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3.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(10): E898-903, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103654

RESUMO

The disproportionate negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Native communities is a result of transgenerational traumas-mental and physical-which have been ongoing and developing for centuries. This article considers 19th-century American visual and narrative representations of Native experiences of and responses to transgenerational trauma. This article also suggests ethical implications for Native American health of interpreting those representations and suggests an obligation to look on 19th-century White American artists' romanticizations of Native experiences with humility.


Assuntos
Arte , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Trauma Histórico/complicações , Historiografia , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Saúde da População , Violência , Arte/história , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Características da Família , Trauma Histórico/etnologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Narração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estados Unidos , Violência/ética , Violência/história , Violência/psicologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520932

RESUMO

The recent identification of cave paintings dated to 42-40 ka BP in Borneo and Sulawesi highlights the antiquity of painted representations in this region. However, no instances of three-dimensional portable art, well attested in Europe since at least 40 ka BP, were documented thus far in East Asia prior to the Neolithic. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved miniature carving of a standing bird from the site of Lingjing, Henan, China. Microscopic and microtomographic analyses of the figurine and the study of bone fragments from the same context reveal the object was made of bone blackened by heating and carefully carved with four techniques that left diagnostic traces on the entire surface of the object. Critical analysis of the site's research history and stratigraphy, the cultural remains associated with the figurine and those recovered from the other archeological layers, as well as twenty-eight radiometric ages obtained on associated archeological items, including one provided by a bone fragment worked with the same technique recorded on the object, suggest a Late Paleolithic origin for the carving, with a probable age estimated to 13,500 years old. The carving, which predates previously known comparable instances from this region by 8,500 years, demonstrates that three-dimensional avian representations were part of East Asian Late Pleistocene cultural repertoires and identifies technological and stylistic peculiarities distinguishing this newly discovered art tradition from previous and contemporary examples found in Western Europe and Siberia.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Arte/história , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Aves , Osso e Ossos , Cavernas , China , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos
6.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(5): E441-445, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449663

RESUMO

Health workers offer their skills and care to COVID-19 pandemic patients, just as St Roch offered healing to those stricken by bubonic plague during the Renaissance. This article interprets 3 works of art in light of Roch's story of illness and recovery and applies key insights of ethical, artistic, and clinical relevance to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Pinturas/história , Peste/história , Arte/história , História do Século XV , História Medieval , Humanos , Pandemias/história
7.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(6): 597-602, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203323

RESUMO

The ability to produce recognizable depictions of objects from the natural world-known as figurative art-is unique to Homo sapiens and may be one of the cognitive traits that separates our species from extinct hominin relatives. Surviving examples of Pleistocene figurative art are generally confined to rock art or portable three-dimensional works (such as figurines) and images engraved into the surfaces of small mobile objects. These portable communicative technologies first appear in Europe some 40 thousand years ago (ka) with the arrival of H. sapiens. Conversely, despite H. sapiens having moved into Southeast Asia-Australasia by at least 65 ka, very little evidence for Pleistocene-aged portable art has been identified, leading to uncertainties regarding the cultural behaviour of the earliest H. sapiens in this region. Here, we report the discovery of two small stone 'plaquettes' incised with figurative imagery dating to 26-14 ka from Leang Bulu Bettue, Sulawesi. These new findings, together with the recent discovery of rock art dating to at least 40 ka in this same region, overturns the long-held belief that the first H. sapiens of Southeast Asia-Australasia did not create sophisticated art and further cements the importance of this behaviour for our species' ability to overcome environmental and social challenges.


Assuntos
Arte/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Indonésia
9.
Laterality ; 25(2): 165-176, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242803

RESUMO

In this study, we coded art painted on rocks located in southern Africa, which was painted with a mixture of ochre, blood, and clay by the San, a Neolithic culture with no written language. These images depict a mixture of humans and animals in a variety of contexts, including (but not limited to) hunts and dances. We calculated a laterality index for the collected available art from each region, finding that although there was variability across regions in the direction of the laterality scores, most regions contained a majority of figures facing rightward. This is in stark contrast with reports of artists drawing leftward facing animals and human profiles (an effect that is influenced by native language writing system direction, gender, and handedness), but interestingly our sample also contained regions with strong leftward biases. Our results are, however, in accord with studies that report people preferring images that depict left-to-right motion, as well as the left-to-right bias in depicting transitive actions, an effect that seems to result from greater right hemispheric activation in scene processing and interpretation. Thus, this study shows that in the absence of a writing system, right-lateralized neural architecture may guide the hands of artists.


Assuntos
Arte/história , Cultura , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , História Antiga , Humanos
10.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 31(1): 143-158, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760987

RESUMO

Adaptive sports and recreation have an important role in the lifestyle of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This article discusses the history of adaptive sports and the benefits of adaptive sports and recreation. Barriers and medical challenges are also thoroughly discussed, including common musculoskeletal issues, methods to prevent musculoskeletal injury, pain, fatigue, maximal exertion, and other medical comorbidities and illness. The role of health care providers such as physiatrists is emphasized to provide support to individuals with CP who either are interested in starting exercise or a sport or are already an athlete.


Assuntos
Arte/história , Paralisia Cerebral/história , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Recreação/história , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
11.
Rev. polis psique ; 10(1): 30-46, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1102496

RESUMO

Este estudo analisa o surgimento da pintura abstrata que se consolida no século XX como um acontecimento que demarca uma ruptura com o projeto comunicacional da arte. Como referencial teórico, será utilizada a interface entre Arte, Psicologia e Filosofia da Diferença que caracteriza a pintura figurativa como um tipo de representação. As referências aos seres do mundo, que dominaram a pintura por milênios, são gradativamente abandonadas e emergem registros das intensidades vividas. A pintura abstrata incide sobre a subjetividade de um modo radicalmente diferente, relacionado com a variação de potência do sujeito que vê a obra. O estudo foi dividido em dois momentos: Primeiramente, será realizada uma explanação sobre a passagem da arte figurativa à arte abstrata. Em seguida, serão consideradas as rupturas que esta passagem implicou. Como conclusão, pode-se dizer que a produção artística contemporânea já absorveu, ao menos em parte, as rupturas subjetivas provocadas pela emergência do abstrato.


Este estudio examina la aparición de la pintura abstracta que se consolida en el siglo XX como un acontecimiento que marca una ruptura con el proyecto comunicacional. Como marco teórico, se utilizará el Arte, la Psicología y la Filosofía de la Diferencia que caracterizan a la pintura figurativa como un tipo de representación. La referencia a los seres del mundo que dominó la pintura durante milenios, poco a poco son abandonados y, en su lugar, emerge el registro de la intensidad. La pintura abstracta se centra en la subjetividad de un modo diferente, relacionado con la variación de la potencia de la persona que ve la obra. El estudio se dividió en dos fases: Primer, se realizará una explicación sobre el pasaje del arte figurativo al arte abstracto. Luego, se considerarán los descansos que este pasaje significa. Como conclusión, la producción artística contemporánea ya ha absorbido las rupturas causadas por la aparición del arte abstracto.


This study examine the emergence of abstract painting that is consolidated in the 20th century as an event marking a break with the communicational art project. As theoretical framework will be used the Art, Psychology and Philosophy of Difference, that characterizes the figurative painting as a kind of representation. References to the world which dominated the paint during millennia are gradually abandoned and, in your place, emerge records intensity experienced. Abstract painting focuses on the subjectivity of a radically different mode that can be related with the power variation of the subject who sees the work. The study was divided into two phases: First, an explanation will be held on the passage from figurative art to abstract art. Then, will be considered breaks that this passage meant. As a conclusion, it can be said that contemporary artistic production already absorbed, at least in part, the subjectivities ruptures caused by the emergence of abstract.


Assuntos
Arte/história , Psicologia Social , Individualidade , Percepção Social
15.
Sleep Health ; 5(5): 431-432, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471176
16.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 28(5): 478-480, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416491
17.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(4): 179-188, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237750

RESUMO

It has been proposed that a multiregional model could describe how Homo sapiens evolved in Africa beginning 300,000 years ago. Multiregionalism would require enduring morphological or behavioral differences among African regions and morphological or behavioral continuity within each. African fossils, archeology, and genetics do not comply with either requirement and are unlikely to, because climatic change periodically disrupted continuity and reshuffled populations. As an alternative to multiregionalism, I suggest that reshuffling produced novel gene constellations, including one in which the additive or cumulative effect of newly associated genes enhanced cognitive or communicative potential. Eventual fixation of such a constellation in the lineage leading to modern H. sapiens would explain the abrupt appearance of the African Later Stone Age 50-45 thousand years ago, its nearly simultaneous expansion to Eurasia in the form of the Upper Paleolithic, and the ability of fully modern Upper Paleolithic people to swamp or replace non-modern Eurasians.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional/história , África , Animais , Antropologia , Arte/história , Fósseis , História Antiga , Humanos , Tecnologia/história , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
19.
Recenti Prog Med ; 110(5): 259-262, 2019 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140460

RESUMO

Vincent Van Gogh and Giovanni Pascoli were artists who shared many aesthetic and biographical affinities. Both were somehow intoxicated by digitalis, the painter literally in a pharmacological sense, the poet symbolically or in a literary sense. In the paper we propose an original theory on how digital affected the last works of the Dutch painter and in particular the portrait of doctor Gachet, which differs from the previous theories, that attribute the chromatic style of Van Gogh to the xanthopsia caused by digitalis overdose. The Italian poet dedicated a short poem to the Foxglove, inspired by the popular wisdom that centuries ago already recognized the poisonous power of Foxglove.


Assuntos
Arte/história , Digitalis/envenenamento , Poesia como Assunto/história , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
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