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1.
Radiographics ; 40(6): 1574-1599, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001783

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared an official pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The infection has been reported in most countries around the world. As of August 2020, there have been over 21 million cases of COVID-19 reported worldwide, with over 800 000 COVID-19-associated deaths. It has become apparent that although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, many other organ systems can also be involved. Imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis of all manifestations of the disease, as well as its related complications, and proper utilization and interpretation of imaging examinations is crucial. With the growing global COVID-19 outbreak, a comprehensive understanding of the diagnostic imaging hallmarks, imaging features, multisystemic involvement, and evolution of imaging findings is essential for effective patient management and treatment. To date, only a few articles have been published that comprehensively describe the multisystemic imaging manifestations of COVID-19. The authors provide an inclusive system-by-system image-based review of this life-threatening and rapidly spreading infection. In part 1 of this article, the authors discuss general aspects of the disease, with an emphasis on virology, the pathophysiology of the virus, and clinical presentation of the disease. The key imaging features of the varied pathologic manifestations of this infection that involve the pulmonary and peripheral and central vascular systems are also described. Part 2 will focus on key imaging features of COVID-19 that involve the cardiac, neurologic, abdominal, dermatologic and ocular, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as pediatric and pregnancy-related manifestations of the virus. Vascular complications pertinent to each system will be also be discussed in part 2. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2020.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Inflamação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/etiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
2.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(9): 1024-1034, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a significant increase of high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in plasma levels of patients with pulmonary hypertension, but the biological significance is still unclear. Anti-proliferative protein 1 (prohibitin 1, PHB1) is an important protein that maintains the homeostasis of vascular cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of HMGB1 on pulmonary artery endothelial cells and the role of PHB1. METHODS: In vivo experiment: A rat model of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline (MCT) was constructed. The right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), and the weight ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus ventricular septum were used to evaluate the success of model. ELISA was used to detect the level of HMGB1 in rat's plasma. Western blotting was used to detect the level of PHB1 in rat's lung tissues. CD31 immunofluorescence was used to detect the integrity of pulmonary vascular endothelium. In vitro experiments: Pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) was incubated with HMGB1 to observe the effect of HMGB1 on PAEC injury. Overexpression and knockdown of PHB1 were conducted, and the role of PHB1 was investigated by detecting the levels of reative oxygen species and cytochrome c (cyto-c), and the activation of caspase-3. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the level of HMGB1 in the plasma of rats with pulmonary hypertension was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the expression of PHB1 in the lung tissue was decreased accompanied with endothelial dysfunction (P<0.05); HMGB1 incubation damaged the pulmonary artery endothelium and down-regulated PHB1 expression (P<0.05), while overexpression of PHB1 reduced the PAEC damage and oxidative stress induced by HMGB1 (P<0.05). Meanwhile, PHB1 reduced HMGB1-induced cyto-c expression and caspase-3 cleavage by inhibiting oxidative stress (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The down-regulation of PHB1 expression mediates HMGB1-induced PAEC injury, which is related to the induction of oxidative stress, the increase of cyto-c release, and the promotion of caspase-3 cleavage.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Proteínas Repressoras , Animais , Células Endoteliais , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Humanos , Artéria Pulmonar , Ratos , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
3.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 290, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are uncommon conditions of abnormal communications between pulmonary arteries and veins, which are most commonly congenital in nature. Although such condition is not extremely rare, it is a challenge to the differential diagnosis of pulmonary problems such as hypoxemia and pulmonary lesions. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a meaningful case of a 23-year-old male presented with elevated hemoglobin (23.0 g/dl) on admission. Physical examination revealed cyanosis, digital clubbing and low oxygen saturation on room air. The patient was initially diagnosed as polycythemia vera while the subsequent result of bone marrow aspiration was negative. During further assessment, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were detected by CT pulmonary angiography. Lobectomy was successfully performed with significant increase in oxygen saturation from 86 to 98%. The hemoglobin decreased to almost normal level of 14.9 g/dl 3 months after surgery and the patient had been followed up for nearly 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations should be suspected in patients with central cyanosis, digital clubbing, polycythemia, pulmonary lesion and without cardiac malformations. Embolization or surgery is strongly recommended to reduce the risks caused by pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula Arteriovenosa/cirurgia , Artéria Pulmonar/anormalidades , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Veias Pulmonares/anormalidades , Tuberculose/complicações , Fístula Arteriovenosa/complicações , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonectomia , Veias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22206, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery for lung cancer squeezes the tumor, further promoting the circulation of tumor cells, which may be one of the reasons for lung cancer metastasis and recurrence. In theory, the potential risk of tumor cell proliferation can be minimized if the outflow veins are ligated first (via veins first [V-first]) rather than arteries first (via arteries first [A-first]). However, due to the lack of sufficient evidence, this technical concept has not been widely accepted as a standard in surgical oncology in the current guidelines. This systematic review and meta-analysis will be used to determine which techniques will yield longer patient survival and benefit patients during segmentectomy. METHODS: We will search PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cancerlit, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar databases for relevant clinical trials published in any language before January 1, 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, propensity score-matched comparative studies, and prospective cohort studies of interest, published or unpublished, that meet the inclusion criteria will be included. Subgroup analysis of the type of operation, tumor pathological stage, and ethnicity will be performed. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: As far as we know, this study will be the first meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of the vein-first and artery-first surgical technique of segmentectomy for patients diagnosed with resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Due to the nature of the disease and intervention methods, RCTs may be inadequate, and we will carefully consider inclusion in high-quality, non-RCTs, but this may result in high heterogeneity and affect the reliability of the results.INPLASY registration number: INPLASY202080062.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Ligadura , Metanálise como Assunto , Pneumonectomia , Fatores de Risco , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240078, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate chest-computed-tomography (CT) scans in coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients for signs of organizing pneumonia (OP) and microinfarction as surrogate for microscopic thromboembolic events. METHODS: Real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 patients undergoing chest-CT (non-enhanced, enhanced, pulmonary-angiography [CT-PA]) from March-April 2020 were retrospectively included (COVID-19-cohort). As control-groups served 175 patients from 2020 (cohort-2020) and 157 patients from 2019 (cohort-2019) undergoing CT-PA for pulmonary embolism (PE) during the respective time frame at our institution. Two independent readers assessed for presence and location of PE in all three cohorts. In COVID-19 patients additionally parenchymal changes typical of COVID-19 pneumonia, infarct pneumonia and OP were assessed. Inter-reader agreement and prevalence of PE in different cohorts were calculated. RESULTS: From 68 COVID-19 patients (42 female [61.8%], median age 59 years [range 32-89]) undergoing chest-CT 38 obtained CT-PA. Inter-reader-agreement was good (k = 0.781). On CT-PA, 13.2% of COVID-19 patients presented with PE whereas in the control-groups prevalence of PE was 9.1% and 8.9%, respectively (p = 0.452). Up to 50% of COVID-19 patients showed changes typical for OP. 21.1% of COVID-19 patients suspected with PE showed subpleural wedge-shaped consolidation resembling infarct pneumonia, while only 13.2% showed visible filling defects of the pulmonary artery branches on CT-PA. CONCLUSION: Despite the reported hypercoagulability in critically ill patients with COVID-19, we did not encounter higher prevalence of PE in our patient cohort compared to the control cohorts. However, patients with suspected PE showed a higher prevalence of lung changes, resembling patterns of infarct pneumonia or OP and CT-signs of pulmonary-artery hypertension.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Infarto Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(9): 791-795, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894914

RESUMO

Objective: The relationship between the percentage of total cross-sectional area (% CSA) of small pulmonary vessels for the lung area in CTPA and the right ventricular function parameters in patients with pulmonary embolism. Methods: 120 patients with PE and 72 healthy subjects underwent CTPA and all date were analyzed Retrospectively. The main pulmonary artery diameter (mPA), the ratio of the main pulmonary artery to the ascending aorta diameter (rPA), right ventricle/left ventricular diameter ratio (RVd/LVd), and the pulmonary artery obstruction index (PAOI) in the PE group were measured for all subjects. The %CSA<5 mm(2) and 5-10 mm(2) for the lung area (%CSA(<5) and %CSA(5-10)) of small pulmonary vessels were measured with Image J image-processing program. According to the risk stratification of the 2018 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Thromboembolism, PE patients were divided into medium-high risk group (RVd/LVd>1) and low-risk group (RVd/LVd<1). The indexes of PE in medium-high risk group, low risk group and control group were compared by ANOVA, and the indexes among PE subgroups were compared by independent sample t-test. Spearman correlation method was used to analyze the correlation between %CSA and right ventricular function parameters of PE patients. Results: %CSA(<5) of medium-high risk group, low-risk group and control group were (0.69±0.19)%, (0.95±0.27)% and (0.99±0.30)% (P<0.01), respectively. %CSA(5-10) of three groups were (0.63±0.15)%, (0.84±0.18)%, and (0.85±0.25)% (P<0.01), respectively; %CSA(<5) and %CSA(5-10) of medium-high risk group were lower than low-risk group and control group. %CSA(<5) and %CSA(5-10) in PE patients correlated negatively with RVd/LVd, rPA and mPA (r=-0.545/-0.549, -0.235/-0.352, -0.239/-0.298, respectively). Conclusion: The measurement of % CSA<(5) and %CSA (5-10) in CTPA were negatively correlated with RVd/LVd in patients with pulmonary embolism, which indirectly reflected the severity of the pulmonary embolism patients.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Pulmão , Artéria Pulmonar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita
7.
Kyobu Geka ; 73(9): 700-703, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879276

RESUMO

We report a case of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC)-induced massive intratracheal hemorrhage during aortic valve surgery. An 81-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement and pulmonary vein isolation. Operative procedures were uneventful, but active and massive intratracheal hemorrhage started just after cardiopulmonary bypass was discontinued. We immediately resumed cardiopulmonary bypass and replaced the endotracheal tube with a double-lumen one, keeping the airway pressure high (20 cmH2O). Those maneuvers reduced intratracheal hemorrhage and maintained oxygenation, and then cardiopulmonary bypass was disconnected without lung lobectomy. Mechanical ventilation with high positive end expiratory pressure for 6 days in the intensive care unit let her good recovery. A postoperative enhanced computed tomography revealed a thrombosed right pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm possibly induced by PAC. After close observation the patient left the hospital on foot.


Assuntos
Artéria Pulmonar , Doenças da Traqueia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica , Cateterismo de Swan-Ganz , Feminino , Hemorragia , Humanos
8.
Kyobu Geka ; 73(8): 614-617, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879292

RESUMO

We successfully performed the DKS+Rastelli procedure for Taussig-Bing anomaly (TBA) in an adult. A 22-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to persistent lower leg edema and dyspnea. He had been diagnosed with TBA. On physical examination, his peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo2) was 73% in room air. Chest X-ray showed congestive heart failure. We decided to perform arterial switch operation (ASO) and VSD closure. Operation was performed via a re-median sternotomy. It seemed to be very difficult to dissect and mobilize great arteries and coronary arteries for ASO. Therefore, we decided to perform DKS, aortic valve closure, left ventricule to pulmonary artery rerouting, and right ventricular outflow reconstruction using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) valved conduit. Postoperative course was uneventful, an oxygen saturation was improved. At 5 years after surgery, his oxygen saturation is about 97% in room air and he is now doing well without any symptoms. Long-term follow-up is necessary to ensure maintenance of optimal function.


Assuntos
Transposição das Grandes Artérias , Dupla Via de Saída do Ventrículo Direito , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos , Adulto , Valva Aórtica , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 68, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) phase contrast (PC) flow measurements suffer from phase offset errors. Background subtraction based on stationary phantom measurements can most reliably be used to overcome this inaccuracy. Stationary tissue correction is an alternative and does not require additional phantom scanning. The aim of this study was 1) to compare measurements with and without stationary tissue correction to phantom corrected measurements on different GE Healthcare CMR scanners using different software packages and 2) to evaluate the clinical implications of these methods. METHODS: CMR PC imaging of both the aortic and pulmonary artery flow was performed in patients on three different 1.5 T CMR scanners (GE Healthcare) using identical scan parameters. Uncorrected, first, second and third order stationary tissue corrected flow measurement were compared to phantom corrected flow measurements, our reference method, using Medis QFlow, Circle cvi42 and MASS software. The optimal (optimized) stationary tissue order was determined per scanner and software program. Velocity offsets, net flow, clinically significant difference (deviation > 10% net flow), and regurgitation severity were assessed. RESULTS: Data from 175 patients (28 (17-38) years) were included, of which 84% had congenital heart disease. First, second and third order and optimized stationary tissue correction did not improve the velocity offsets and net flow measurements. Uncorrected measurements resulted in the least clinically significant differences in net flow compared to phantom corrected data. Optimized stationary tissue correction per scanner and software program resulted in net flow differences (> 10%) in 19% (MASS) and 30% (Circle cvi42) of all measurements compared to 18% (MASS) and 23% (Circle cvi42) with no correction. Compared to phantom correction, regurgitation reclassification was the least common using uncorrected data. One CMR scanner performed worse and significant net flow differences of > 10% were present both with and without stationary tissue correction in more than 30% of all measurements. CONCLUSION: Phase offset errors had a significant impact on net flow quantification, regurgitation assessment and varied greatly between CMR scanners. Background phase correction using stationary tissue correction worsened accuracy compared to no correction on three GE Healthcare CMR scanners. Therefore, careful assessment of phase offset errors at each individual scanner is essential to determine whether routine use of phantom correction is necessary. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Observational Study.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Criança , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Imagens de Fantasmas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948531

RESUMO

We are reporting a middle-aged male patient with polycythaemia vera comorbidity. The patient was exhibiting symptoms including fever, cough and shortness of breath and was found to have acute pulmonary embolism. He was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. This case suggests that a high index of suspicion should be taken into consideration for thromboembolic events, when treating patients with COVID-19 with breathing difficulty and low oxygen saturation levels, especially in those who have underlying predisposing conditions for coagulopathy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Policitemia Vera/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Ecocardiografia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Policitemia Vera/sangue , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia
11.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5837-5844, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. Venous migration, tumor thrombus and metastases are often seen in patients with RCC and are adverse prognostic factors. Intravascular tumor growth along the renal vein into the inferior vena cava occurs in up to 10% of all patients with RCC. Furthermore, extension of the tumor reaching the right atrium is detected in approximately 1% of all patients. Synchronous involvement of pulmonary arteries with tumor emboli is very rare and challenging. Management of metastatic RCC includes surgical resection of renal and metastatic lesions. We present 3 cases of patients with RCC tumor thrombus extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and with pulmonary emboli of the tumor thrombus into one of the branches of the main pulmonary artery. All the cases had simultaneous resection of the kidney tumor with the tumor thrombus and pulmonary lobectomy that included the tumor emboli with satisfactory outcome. CASE REPORT: We present a series of cases of RCC with tumor extension into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and with tumor emboli to the pulmonary arteries. Surgical procedure in all cases consisted of radical nephrectomy with IVC tumor thrombus resection, along with a thoracotomy with lung resection including the tumor emboli to one of the branches of the main pulmonary artery. Synchronous metastatic lesions were found on the liver in one case and contiguous extension of renal tumor to the pancreas in another. CONCLUSION: In patients with IVC thrombus with synchronous pulmonary artery tumor embolus, such as the cases presented in this series, a careful multidisciplinary management approach is preferable. Transplant technique used in our open approach minimizes complications, blood loss, and provides excellent visualization for abdominal vascular manipulation of IVC. This provides a potentially curable treatment option with acceptable survival rates.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Veia Cava Inferior/cirurgia , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Rim/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Metástase Neoplásica , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Veias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Renais/patologia , Veias Renais/cirurgia , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/patologia , Trombose/cirurgia , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Cava Inferior/patologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/patologia , Trombose Venosa/cirurgia
12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916740

RESUMO

In an 81-year-old patient, acute hemodynamic instability requiring resuscitation occurred during an elective transurethral prostate resection. The procedure was ended prematurely and after ROSC a CT diagnosis was carried out, which confirmed the suspected diagnosis of fulminant pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulant therapy with heparin was initiated. About two hours after admission to the intensive care unit, hemorrhage requiring massive transfusion developed, which according to viscoelastometric diagnostics was most likely due to fulminant hyperfibrinolysis. This case report describes the pathophysiology of so-called post-cardiac arrest coagulopathy and discusses the use of antifibrinolytic therapy in patients with thrombotic complications such as pulmonary artery embolism.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Embolia Pulmonar , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar
13.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 715-721, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and the correlation between CRT and pulmonary artery hemodynamic parameters. METHODS: The patients with chronic heart failure indicator for CRT were enrolled. The left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) was measured by echocardiography and New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification was evaluated between one week before and six months after CRT. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were measured by right heart catheterization. Left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) is defined as a decrease of 15% or more in LVESV at the 6th month after CRT; Clinical response is defined as a decrease of NYHA classification at or above grade 1 at the 6th month after CRT. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was defined as mPAP≥25 mmHg. According to the response, patients were divided into 3 groups: group A (LVRR+clinical response), group B (no LVRR+clinical response) and group C (no LVRR+no clinical response). The changes of NYHA classification, echocardiographic and pulmonary hemodynamic parameters were observed in the 3 groups. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to analyze the differences in all-cause mortality, combined end-point events of death or re-hospitalization due to heart failure among different groups. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients with CRT implantation [aged (63.27±9.55) years, 36 males] were included. The average follow-up period was (33.76±11.50) months. Thirty-one patients (68.89%) were in group A, 9 of whom with PH. Eight patients (17.78%) were in group B, 7 of whom with PH. Six patients were in group C, all with PH. Cardiac function including NYHA classification, echocardiographic and pulmonary hemodynamic parameters had been significantly improved in group A after CRT implantation (P<0.05). In group B, NYHA classification and pulmonary hemodynamic parameters were decreased significantly (P<0.05), but echocardiographic parameters did not change obviously (P>0.05). There were no significant changes in NYHA classification, echocardiographic and pulmonary hemodynamic parameters in group C (P>0.05). Compared with group C, group A and group B had lower all-cause mortality (P=0.005) and lower incidence of composite endpoint events (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LVRR and clinical response after CRT have a good prognosis. Patients with clinical response but without LVRR have a better prognosis than those without clinical response and LVRR, which may be related to the decrease of pulmonary hemodynamic parameters such as mPAP and TPG.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Idoso , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar , Resultado do Tratamento , Remodelação Ventricular
14.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(5): 903-921, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888689

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH), the syndrome of increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for affected children and is associated with a variety of potential underlying causes. Several pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted therapies have become available to reduce pulmonary artery pressure and improve outcome, but there is still no cure for most patients. This review provides a description of select causes of PH encountered in pediatrics and an update on the most recent data pertaining to evaluation and management of children with PH. Available evidence for specific classes of PH-targeted therapies in pediatrics is discussed.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/fisiologia , Criança , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Prognóstico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia
16.
J Interv Cardiol ; 2020: 5147193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802008

RESUMO

Background: Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (TC-PDA), conventionally guided by aortography, has become the standard treatment of this disease. The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) may be used for measuring PDA size and be used as a guide for TC-PDA. Methods: This study had 2 phases. In phase 1, we compared the measurements of PDA size: pulmonary artery side diameter (PA-D), length, and aortic side diameter (Ao-D) of PDA, as measured by ICE with those measured by aortography or cardiac computed tomography (AoG/CCT) in 23 patients who underwent TC-PDA. In phase 2, we compared the demographics, fluoroscopic time, contrast volume, and complications of the TC-PDAs between 10 adult patients with ICE guidance and 16 without it. Results: In phase 1, we found great correlation and agreement between ICE and AoG/CCT in PA-D (r = 0.985, bias -0.077 to 0.224), but moderate to poor correlation and agreement in length (r = 0.653, bias -0.491 to 3.065) and Ao-D (r = 0.704, bias 0.738 to 4.732), respectively. Nevertheless, all patients underwent successful TC-PDA with ICE guidance that allowed us to continuously monitor the whole process. In phase 2, TC-PDA required a significantly lower contrast volume with ICE guidance than without it, and there was no significant difference in the remaining variables between the 2 groups. Conclusion: ICE is comparable to AoG/CCT in providing accurate PA-D of the PDA and may be a safe alternative to guide TC-PDA as compared to conventional aortography.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/diagnóstico por imagem , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Adulto , Aortografia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Georgian Med News ; (303): 67-72, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841184

RESUMO

The article is devoted to the study of changes in the lungs occurring under conditions of continuous increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries recorded by measuring densitometric indices according to computed tomography. Also in this publication, analysis data on the multifactorial effect on the severity of pulmonary hypertension syndrome such as gender, age, body weight, and medication are highlighted. Pulmonary hypertension (LH) is a rare multifactorial disease characterized by an increase in mean arterial pressure in the pulmonary vascular system (SLAD) ≥25 mm Hg fixed at rest during catheterization of the right heart. Pulmonary hypertension develops at any age, starting from the neonatal period. According to international data, from the appearance of the first clinical manifestations of the disease to the fact of establishing a diagnosis, even in socio-economically developed countries it is an average of at least 3 years. The delayed diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension negatively affects not only the prognosis of survival, but can also lead to early disability of this category of patients. The results of the study showed, the density of the lung tissue under conditions of a constant increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery was within acceptable values according to multispiral computed tomography. However, a correlation was found between the diameter of the pulmonary trunk and the average pressure of the pulmonary artery according to catheterization of the right heart. According to the effects of factors such as gender, age, body mass index, type of pulmonary hypertension, the use of drugs and the type of surgical intervention for the severity of LH syndrome with a simple analysis showed a significant relationship, but as shown by multidimensional linear modeling, no statistically significant change was found.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Pulmão , Artéria Pulmonar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 49: 107263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784110

RESUMO

Since its recognition in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread globally causing a pandemic that represents the greatest medical challenge in decades. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spectrum of cardiopulmonary pathology of COVID-19 based on (non-minimal invasive) autopsies performed on 14 COVID-19 decedents. Bilateral diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was found in all patients. Superimposed acute bronchopneumonia was present in 11 of 14 (78.6%) patients and was considered the major cause of death in 2 patients. A key finding was the presence of thrombotic/thromboembolic vascular occlusions. We classified 5 types of pulmonary thrombi: 1. capillary microthrombi (11/14, 78.6%); 2. partially organized thrombi in mid-sized pulmonary arteries with complete vessel occlusion; 3. non-organized thrombi in mid-sized pulmonary arteries that did not completely fill out the vessel lumen and probably represented thromboemboli rather than thrombosis; 4. bone marrow emboli (1/14, 7.1%); and 5. septic pulmonary thromboemboli (1/14, 7.1%). Pulmonary thrombi in mid-sized arteries were noted in 5 of 14 (35.7%) patients, causing pulmonary infarction and/or pulmonary hemorrhage. All patients had evidence of chronic cardiac disease, including myocardial hypertrophy (13/14, 92.9%), mild to marked coronary artery atherosclerosis (14/14, 100%) and focal myocardial fibrosis (3/14, 21.4%). Acute myocardial infarction was found as concurrent cause of death in 3 (21.4%) patients, and significant cardiac hypertrophy (heart weight 750 g) was present in 1 (7.1%) patient with ATTR-positive cardiac amyloidosis. The autopsy findings confirm that COVID-19 is a systemic disease, with major involvement of the lungs, that increases the risk of cardiac and vascular complications including acute myocardial injury and thrombotic/thromboembolic events. Secondary acute bronchopneumonia is a common complication in patients with COVID-19 and may be the major cause of death.


Assuntos
Broncopneumonia/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Trombose/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Betacoronavirus , Broncopneumonia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Trombose/virologia
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