artéria Radial/transplante , Idoso , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/fisiopatologia , Trombose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Artéria Radial/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Radial/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Comput Biol Med ; 120: 103759, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics(CFD) of intracranial aneurysms requires flow boundary conditions(BCs) as inputs. Patient-specific BCs are usually unavailable and substituted by literature-derived generic BCs. Therefore, we investigated inter-patient BC variations and their influence on middle cerebral artery aneurysmal hemodynamics. METHOD: We retrospectively collected CT angiography and 7-T Phase-Contrast(PC)-MRI data from eight middle-cerebral-artery bifurcation aneurysms to reconstruct the geometry and measure the arterial flowrates, respectively. The coefficient of variation(CoV) was calculated for the inlet flowrate and the pulsatility index(PI). The outflow split estimated by Murray's law was compared with PC-MRI measurements. For each aneurysm, we performed seven simulations: "baseline" using PC-MRI-derived BCs and the other six with changing BCs to explore the influence of BC variations on hemodynamics. RESULTS: From PC-MRI, the inlet flowrate was 1.94 ± 0.71 cm3/s(CoV = 36%) and PI was 0.37 ± 0.13(CoV = 34%). The outflow split estimated by Murray's law deviated by 15.3% compared to PC-MRI. Comparing to "baseline" models, ±36% variations in inlet flowrate caused -61% to +89% changes in time-averaged wall shear stress(WSS), -37% to +32% in normalized WSS(NWSS; by parent-artery), and -42% to +126% in oscillatory shear index(OSI). The ±34% variations in PI caused, -46% to +67% in OSI. Applying ±15% variations in outflow split led to inflow jet deflection and -41% to +52% changes in WSS, -41% to +47% in NWSS, and -44% to +144% in OSI. CONCLUSION: Inflow rate and outflow split have a drastic impact on hemodynamics of intracranial aneurysms. Inlet waveform has a negligible impact on WSS and NWSS but major impact on OSI. CFD-based models need to consider such sensitivity.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Simulação por Computador , Meios de Contraste , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Imageamento Tridimensional , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/fisiopatologia , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Imagem Multimodal , Fluxo Pulsátil , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357114

RESUMO

The survival rate of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) is increasing. However, survivors experience increased risk for neurological complications. The mechanisms for this increased risk are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that patients with IHD have greater carotid and cerebrovascular stiffness, and these indexes predict white matter small vessel disease. Fifty participants (age, 40-78 yr), 30 with IHD with preserved ejection fraction and 20 healthy age-matched controls, were studied using ultrasound imaging of the common carotid artery (CCA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA), as well as magnetic resonance imaging (T1, T2-FLAIR), to measure white matter lesion volume (WMLv). Carotid ß-stiffness provided the primary measure of peripheral vascular stiffness. Carotid-cerebral pulse wave transit time (ccPWTT) provided a marker of cerebrovascular stiffness. Pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) of the MCA were calculated as measures of downstream cerebrovascular resistance. When compared with controls, patients with IHD exhibited greater ß-stiffness [8.5 ± 3.3 vs. 6.8 ± 2.2 arbitrary units (AU); P = 0.04], MCA PI (1.1 ± 0.20 vs. 0.98 ± 0.18 AU; P = 0.02), and MCA RI (0.66 ± 0.06 vs. 0.62 ± 0.07 AU; P = 0.04). There was no difference in WMLv between IHD and control groups (0.95 ± 1.2 vs. 0.86 ± 1.4 mL; P = 0.81). In pooled patient data, WMLv correlated with both ß-stiffness (R = 0.34, P = 0.02) and cerebrovascular ccPWTT (R = -0.43, P = 0.02); however, ß-stiffness and ccPWTT were not associated (P = 0.13). In multivariate analysis, WMLv remained independently associated with ccPWTT (P = 0.02) and carotid ß-stiffness (P = 0.04). Patients with IHD expressed greater ß-stiffness and cerebral microvascular resistance. However, IHD did not increase risk of WMLv or cerebrovascular stiffness. Nonetheless, pooled data indicate that both carotid and cerebrovascular stiffness are independently associated with WMLv.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study found that patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) with preserved ejection fraction and normal blood pressures exhibit greater carotid ß-stiffness, as well as middle cerebral artery pulsatility and resistive indexes, than controls. White matter lesion volume (WMLv) was not different between vascular pathology groups. Cerebrovascular pulse wave transit time (ccPWTT) and carotid ß-stiffness independently associate with WMLv in pooled participant data, suggesting that regardless of heart disease history, ccPWTT and ß-stiffness are associated with structural white matter damage.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Ultrassonografia , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
11.
J Vasc Res ; 57(4): 206-212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis has been extensively studied in thalassemia major (TM) and sickle cell disease but not yet in ß thalassemia intermedia (TI). Previous studies concerned with TM were performed in children. TI patients usually live longer and, thus, are more prone to complications of atherosclerosis. AIM: In our study, we applied color Doppler for the determination of arterial conduit and flow velocities in ß TI patients. METHODS: For central circulation, we measured right and left middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and basilar artery (BA) mean flow velocity (MFV), pulsatility index (PI), and peak systolic velocity (PSV) as well as carotid intimal media thickness, and to assess peripheral circulation, we studied ankle/brachial index and posterior and anterior tibial arteries' (ATA, PTA) pressure and PSV. This was applied for 30 adult TI patients and 20 age-, sex-, and ethnic group-matched controls. RESULTS: Transcranial Doppler findings among cases and controls showed that the MFV, PSV of MCAs, and PSV, PI, and MFV of the BA were statistically higher in cases than controls. A comparison between splenectomized and nonsplenectomized patients showed that total leukocyte count, platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, PSV and MFV of the left MCA were all statistically higher in splenectomized cases. Differences between males and females with TI with respect to laboratory and Doppler findings were all statistically insignificant except for intima media thickness, PTA pressure, ATA pressure, and PSV. CONCLUSION: More than one parameter should be applied to assess atherosclerosis in TI. There is evidence of an increased risk of central ischemia rather than peripheral ischemia in these patients.


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Talassemia beta/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/etiologia , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fluxo Pulsátil , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Esplenectomia , Artérias da Tíbia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia beta/diagnóstico , Talassemia beta/cirurgia
12.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(1): 21-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289771

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low cerebral blood flow can affect cognition in patients with high-grade asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. Current clinical algorithms use stroke risk to determine which patients should undergo revascularization without considering cognitive decline. Although correlations between low-flow and cognitive impairment have been reported, it is not known whether a threshold exists below which such a correlation expresses itself. Such information would be critical in treatment decisions about whether to intervene in patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis who are at risk for cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To determine how reduced blood flow correlates with lower cognitive scores. METHODS: Patients with ≥80% unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis with no history of stroke were recruited from inpatient and outpatient practices at a single, large, comprehensive stroke center. Patients underwent bilateral insonation of middle cerebral arteries with standard 2-Hz probes over the temporal windows with transcranial Doppler. Cognitive assessments were performed by an experienced neuropsychologist using a cognitive battery comprising 14 standardized tests with normative samples grouped by age. Z-scores were generated for each test and averaged to obtain a composite Z-score for each patient. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between mean flow velocity (MFV) and composite Z-score, adjusting for age, education, and depression. The Davies test was used to determine if there was a breakpoint for a non-zero difference in slope of a segmented relationship over the range of composite Z-score values. RESULTS: Forty-two patients with unilateral high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis without stroke were enrolled (26 males, age = 74 ± 9 years, education = 16 ± 3 years). Average composite Z-score was -0.31 SD below the age-specific normative mean (range -2.8 to +1.2 SD). In linear regression adjusted for age, education, and depression, MFV correlated with cognitive Z-score (ß = 0.308, p = 0.043). A single breakpoint in the range of composite Z-scores was identified at 45 cm/s. For MFV <45 cm/s, Z-score decreased 0.05 SD per cm/s MFV (95% CI: 0.01-0.10). For MFV >45 cm/s, Z-score change was nonsignificant (95% CI: -0.07 to 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In high-grade, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis, cognitive impairment correlated linearly with lower flow in the hemisphere fed by the occluded internal carotid artery, but only below a threshold of MFV = 45 cm/s. Identifying a hemodynamic threshold for cognitive decline using a simple, noninvasive method may influence revascularization decision-making in otherwise "asymptomatic" carotid disease.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(1): 36-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large vessel occlusion (LVO) leads to debilitating stroke and responds modestly to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-TPA). Early thrombectomy improves functional outcomes in selected patients with proximal occlusion but it is not available in all medical facilities. The best imaging modality for triage in an acute stroke setting in drip-and-ship models is still the subject of debate. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the diagnostic value of millimeter-sliced noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS) in itself or associated with clinical data for early detection of LVO in drip-and-ship models of acute stroke management. METHODS: NCCT of patients admitted to the Erasme Hospital, ULB, Brussels, Belgium, for suspicion of acute ischemic stroke between January 1 and July 31, 2017, were collected. Patients with brain hemorrhages were excluded, leading to 122 cases. The presence of HMCAS on NCCT was determined via visual assessment by 6 raters blinded to all other data. An independent rater assessed the presence of LVO on digital subtraction angiography imaging or contrast-enhanced CT angiography (CTA). The sensitivity, false-positive rate (FPR), and accuracy of HMCAS and the dot sign to detect LVO were calculated. The interobserver agreement of HMCAS was assessed using Gwet's AC1 coefficient. Then, on a separate occasion, the first 2 observers rereviewed all NCCT provided with clinical clues. The sensitivity, FPR, and accuracy of HMCAS were recalculated. RESULTS: HMCAS was found in 21% of the cases and a dot sign was found in 9%. The mean HMCAS sensitivity was 62% (95% CI 45-79%) and its accuracy was 86% (95% CI 79-92%) for detecting LVO. The interobserver reliability coefficient was 80% for HMCAS. Combined with clinical information, HMCAS sensitivity increased to 81% (95% CI 68-94; p = 0.041) and accuracy increased to 91% (95% CI 86-96%). CONCLUSION: When clinical data are provided, detection of HMCAS on thinly sliced NCCT could be enough to decide on transfer for thrombectomy in drip-and-ship models of acute stroke management, especially in situations where CTA is less available and referral centers for thrombectomy fewer and further apart.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Angiografia Cerebral , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Transferência de Pacientes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia Digital , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Trombectomia , Triagem
14.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(9): 911-914, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imaging-based patient selection for neurothrombectomy is reliant on the identification of irreversibly damaged brain tissue (core) and salvageable tissue (penumbra). The DAWN trial used the clinical-core mismatch (CCM) paradigm (clinical deficit out of proportion to infarct volume). We aim to determine the prevalence of CCM in large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes and study the impact of time and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on the likelihood of mismatch. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational analysis of internal carotid artery/middle cerebral artery M1 occlusions with available advanced imaging (relative cerebral blood flow/MRI). We used automated software for infarct volume analysis and ASPECTS determination. The prevalence of CCM and the impact of time and ASPECTS were analyzed. RESULT: One hundred and eighty-five LVO strokes were included. Mean age was 71±15 years and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 17 (range 12-21). Mean ischemic core volume was 50±69 mL. Within 0-24 hours, CCM was present in 53% and ranged from 63% in 0-3 hours to 25% at 21-24 hours (p=0.03). Prevalence of mismatch reduced 1.6% for every 1 hour increase in time to imaging. CCM prevalence by ASPECTS groups was: ASPECTS 9-10: 77%, ASPECTS 6-8: 65%, ASPECTS 0-5: 13% (p<0.01), with a 6.4% decrement for every 1 point decrease in ASPECTS. The prevalence of mismatch did not diminish over time among ASPECTS groups and higher ASPECTS was an independent predictor of CCM (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.7), p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CCM is present in 57% and 50% of LVO strokes in the 0-6 and 6-24 hour window, respectively. The prevalence of mismatch declines with increasing time (1.6%/hour) and decreasing ASPECTS (6.4%/point). Among ASPECTS groups the prevalence of mismatch does not decline over time. These data support the use of an ASPECTS-based paradigm for late window patient selection.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104805, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334917

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prognostic value of leptomeningeal collateral circulation in thrombectomy-treated patients remains unclear. We evaluated the construct validity of assessing leptomeningeal collateral circulation using a new regional perfusion CT source image-based approach, the Perfusion Acquisition for THrombectomy Scale (PATHS). We also compared the prognostic value of PATHS with a further 6 scales based on various techniques: CT-angiography, perfusion CT, and digital subtraction angiography. Additionally, we studied the relationship between the scores for the different scales. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients with stroke and M1/terminal carotid occlusion treated with thrombectomy in our center. Leptomeningeal collateral circulation was prospectively evaluated using 7 scales: Tan and Miteff (CT Angiography); Calleja, Cao, American Society of Intervention and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology, and PATHS (perfusion); and Christoforidis (Digital Subtraction Angiography). Correlations were studied using the Spearman method. RESULTS: The study population comprised 108 patients. All scales predicted the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months (P ≤ .02) and all but 1 (Christoforidis) correlated with 24-hour brain infarct volume (P ≤ .02). These correlations were higher with PATHS (rho = -0.47, P < .001 for 3-month modified Rankin Scale; rho = -0.35, P < .001 for follow-up infarct volume). The multivariate analysis showed PATHS to be an independent predictor of modified Rankin Scale at 3 months less than equal to 2. A crosscorrelation analysis revealed a better correlation between scales that used the same techniques. CONCLUSIONS: PATHS can be used to assess leptomeningeal collateral circulation. PATHS had better prognostic value than other scales; therefore, it might be considered for assessment of leptomeningeal collateral circulation in candidates for thrombectomy. The moderate correlation between scales suggests that scores are not interchangeable.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Circulação Colateral , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/terapia , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Trombectomia , Idoso , Angiografia Cerebral , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/mortalidade , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
World Neurosurg ; 139: e672-e676, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sentinel headache (SH) is often assumed to portend an increased risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and aneurysm rebleeding. This study aimed to re-evaluate the associations between SH and aneurysm rebleeding, DCI, and outcome after SAH. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1102 patients with spontaneous SAH and available data regarding history of SH who were enrolled in the Columbia University SAH Outcomes Project between 1996 and 2009. Patients were asked whether they had experienced any episodes of acute, sudden-onset severe headache in the 2 weeks preceding the most recent bleeding event. DCI was defined as neurologic deterioration, infarction, or both due to vasospasm. Rebleeding was defined as the appearance of new hemorrhage on computed tomography. Outcome was assessed at 3 months by telephone interview using the modified Rankin Scale. RESULTS: SH was reported in 152 (14%) of 1102 patients. There were no significant differences between patients with and without SH with regard to admission Hunt-Hess grade or modified Fisher Scale. There was also no difference with regard to the frequency of aneurysm rebleeding (10% vs. 8%, P = 0.42), DCI (18% vs, 20%, P = 0.64), moderate-or-severe angiographic vasospasm on follow-up angiography (51% vs. 56%, P = 0.43), highest recorded mean middle cerebral artery flow velocity on transcranial Doppler (134 versus 128 cm/s, P = 0.30), or the distribution of modified Rankin Scale scores at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: A history of sentinel headache before the clinical diagnosis of SAH does not imply an increased risk of DCI or further rebleeding, and carries no prognostic significance.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Angiografia Cerebral , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Feminino , Cefaleia/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/etiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exact onset of brain injury in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) is unknown. Our aim was, therefore, to assess the association between prenatal Doppler flow patterns, postnatal cerebral oxygenation and short-term neurological outcome. METHODS: Prenatally, we measured pulsatility indices of the middle cerebral (MCA-PI) and umbilical artery (UA-PI) and calculated cerebroplacental ratio (CPR). After birth, cerebral oxygen saturation (rcSO2) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) were assessed during the first 3 days after birth, and during and for 24 hours after every surgical procedure within the first 3 months after birth. Neurological outcome was determined preoperatively and at 3 months of age by assessing general movements and calculating the Motor Optimality Score (MOS). RESULTS: Thirty-six infants were included. MOS at 3 months was associated with MCA-PI (rho 0.41, P = 0.04), UA-PI (rho -0.39, P = 0.047, and CPR (rho 0.50, P = 0.01). Infants with abnormal MOS had lower MCA-PI (P = 0.02) and CPR (P = 0.01) and higher UA-PI at the last measurement (P = 0.03) before birth. In infants with abnormal MOS, rcSO2 tended to be lower during the first 3 days after birth, and FTOE was significantly higher on the second day after birth (P = 0.04). Intraoperative and postoperative rcSO2 and FTOE were not associated with short-term neurological outcome. CONCLUSION: In infants with prenatally diagnosed CHD, the prenatal period may play an important role in developmental outcome. Additional research is needed to clarify the relationship between preoperative, intra-operative and postoperative cerebral oxygenation and developmental outcome in infants with prenatally diagnosed CHD.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Cirurgia Torácica , Artérias Umbilicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Umbilicais/fisiopatologia , Artérias Umbilicais/cirurgia
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(5): 104714, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When introducing a microguidewire into an occluded vessel during mechanical thrombectomy (MT), visual information on the vessel course distal to the occluded site could help to avoid perforation. We examined whether visualization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by coronal images of nonenhanced computed tomography (coronal CT) provides useful preoperative information on the vessel course in the setting of MT. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively studied 29 patients with ischemic stroke of the internal carotid artery and MCA occlusion who were admitted to our hospital within 4.5 hours from stroke onset and underwent MT. Coronal CT images were preoperatively created by a dedicated workstation and adjusted to visualize the M1 segment of the MCA (M1) and nearby areas. We referred to these images while performing MT. The shape and course of M1 on preoperative coronal CT images were compared with that in intraoperative angiography after recanalization. The median time from the start of imaging to arterial puncture was 40 minutes (interquartile range: 32.5-55.0 minutes). Successful recanalization of the thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b-3 was achieved in 89.7% of patients. The degree of matching was assessed as moderate to excellent, and was useful as preoperative information in 27 (93.1%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative information on the vessel course by coronal CT well matched that in the intraoperative angiography. Only a little extra time and a small additional procedure are necessary for this technique. The addition of coronal CT images could contribute to a safe and successful MT.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Angiografia Cerebral , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/terapia , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombectomia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Fluxo de Trabalho
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(5): 104702, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is conflicting data on the effect of carotid revascularization on cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: To examine cerebral blood flow and cognitive function after carotid revascularization. METHODS: Patients with unilateral, asymptomatic hemodynamically significant carotid artery stenosis (80% by computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography) were eligible. Cerebral blood flow was measured preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively using quantitative phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography. Preoperative flow impairment was defined as ipsilateral flow at least 20% less than contralateral flow (ie, an ipsilateral and/or contralateral flow ratio ≤0.8). Significant improvement in blood flow was defined as at least a 0.15 increase in flow ratio from pre- to postoperative. A control group was managed medically. Four cognitive domains were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 6-12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were enrolled at 6 sites; 53 carotid endarterectomy, 11 carotid artery stenting, and 11 medical management only controls. Preoperative Trails B scores were similar between groups. Revascularization was associated with significant improvement in executive function (Trials B) while no improvement was observed in controls (P = .007). Of patients with improvement in middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow, 90% had improved Trails B scores compared to 46.5% of patients without MCA flow improvement (P = .01). Greater absolute improvement in mean Trails B scores was observed in patients with MCA flow improvement compared to those without (48 seconds versus 24.7 seconds, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patient with asymptomatic carotid stenosis, improvement in MCA flow following carotid revascularization is associated with improvement in executive functioning.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cognição , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Angiografia Cerebral , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
20.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(3): 581-592, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to generate a hemodynamically stable swine model to detect spreading depolarizations (SDs) using electrocorticography (ECoG) and intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging and laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) after a 30-h middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAo) in German Landrace Swine. METHODS: A total of 21 swine were used. The study comprised a training group (group 1, n = 7), a group that underwent bilateral craniectomy and MCAo (group 2, n = 10) and a group used for 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium (TTC) staining (group 3, n = 5). RESULTS: In group 2, nine animals that underwent MCAo survived for 30 h, and one animal survived for 12 h. We detected MCA variants with 2 to 4 vessels. In all cases, all of the MCAs were occluded. The intensity changes exhibited by IOS and LSF after clipping were closely correlated and indicated a lower blood volume and reduced blood flow in the middle cerebral artery territory. Using IOS, we detected a mean of 2.37 ± (STD) 2.35 SDs/h. Using ECoG, we detected a mean of 0.29 ± (STD) 0.53 SDs/h. Infarctions were diagnosed using histological analysis. TTC staining in group 3 confirmed that the MCA territory was compromised and that the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries were preserved. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm the reliability of performing live monitoring of cerebral infarctions using our MCAo protocol to detect SDs.


Assuntos
Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Animais , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Suínos
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